To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Salton Sea
Location of Salton Sea in California, USA.
Location of Salton Sea in California, USA.
Salton Sea
Location of Salton Sea in California, USA.
Location of Salton Sea in California, USA.
Salton Sea
LocationColorado Desert
Imperial and Riverside Counties, California, U.S.
Coordinates33°18′47″N 115°50′04″W / 33.31306°N 115.83444°W / 33.31306; -115.83444
TypeEndorheic rift lake
Primary inflowsAlamo River
New River
Whitewater River
Primary outflowsNone
Catchment area8,360 sq mi (21,700 km2)
Basin countriesMexico and United States
Surface area343 sq mi (889 km2)
Max. depth43 ft (13 m)
Water volume6,000,000 acre⋅ft (7.4 km3)
Surface elevation−236 ft (−71.9 m) (below sea level)
SettlementsBombay Beach, Desert Beach, Desert Shores, Salton City, Salton Sea Beach, North Shore
ReferencesU.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Salton Sea
Map of the Salton Sea drainage area

The Salton Sea is a shallow, landlocked, highly saline body of water in Riverside and Imperial counties at the southern end of the U.S. state of California. It lies on the San Andreas Fault within the Salton Trough, which stretches to the Gulf of California in Mexico.

Over millions of years, the Colorado River had flowed into the Imperial Valley and deposited alluvium (soil), creating fertile farmland, building up the terrain, and constantly moving its main course and river delta. For thousands of years, the river alternately flowed into the valley or diverted around it, creating either a salt lake called Lake Cahuilla or a dry desert basin, respectively. When the Colorado River flowed into the valley, the lake level depended on river flows and the balance between inflow and evaporative loss. When the river diverted around the valley, the lake dried completely, as it did around 1580. Hundreds of archaeological sites have been found in this region, indicating possibly long-term Native American villages and temporary camps.

The current lake was formed from an inflow of water from the Colorado River in 1905. Beginning in 1900, an irrigation canal was dug from the Colorado River to the old Alamo River channel to provide water to the Imperial Valley for farming. The headgates and canals sustained a buildup of silt, so a series of cuts were made in the bank of the Colorado River to further increase the water flow. Water from spring floods broke through a canal head-gate, diverting a portion of the river flow into the Salton Basin for two years before repairs were completed. The water in the formerly dry lake bed created the modern lake, which is about 15 by 35 miles (24 by 56 km) at its widest and longest. A 2023 report puts the surface area at 318 square miles (823.6 km2).[1]

During the early 20th century, the lake would have dried up, except that farmers used generous amounts of Colorado River water for irrigation and let the excess flow into the lake. In the 1950s and into the 1960s, the area became a resort destination, and communities grew with hotels and vacation homes. Birdwatching was also popular as the wetlands were a major resting stop on the Pacific Flyway. In the 1970s, scientists issued warnings that the lake would continue to shrink and become more inhospitable to wildlife. In the 1980s, contamination from farm runoff promoted the outbreak and spread of wildlife diseases. Massive die-offs of the avian populations have occurred, especially after the loss of several species of fish on which they depend. Salinity rose so high that large fish kills occurred, often blighting the beaches of the sea with their carcasses. Tourism was drastically reduced.

After 1999, the lake began to shrink as local agriculture used the water more efficiently, so less runoff flowed into the lake. As the lake bed became exposed, the winds sent clouds of toxic dust into nearby communities. Smaller amounts of dust reached into the Los Angeles area, and people there could sometimes smell an odor coming from the lake. The state is mainly responsible for fixing the problems. California lawmakers pledged to fund air-quality management projects in conjunction with the signing of the 2003 agreement to send more water to coastal cities. Local, state and federal bodies all had found minimal success dealing with the dust, dying wildlife, and other problems for which warnings had been issued decades before. At the beginning of 2018, local agencies declared an emergency and, along with the state, funded and developed the Salton Sea Management Program. In 2020, Palm Springs Life magazine summarized the ecological situation as "Salton Sea derives its fame as the biggest environmental disaster in California history".[2]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    Views:
    1 200 404
    5 418 272
    10 750
    15 055
    10 171
  • When California's Greatest Treasure Became a National Disgrace: The Salton Sea - IT'S HISTORY
  • Should This Lake Exist?
  • A City is Born (Salton City Promotional Film)
  • Why the Salton Sea should never dry up?||#shorts ||#timelapse ||#viral |#trending
  • The Rise and Fall of the Salton Sea

