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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

IUPAC name
Other names
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.001.059
MeSH Methylglyoxal
Molar mass 72.06 g·mol−1
Appearance Yellow liquid
Density 1.046 g/cm3
Boiling point 72 °C (162 °F; 345 K)
Related compounds
Related compounds
glyoxylic acid
pyruvic acid
acetoacetic acid
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Methylglyoxal, also called pyruvaldehyde or 2-oxopropanal, is the organic compound with the formula CH3C(O)CHO. Gaseous methylglyoxal has two carbonyl groups, an aldehyde and a ketone but in the presence of water, it exists as hydrates and oligomers.[1] It is a reduced derivative of pyruvic acid.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • Benefits of Manuka Honey
  • Optimizing Health With Fat-Soluble Vitamins & Their Nutritional Synergists: Chris Masterjohn, PhD
  • Scientists Uncover New Treatment for Diabetic Neuropathy
  • What are Manuka Honey Benefits and Side Effects?
  • Honey: Bacteria's Worst Enemy


Hey, guys. Dr. Axe here, Doctor of Functional Medicine and founder of Today I want to talk to you about the incredible benefits of manuka honey and how you can use it to cure certain illnesses and really support the body in many different ways. Manuka honey has been used throughout areas of New Zealand and Australia for a really long time. The incredible thing about manuka honey is in certain cases it tends to be about four times more nutrient-dense in terms of its healing compounds than regular floral honeys. You've heard me talk about before the benefits of raw honey and local honey. Well, manuka honey is even more powerful. I'm going to go through all of those benefits here, but the reason why manuka honey is so beneficial is because it tends to be much higher in certain types of enzymes that create a type of hydrogen peroxide or phenols, these phytonutrients that you're going to find in manuka honey. So again, it has very powerful antimicrobial properties. There are several things it's great for treating, and one of those things is SIBO, that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. So if you have bad bacteria growing in your small intestine, oftentimes that's caused by bad bacteria growing like H. pylori in your stomach and not having enough stomach acid. Actually manuka honey is effective at treating that. This is actually a brand of manuka honey I've used. There's a few other brands here, and you can see it says "20 Plus Bioactive Manuka Honey." Again, you want to be looking for manuka honey that's typically . . . it depends on how you're using it. If you're using it for treating something temporarily, you typically want to go about 16 to 20 Plus. If you're just consuming it in your food and want those benefits, you typically want to go with a 10 Plus or less when you're actually looking at the activity rating there. That's how strong those phenol-like compounds are. When you're actually taking this, the recommended dosage is never more than one tablespoon at a time. In fact, with most of my patients I recommend they do one teaspoon twice a day when they're using manuka honey, but it's great, just a little bit of sweetener there, that you can add as well. Again, it's great for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. It's also very great in treating ulcers. If you have ulcers or stomach issues, this is the best sweetener to use and using it as a supplement, one teaspoon twice a day. It's also powerful at eliminating allergies and a sore throat. One of the most common treatments for a sore throat is raw honey and lemon. Well, manuka honey is even more effective than regular honey. I recommend mixing a little bit of lemon essential oil with manuka honey and swallowing that probably about three to four times a day, and it can help soothe a sore throat. The other thing that this is really effective for is treating acne and eczema. In fact, if you have acne or eczema, I recommend making an ointment at home using manuka honey along with essential oils like tea tree oil and geranium oil. Mixing these together is a very powerful treatment for acne. With eczema you also want to add a little shea butter, and that will help keep it on the area even longer and actually help really hydrate that area. Also, here's one of the most incredible things about manuka honey. It's been used effectively in the treatment of MRSA. MRSA is a type of bacterial infection that tends to be antibiotic-resistant. It's antibiotic-resistant, and manuka honey has natural antibiotics that can actually kill off MRSA. That's just another powerful effect. And last but not least, wounds. If you have a cut or a burn of any type, I recommend using manuka honey. If you have an open infection, put manuka honey on the area. This is how it's been used for thousands of years. It was used by the early Egyptians. It was used by the Chinese. It's referenced throughout history as well in many different ways. But again, manuka honey should be used in treating wounds as well. You want to be looking for that different rating system that I talked about and typically one teaspoon twice a day. So again, try manuka honey. I will say this. It's a little bit spendy. You have to spend more on it, but the healing benefits, if you have any one of those conditions, are worth it. And hey, if you don't have one of those conditions and you just want to experience the benefits of honey, then buy raw local honey from your local farmer's market. Raw local honey that isn't manuka honey still has tremendous benefits, especially if it's raw and local. And hey guys, if you've enjoyed this video on the many benefits of manuka honey, make sure you check out the article I wrote on manuka honey here on as well as our YouTube page. You can subscribe there and check out more of my natural healing remedies there as well. Hey guys, this has been Dr. Axe with the many benefits of manuka honey.


