To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lindera
Lindera melissifolia.jpg
Lindera melissifolia
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Magnoliids
Order: Laurales
Family: Lauraceae
Genus: Lindera
Thunb.
Species

See text.

Synonyms
 Dried Fruits of Lindera neesiana Used as spice (coll.MHNT)
Dried Fruits of Lindera neesiana Used as spice
(coll.MHNT)

Lindera is a genus of about 80-100[1] species of flowering plants in the family Lauraceae, mostly native to eastern Asia but with three species in eastern North America.[1][2] The species are shrubs and small trees;[2] common names include spicewood, spicebush, and Benjamin bush.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    Views:
    3 280
    314
    4 145
    397
    885
  • Northern Spicebush Lindera benzoin Autumn Wild Edible Plants
  • Lindera benzoin Spice bush
  • Fruit Hunting: Part 2 - Spice Bush ( lindera benzoin )
  • Spicebush identification (Lindera melissifolia)
  • Edible Plants : Spicebush

Transcription

Contents

Name

The Latin name Lindera commemorates the Swedish botanist Johan Linder (1676-1724).[3]

Description

 Lindera umbellata
Lindera umbellata

Lindera are evergreen or deciduous trees or shrubs.[2] The leaves are alternate, entire or three-lobed, and strongly spicy-aromatic. Lindera are dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate trees. The inflorescences are composed of 3 to 15 small flowers existing as pseudo-umbels. They are sessile or on short shoots. The flowers are from greenish to white, greenish-yellow, or yellowish, with six tepals arranged in a star shape.[2] The male flowers have 9 to 15 fertile stamens; the innermost circle of stamens can be found at the base of the stamen glands. Usually the stamens are longer than the anthers, which in turn consist of two chambers and are directed inwards or sideways. The vestigial ovary is negligible or absent. The base of the flower is small and flat. The female flowers have a varying number of staminodes. Pollination is done by bees and other insects. Lindera fruit have a hypocarpium at the base of the fruit, which in some cases forms a cup that encloses the bottom part of the fruit.[2] The fruit is a small red, purple or black drupe containing a single seed, dispersed mostly by birds. Many species reproduce vegetatively by stolons.

Ecology

The genus appears to be able to occupy widely different habitats as long as its requirements for water are met.[citation needed] Habitat fragmentation severely affects dioecious[citation needed] species like Lindera melissifolia (pondberry), because populations with plants of a single sex can only vegetatively reproduce. With significant habitat loss, plants become ever more isolated, lessening the likelihood that pollinators will travel from male to female plants.

Most are found on the bottoms and edges of shallow seasonal ponds in old dune fields, but in drier areas they occur in low riverine habitat.[citation needed] Most Lindera colonies occur in light shade beneath a forest canopy, but a few grow in almost full sunlight.[citation needed] In warmer areas they occur in bottomland hardwood forests.[citation needed]

The North American species of Lindera are relicts that originally were more common when the climate of North America was more humid and they are not so widespread geographically as in the past.

The hermit thrush has been identified as a dispersal agent of seeds of L. melissifolia.[4]

Lindera species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including The Engrailed and the Spicebush Swallowtail.

Species

Selected species
  • Lindera aggregata
  • Lindera akoensis
  • Lindera angustifolia
  • Lindera benzoin - Common spicebush, Benjamin bush
  • Lindera chienii
  • Lindera chunii
  • Lindera communis
  • Lindera doniana
  • Lindera erythrocarpa
  • Lindera flavinervia
  • Lindera floribunda
  • Lindera foveolata
  • Lindera fragrans
  • Lindera glauca
  • Lindera gracilipes
  • Lindera guangxiensis
  • Lindera kariensis
  • Lindera kwangtungensis
  • Lindera latifolia
  • Lindera limprichtii
  • Lindera longipedunculata
  • Lindera lungshengensis
  • Lindera megaphylla
  • Lindera melissifolia - Southern spicebush

References


This page was last edited on 16 May 2017, at 13:30.
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.