Transcription

History

Before the modern era

The Gulf of California would extend as far north as the city of Indio, some 150 miles (240 km) northwest of its current limits, were it not for the delta created by the Colorado River.[3] Over three million years, through all of the Pleistocene, the river's delta expanded until it cut off the northern part of the gulf. Since then, the Colorado River has alternated between emptying into the basin, creating a freshwater lake, and emptying into the gulf, leaving the lake to dry and turn to desert. Wave-cut shorelines at various elevations record a repeated cycle of filling and drying over hundreds of thousands of years.[4] The most recent freshwater lake was Lake Cahuilla,[4] also known as the Blake Sea[5] after American professor and geologist William Phipps Blake.[6] It covered over 2,000 square miles (5,200 km2), six times the area of the Salton Sea.[4]

Archaeological sites and radiocarbon dates indicate that the lake was filled three or four times over the last 1,300 years. When full, the lake would attract Native Americans to its shores. Hundreds of sites have been found, some possibly long-term villages and others temporary camps. The occupants ate at least four species of fish (two of which were razorback sucker and bonytail chub), birds (particularly the coot), black-tailed jackrabbit, black-tailed cottontail rabbit, and sometimes deer and bighorn sheep. Among the plants they used were bulrush, cattail, mesquite, and saltbush. The Cahuilla people have an oral memory of the last lake, which existed in the 17th century and dried up soon after 1700.[7]

Throughout the Spanish period of California's history, the area was referred to as the "Colorado Desert" after the Colorado River. In a railroad survey completed in 1855, it was called "the Valley of the Ancient Lake". On several old maps from the Library of Congress, it has been found labeled "Cahuilla Valley" (after the local Indian tribe) and "Cabazon Valley" (after a local Indian chief – Chief Cabazon). "Salt Creek" first appeared on a map in 1867, and "Salton Station" is on a railroad map from 1900, although this place had existed as a rail stop since the late 1870s.[8] Until the advent of the modern sea, the Salton Sink was the site of a major salt-mining operation.[9]

Modern formation

Yuma Project – Dry bed of Colorado River below Imperial Intake (1906)

In 1900, under Governor James Budd, the California Development Company began construction of irrigation canals to divert water from the Colorado River into the Salton Sink, a dry lake bed. After construction of these irrigation canals, the Salton Sink became fertile for a time, allowing farmers to plant crops.[9]

Within two years, the Alamo Canal became filled with silt from the Colorado River. Engineers tried to alleviate the blockages to no avail. Imperial Valley farmers, under considerable financial stress, pressured the California Development Company to resolve the problem. Engineer Charles Rockwood, faced with bankruptcy and "after mature deliberation", directed the construction of a breach in the bank of the Colorado River approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) south of the existing wooden headgates (the Chaffey Gate).[10]

The breach, known as the Lower Mexican Intake and constructed without headgates and without the permission of the Mexican authorities, allowed the Colorado River to flow unimpeded into the canal and then to Imperial Valley farms.[11][10][12] Rockwood's action in ordering the breach was later described as a "blunder so serious as to be practically criminal."[10]

In 1905, heavy rainfall and snowmelt caused the Colorado River to swell, overrunning the third intake cut into the bank of the river and sending the flood into the Alamo Canal. The resulting flood poured down the canal and down two formerly dry arroyos, the New River in the west and the Alamo River in the east, each about 60 mi (97 km) long.[13] Over about two years, these two newly created rivers carried the entire volume of the Colorado River into the Salton Sink.[14][15]

The Southern Pacific Railroad tried to stop the flooding by dumping earth into the canal's headgates area, but the effort was not fast enough, and the river eroded deeper and deeper into the dry desert sand of the Imperial Valley. A large waterfall formed as a result and began cutting rapidly upstream along the path of the Alamo Canal that now was occupied by the Colorado. This waterfall was initially 15 feet (4.6 m) high but grew to 80 feet (20 m) high before the flow through the breach was stopped. Originally, the waterfall was feared to recede upstream to the true main path of the Colorado, becoming up to 100 to 300 feet (30 to 90 m) high, when it would be practically impossible to stop the flow.