Industrial production and use

Methylglyoxal is produced industrially by degradation of carbohydrates using overexpressed methylglyoxal synthase.[2]


In organisms, methylglyoxal is formed as a side-product of several metabolic pathways.[3] It may form from 3-aminoacetone, which is an intermediate of threonine catabolism, as well as through lipid peroxidation. However, the most important source is glycolysis. Here, methylglyoxal arises from nonenzymatic phosphate elimination from glyceraldehyde phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate, two intermediates of glycolysis. Since methylglyoxal is highly cytotoxic, the body developed several detoxification mechanisms. One of these is the glyoxalase system. Methylglyoxal reacts with glutathione to form a hemithioacetal. This is converted into S-D-lactoyl-glutathione by glyoxalase I,[4] and then further metabolized into D-lactate by glyoxalase II.[5]

Aristolochic acid caused 12 fold increase of methylglyoxal from 18 to 231 ug/mg of kidney protein in poisoned mice.[6]

The proximate and ultimate causes for biological methylglyoxal production remain unknown, but it may be involved in the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs).[7] In this process, methylglyoxal reacts with free amino groups of lysine and arginine and with thiol groups of cysteine forming AGEs. Recent research has identified heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) as a specific target of posttranslational modification by methylglyoxal in human metastatic melanoma cells.[8]

Recently, one mechanism of activity in humans of methylglyoxal has been identified.[9][10] Methylglyoxal binds directly to the nerve endings and by that increases the chronic extremity soreness in diabetic neuropathy.

Other glycation agents include the reducing sugars:

Natural occurrence

Due to increased blood glucose levels, methylglyoxal has higher concentrations in diabetics and has been linked to arterial atherogenesis. Damage by methylglyoxal to low-density lipoprotein through glycation causes a fourfold increase of atherogenesis in diabetics.[11]

Although methylglyoxal has been shown to increase carboxymethyllysine levels,[12] methylglyoxal has been suggested to be a better marker for investigating the association between AGEs with adverse health outcomes.

Methylglyoxal is a component of some kinds of honey, including manuka honey; it appears to have activity against E. coli and S. aureus and may help prevent formation of biofilms formed by P. aeruginosa .[13]


  1. ^ Loeffler Kirsten W.; Koehler Charles A.; Paul Nichole M.; De Haan David O. (2006). "Oligomer Formation in Evaporating Aqueous Glyoxal and Methyl Glyoxal Solutions". Environmental Science & Technology. 40: 6318–6323. doi:10.1021/es060810w. 
  2. ^ Frieder W. Lichtenthaler "Carbohydrates as Organic Raw Materials" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2010, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi: 10.1002/14356007.n05_n07
  3. ^ Inoue Y, Kimura A (1995). "Methylglyoxal and regulation of its metabolism in microorganisms". Adv. Microb. Physiol. Advances in Microbial Physiology. 37: 177–227. doi:10.1016/S0065-2911(08)60146-0. ISBN 978-0-12-027737-7. PMID 8540421. 
  4. ^ Thornalley PJ (2003). "Glyoxalase I—structure, function and a critical role in the enzymatic defence against glycation". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 31 (Pt 6): 1343–8. doi:10.1042/BST0311343. PMID 14641060. 
  5. ^ Vander Jagt DL (1993). "Glyoxalase II: molecular characteristics, kinetics and mechanism". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 21 (2): 522–7. PMID 8359524. 
  6. ^ Li, Biochem Biophys Res Commun 423:832 2012 PMID 22713464 doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.06.049
  7. ^ Shinohara M; Thornalley, PJ; Giardino, I; Beisswenger, P; Thorpe, SR; Onorato, J; Brownlee, M (1998). "Overexpression of glyoxalase-I in bovine endothelial cells inhibits intracellular advanced glycation endproduct formation and prevents hyperglycemia-induced increases in macromolecular endocytosis". J Clin Invest. 101 (5): 1142–7. doi:10.1172/JCI119885. PMC 508666Freely accessible. PMID 9486985. 
  8. ^ Bair WB 3rd, Cabello CM, Uchida K, Bause AS, Wondrak GT (April 2010). "GLO1 overexpression in human malignant melanoma". Melanoma Res. 20 (2): 85–96. doi:10.1097/CMR.0b013e3283364903. PMC 2891514Freely accessible. PMID 20093988. 
  9. ^ Spektrum: Diabetische Neuropathie: Methylglyoxal verstärkt den Schmerz: (2012-05-21). Retrieved on 2012-06-11.
  10. ^ Bierhaus, Angelika; Fleming, Thomas; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Leffler, Andreas; Babes, Alexandru; Neacsu, Cristian; Sauer, Susanne K; Eberhardt, Mirjam; et al. (2012). "Methylglyoxal modification of Nav1.8 facilitates nociceptive neuron firing and causes hyperalgesia in diabetic neuropathy". Nature Medicine. 18 (6): 926–33. doi:10.1038/nm.2750. PMID 22581285. 
  11. ^ Rabbani N; Godfrey, L; Xue, M; Shaheen, F; Geoffrion, M; Milne, R; Thornalley, PJ (May 26, 2011). "Glycation of LDL by methylglyoxal increases arterial atherogenicity. A possible contributor to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in diabetes". Diabetes. 60 (7): 1973–80. doi:10.2337/db11-0085. PMC 3121424Freely accessible. PMID 21617182. 
  12. ^ Cai, W., Uribarri, J., Zhu, L., Chen, X., Swamy, S., Zhao, Z., Grosjean, F., Simonaro, C., Kuchel, G. A., Schnaider-Beeri, M., Woodward, M., Striker, G. E., and Vlassara, H. (2014) Oral glycotoxins are a modifiable cause of dementia and the metabolic syndrome in mice and humans. PNAS 111.
  13. ^ Israili, ZH (2014). "Antimicrobial properties of honey". American journal of therapeutics. 21 (4): 304–23. doi:10.1097/MJT.0b013e318293b09b. PMID 23782759. 
This page was last edited on 12 November 2017, at 04:07.
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