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Means, LLC wordmark.jpg
Means TV Logo
Type of businessWorker cooperative
Type of site
OTT platform, Video game publishing
FoundedMarch 21, 2019; 2 years ago (2019-03-21)
HeadquartersDetroit, Michigan
Founder(s)Naomi Burton and Nick Hayes
Users2,200 (as of March 5, 2020)[1]
LaunchedFebruary 26, 2020; 17 months ago (2020-02-26)

Means, LLC, or Means is an American anti-capitalist, mass media worker cooperative based in Detroit, Michigan.[2] Means was founded in 2019 by filmmakers Naomi Burton and Nick Hayes as the successor to their video production company, Means of Production.[3] Means currently has two arms, their streaming service offering Means TV, and a video game publishing arm via Means Interactive.


Before founding Means, LLC, Naomi Burton and Nick Hayes both worked in media production for automakers in Detroit and attended Democratic Socialists of America meetings. After finding their work morally objectionable, they left their jobs and founded the video production company Means of Production.[4][5] Means of Production first came to prominence after they produced a viral campaign ad for Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez's 2018 election campaign.[6]

Means TV

Means TV is Means' subsidiary subscription video on-demand streaming service. The service features films, television series, podcasts, and news reports.[7][8] While the full streaming service would not launch until February 26, 2020, Means produced content for their YouTube channel throughout 2019 and early 2020. They acquired the channel from comedian Sara June, the original poster of Nyan Cat, and thus had over 125,000 subscribers when they began posting their own content on March 21, 2019.[9][8]

Hayes has cited the anarchist podcast Street Fight as an inspiration for his decision to create Means TV, having worked with Street Fight to record live performances in 2017 and 2019.[10]

On August 8, 2020, Means TV's Detroit home and office was attacked in a drive-by shooting.[11] Nobody was hurt. According to Hayes, they are "not 100% sure it wasn't politically motivated."[11]

Means Interactive

Means Interactive is a subsidiary under Means, which is the video game publishing arm of the co-operative.[12] The first game published by Means Interactive is Tonight We Riot, released in May 2020 and developed by Pixel Pushers Local 512, itself also a worker-owned co-operative.[13]

Cooperative structure

Means' co-operative structure is built out into three tiers: Employee, Contractor, and Royalty. The Employee tier is for direct employees of the co-operative and offer full voting and economic rights in the organization, along with 70% of the year-end profits of Means TV. The Contractor tier is for frequent contractors of Means TV and while they do not receive voting rights, they receive economic rights in the co-operative along with 20% of the year-end profits. The final tier, the Royalty tier is reserved for allowing economic rights to filmmakers and crew of productions featured on Means TV and acts as a way to provide royalties to these individuals, via 10% of the year-end profits of Means TV.[14]


  1. ^ Keimig, Jasmyne (5 March 2020). "Means TV Is Netflix for the 99%". The Stranger.
  2. ^ Wilson, Christopher (17 May 2019). "The Couple Behind The Viral AOC Ad Plans A Streaming Channel For Socialists". HuffPost.
  3. ^ Caccavaro, Dan (6 March 2020). "The Founders of Means TV on Their Post-Capitalist Streaming Service". Hour Detroit Magazine.
  4. ^ Christian, Daniel (13 September 2018). "Means of Production". Filmmaker Magazine. Retrieved 2020-03-22.
  5. ^ Ikonomova, Violet. "Meet the Detroit filmmakers helping promote progressive candidates around the country". Detroit Metro Times. Retrieved 2020-03-22.
  6. ^ Beer, Jeff (26 February 2020). "The revolution will now be televised: How leftist streaming service Means TV timed its launch perfectly". Fast Company.
  7. ^ Keimig, Jasmyne (5 March 2020). "Means TV Is Netflix for the 99%". The Stranger.
  8. ^ a b DeVito, Lee (24 February 2020). "Billed as the first 'post-capitalist streaming service,' Means TV launches this week in Detroit". Detroit Metro Times.
  9. ^ Grim, Ryan (2019-03-21). "Means TV, With a Boost from the Nyan Cat, Launches a Post-Capitalist Streaming Service". The Intercept. Retrieved 2020-03-22.
  10. ^ Hayes, Nick (2019-04-30). "Nick Hayes on Street Fight". Street Fight Zine #23 - Street Fight: The True, Untold* Story. Columbus, Ohio: Street Fight Radio. pp. 40–42.
  11. ^ a b Lee DeVito (10 August 2020). "Socialist streaming service Means TV's Detroit home and office attacked in drive-by shooting". Metro Times.
  12. ^ Means, LLC (28 October 2020). "Means Interactive". Means, LLC. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  13. ^ Walker, Ian. "Tonight We Riot Devs Wanted To Make An 'Unapologetically Leftist' Game". Kotaku. G/O Media, Inc. Archived from the original on 3 February 2021. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  14. ^ Means, LLC. "| Means TV". Means, LLC. Archived from the original on 13 November 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2021.

External links

This page was last edited on 4 July 2021, at 11:56
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