As the basin filled, the town of Salton, a Southern Pacific Railroad siding, the New Liverpool Salt Company facility and miniature railroad, and Torres-Martinez Native American land were submerged. The tribe's reservation now straddles the northern end of the lake.[16] The sudden influx of water and the lack of any drainage from the basin resulted in the formation of the Salton Sea.[17][18][19] On February 11, 1907,[11] the breach was finally closed after substantial intervention by the Southern Pacific Transportation Company.[20]

Agriculture, tourism and wildlife proliferate

In the 1920s, agriculture had boomed in the valley as the Imperial Irrigation District delivered large quantities of Colorado River water to irrigate the crops. The lake would have dried up naturally, but with flood irrigation being commonly used, plenty of water ran off the farms into the lake and kept it full.[21] The district holds senior rights to water from the Colorado River according to Doctrine of Prior Appropriation, which states that whoever first puts a quantity of water from a given source to beneficial use gains the right to use that quantity of water from that source in future.[22] In 1930, a wildlife refuge was established on some wetlands along the edge of the lake that had attracted many birds. The fish flourished in the lake and provided a source of food for massive populations of migratory birds. Birdwatchers flocked to this new refuge in the middle of a desert.[21]

The continuing intermittent flooding of the Imperial Valley from the Colorado River ended with the construction of Hoover Dam. Imperial Dam, built in 1938, serves as a desilting dam for water entering the irrigation canals.[23]

In the 1950s and into the 1960s, the communities expanded as the area's reputation as a resort destination and sport fishery grew.[24] Hotels and yacht clubs were built on the shore along with homes and schools.[25] Resorts in communities like Bombay Beach hosted entertainers such as Frank Sinatra, The Beach Boys and Bing Crosby.[26] Yacht clubs held parties at night and golf courses provided recreation.[25] Many people came for boating activities such as water skiing and fishing as stocked fish proliferated.[27] Lakeshore communities grew as vacation homes were built.[21] More than 1.5 million visitors visited annually at the peak.[28]

Catastrophic decline

In the 1970s, scientists issued warnings about the changes coming to this lake with no outlet. Studies that started in the 1960s found a complex problem for which any remediation would be expensive.[26] The Imperial Valley has about 500,000 acres (200,000 ha) of farmland for which flood irrigation is typical.[22] Water from the Colorado River is diverted near Yuma, Arizona, into the 82-mile (132 km) All-American Canal. The canal runs west along the Mexican border and then north into 1,700 miles (2,700 km) of irrigation channels that crisscross the farms.[29]

Gravity carries the agricultural runoff downhill through the New and Alamo rivers to the lake.[29] The water is full of salts, selenium, and fertilizers (mainly nitrates).[30] As it drains through the soil, the water leaches out ancient salt deposits that also raise the salinity. Evaporation in the desert heat further concentrates the salt. The transformation of the lake made it increasingly inhospitable to wildlife. By the late 1970s, fish started dying off and bird populations declined.[28]

In the late 1970s, a series of heavy tropical storms caused the water level to rapidly rise and flood its banks.[28] The surrounding towns and businesses were severely damaged, many beyond repair. In 1976, Hurricane Kathleen inundated the lakeshore communities and put Bombay Beach completely underwater.[31] Tourism was drastically reduced, and many of the resorts and associated infrastructure were abandoned. The state began to issue odor advisories as the lake began to stink.[26]

In the 1990s, the shores were littered with dead fish as the lake had gotten so salty that large die-offs occurred.[27] Fertilizers in the runoff caused massive blooms of algae. When storms churned the lake, botulism spread among the dying tilapia, which were eaten by the birds. During a four-month long period in 1996, 14,000 birds died from eating the fish, nearly 10,000 of which were pelicans. The carcasses were burned in an incinerator 24 hours per day for weeks. The resulting news coverage conveyed a simplified story that implied the lake was a toxic catastrophe filled with water that could be deadly.[32]

In 1995, Congressman Sonny Bono advocated for attention to the problems. His wife and some politicians took up the cause as a form of tribute to Bono after his death in a 1998 skiing accident.[33] Congress passed and President Bill Clinton signed into law the Salton Sea Reclamation Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-372). In 1999, the lake began to recede dramatically. The dropping water level stranded many of the remaining boat docks, residences, and businesses. Water-management priorities were changing including diverting water from agricultural areas to cities.[28] The U.S. Department of the Interior prepared a draft Environmental Impact Report in compliance with the Reclamation Act and working in partnership with the Salton Sea Authority.[34] A Strategic Science Plan and the Bureau of Reclamation's Alternatives Appraisal Report were also added to the voluminous studies of the lake.[35] Before the legislative and scientific recommendations were implemented, priorities shifted away from activities at the lake after the September 11 attacks in 2001.[32]

