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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ammoniated ruthenium oxychloride
Ruthenium red cation.svg
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.228.922
UNII
Properties
Cl6H42N14O2Ru3
Molar mass 786.34 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

The inorganic dye ammoniated ruthenium oxychloride, also known as ruthenium red, is used in histology to stain aldehyde fixed mucopolysaccharides.

Ruthenium red (RR) has also been used as a pharmacological tool to study specific cellular mechanisms. Selectivity is a significant issue in such studies as RR is known to interact with a large number of proteins.[1] These include mammalian ion channels (CatSper1, TASK, RyR1, RyR2, RyR3, TRPM6, TRPM8, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPV5, TRPV6, TRPA1, mCa1, mCa2, CALHM1[2][3]) TRPP3,[4] a plant ion channel, Ca2+-ATPase, mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter,[5] tubulin, myosin light-chain phosphatase, and Ca2+ binding proteins such as calmodulin. Ruthenium red displays nanomolar potency against several of its binding partners (e.g. TRPV4, ryanodine receptors,...). For example, it is a potent inhibitor of intracellular calcium release by ryanodine receptors (Kd ~20 nM).[6] As a TRPA1 blocker, it assists in reducing the airway inflammation caused by pepper spray.

RR has been used on plant material since 1890 for staining pectins, mucilages, and gums. RR is a stereoselective stain for pectic acid, insofar as the staining site occurs between each monomer unit and the next adjacent neighbor.[7]

References

  1. ^ Vincent, F; Duncton, MA (2011). "TRPV4 agonists and antagonists". Curr Top Med Chem. 11 (17): 2216–26. doi:10.2174/156802611796904861. PMID 21671873. 
  2. ^ Ma, Z; Siebert, AP; Cheung, KH; Lee, RJ; Johnson, B; Cohen, AS; Vingtdeux, V; Marambaud, P; Foskett, JK (2012). "Calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) is the pore-forming subunit of an ion channel that mediates extracellular Ca2+ regulation of neuronal excitability". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 109 (28): E1963–71. doi:10.1073/pnas.1204023109. PMC 3396471Freely accessible. PMID 22711817. 
  3. ^ Dreses-Werringloer U, Vingtdeux V, Zhao H, Chandakkar P, Davies P, Marambaud P. "CALHM1 controls Ca2+-dependent MEK/ERK/RSK/MSK signaling in neurons". J Cell Sci 2013. PMID 23345406
  4. ^ Decaen, P. G.; Delling, M.; Vien, T. N.; Clapham, D. E. (2013). "Direct recording and molecular identification of the calcium channel of primary cilia". Nature. 504 (7479): 315–318. doi:10.1038/nature12832. PMC 4073646Freely accessible. PMID 24336289. 
  5. ^ Hajnóczky, G; Csordás, G; Das, S; Garcia-Perez, C; Saotome, M; Sinha Roy, S; Yi, M (2006). "Mitochondrial calcium signalling and cell death: approaches for assessing the role of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in apoptosis". Cell Calcium. 40 (5–6): 553–60. doi:10.1016/j.ceca.2006.08.016. PMC 2692319Freely accessible. PMID 17074387. 
  6. ^ Tripathy, Le Xu Ashutosh; Pasek, Daniel A.; Meissner, Gerhard (1998). "Potential for Pharmacology of Ryanodine Receptor/Calcium Release Channels". Ann NY Acad Sci. 853 (1): 130–148. 
  7. ^ Mariani Colombo P, Rascio N. "Ruthenium red staining for electron microscopy of plant material". Journal of Ultrastructure Research Volume 60, Issue 2, August 1977, Pages 135–139
This page was last edited on 11 June 2017, at 15:18.
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