In 2003, the Imperial Irrigation District signed the largest agriculture-to-urban water transfer agreement in US history. Much of its water allocation would go to communities along the California coast at a profit.[27] With a 45-year term, the Quantification Settlement Agreement was a means for the San Diego County Water Authority and other districts to obtain additional water for the growing communities they serve.[32] Local agriculture became more efficient at using water which resulted in the shoreline retreating as less run-off flowed into the lake.[21] Farmers installed sprinklers to replace flood irrigation and used soil measurement devices that tell them when to water.[29] As the Salton Sea shrank, it became saltier than ocean water. The California State Legislature, by legislation enacted in 2003 and 2004, directed the secretary of the California Resources Agency to prepare a restoration plan for the Salton Sea ecosystem, and an Environmental Impact Report.[36] The Salton Sea Authority had a consultant study the alternatives and in 2004 issued their preferred alternative.[37] After receiving comments from other agencies, they approved a new report in 2006.[38] They hoped the reports would influence the state as it prepared the proposal mandated by the legislature.[39]

The state released an $8.9-billion proposal in 2007 that involved building a horseshoe-shaped outer lake, a berm crossing the center of the lake and an extensive system of dikes, channels and pumps.[36][40] Due to their concerns about the impact on the lake, the district only approved the water transfer agreement after Governor Gray Davis had signed the 2003 legislation known as the Salton Sea Restoration Act.[41] It stated that it was the "intent of the Legislature that the State of California undertake the restoration of the Salton Sea ecosystem and the permanent protection of the wildlife dependent on that ecosystem".[42] The restoration plan was not implemented as state lawmakers found it too expensive and the Great Recession hit the economy. Repeated delays and dwindling public interest precluded any real change.[36]

Exposed lakebed impacts air quality

The lake continued to dry up, exposing more lake bed known as playa, and sending nearby communities clouds of toxic dust.[43] A haze incorporating pesticide plumes, exhaust fumes, factory emissions, and the vaporized dust from the lake regularly hangs over the communities in the valley.[44] With a dense blend of ozone and particulate matter, Imperial County became known for some of the worst air quality in the country.[27] Eastern Coachella communities have disproportionately higher rates of asthma and respiratory complications because of high concentrations of contaminants in the air.[45] Over 20% of the children in the region have asthma (with the national rate being less than 10%).[46] Scientists are studying how much of this is caused by the Salton Sea dust and what is actually in the windblown particles.[47] Ten schools in the Imperial Valley use green, yellow, and red flags signaling air quality for the many children who have asthma. Green means they join their friends on the playground, whereas red means they stay inside all day. Parents can also receive emailed alerts from the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District.[48] Local activists ask if this is an issue of environmental justice, since the area most impacted is 85% Latinos.[49][50] Some 650,000 people, many who are farmworkers, live where there are significant exposure to the dust.[51]: 4  The public health impacts of continuing not to meet federal air quality standards include the treatment of child and adult asthma, cardiac disease, lung cancer, and increased mortality rates.[51]: 2  Lower concentrations of the wind-borne dust travel all the way into Southern California and Arizona.[52] Residents in the Los Angeles Basin, some 150 miles (240 km) away, complained about the odor that drifted their way in 2012, after the biomass on the sea bottom was churned by a storm.[53][32][27]

During the first 15 years after the sale of the Imperial water to San Diego County, the Imperial Irrigation District has been required to put water into the Salton Sea to compensate for the loss of agricultural runoff needed to replenish the sea. As the 2017 deadline for ending the additional mitigation water approached, the district, along with Imperial County, petitioned the California State Water Resources Control Board in 2014 with a demand for state action to fulfill its obligation after years of delays and unfulfilled plans.[54] Pacific Institute, an environmental think tank, was warning that the lack of replenishment water was leading to a "period of very rapid deterioration."[51][55] The rapidly shrinking sea was a "looming environmental and public health crisis".[56] With the increased shrinkage, dust storms would increase and the rotten-egg smell would reach the coastal cities more frequently.[55][28]

About 36,000 acres (15,000 ha), or about 10%, of Imperial Valley's arable farmland was temporarily fallowed to meet the reductions in the water transfer agreement.[57] Since the most recent creation of the lake, local farms in the Imperial Valley have produced alfalfa, wheat, and vegetables such as carrots and Brussels sprouts.[58] As of 2015, the most widely planted crop was alfalfa, followed by bermuda grass and sudan grass. A third of the hay produced here was exported to China, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Japan. Most of exported hay feeds dairy cows, while Japan uses it for Kobe beef production.[22]

On January 1, 2018, 40% less water began flowing into the sea as the 15-year mitigation period ended per the 2003 water transfer agreement.[30] A court decision also forced the Imperial Irrigation District to end a program that had allowed it to equally distribute and cap the amount of water its members receive.[30] Although it had been shrinking for years, this began to lower the water level significantly. As the shore recedes, at least 75 square miles (190 km2) of playa will be exposed by 2045, with additional dust becoming wind blown as the exposed playa dries out.[27] A vertical drop of one foot in the water level can expose thousands of feet of horizontal playa.[28] The state is mainly responsible, as California lawmakers pledged to fund air-quality management projects to mitigate impacts from the 2003 water transfer agreement.[51]: 1  Over the years, local, state and federal bodies have found minimal success dealing with the dust from the exposed playa.[52] To reduce wind-borne dust, the district has a program known as vegetation enhancement and surface roughening, which includes plowing furrows on newly exposed playa within property owned by the district.[30]

Fugitive dust, consisting of very small particles suspended in the air, is being studied to distinguish between playa dust and desert emissions that are primarily made up of mineral dust from soil. The Imperial County Air Quality Management District, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the University of California at Riverside School of Medicine along with the environmental justice group Comite Civico Del Valle are using mobile and stationary air quality monitoring units in the effort to protect the health of the nearby residents.[59]

Management programs

The Salton Sea Task Force was formed by the state in 2015 by Governor Jerry Brown's administration.[60] The Natural Resources Agency released the Salton Sea Management Program (SSMP) in March 2017.[54] The SSMP proposes constructing 29,800 acres (12,100 ha) of habitat restoration and dust suppression projects on lakebed areas that have been, or will be, exposed at the Salton Sea by the year 2028.[61] This will improve conditions for residents and wildlife.[62] The initial 10-year plan will cover less than half of the dry lakebed that researchers say will be exposed during that time.[36] The state initially budgeted $80.5 million to begin designing the wetlands without a commitment that the program will ever be fully funded.[62] The projected cost to design and construct the improvements is $383 million.[58] The focus was no longer on restoring the lake but presenting a feasible plan with a budget that legislators would gradually fund over the ten-year period. The 10-year plan will not fix everything so state and local officials continue to seek ways to deal with the problems.[42] Salton Sea Management Program Monitoring and Adaptive Management Implementation Plan is being developed that will prioritize and phase-in implementation of the 2013 USGS Salton Sea Ecosystem Monitoring and Assessment Plan.[63]

The first state-funded project was the Torres-Martinez Wetland Project, in which the Torres Martinez Desert Cahuilla Indians partnered with the state to restore shallow wetlands along the northern edge of the sea that was destroyed by a massive storm in 2012.[64] This prototype project was completed in April 2018.[65]

In November 2019, an emergency was declared because of the "heavily polluted New River, which empties into the Salton Sea".[26][66] The Imperial County Board of Supervisors were hoping that this would accelerate the restoration projects by enabling the state to obtain federal funding.[26] Nearly all the state's funding comes from bond measures for the Salton Sea projects. Since 2000, California voters have approved five bond measures as of 2020.[67]

In February 2020, the California Natural Resources Agency finished the "Bruchard Road Dust Suppression Project" which, although only 112 acres (45 ha), was the first dust suppression project to be completed under the Salton Sea Management Program: Phase 1: 10 Year Plan (August 2018).[67] Construction began on the ambitious 4,110-acre (1,660 ha) Species Conservation Habitat Project in January 2021 on the small delta of the New River.[50] The project is building ponds and wetlands on both sides of the mouth of this highly polluted river on the southern bank of the sea.[68] Water from the Salton Sea will be combined with the river water to control salinity and naturally occurring selenium.[69] Federal government said in November 2022, it will spend $250 million over four years for the project.[70]

Water importation review

The New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California, to the Imperial Valley, and on to the Salton Sea.

Many concepts have been proposed on how to deal with the problems.[34] The idea of importing seawater from the Pacific Ocean or the Sea of Cortez in Mexico has been around for a long time.[71] The area's plentiful geothermal power could be used to desalinate the water.[16] Around 2004, Aqua Genesis Ltd proposed such a project that would sell the nonsaline water. Their proposal involved the construction of over 20 miles (32 km) of pipes and tunneling that would have provided 1,000,000 acre-feet (1.2 km3) of water to Southern California coastal cities each year.[72] Berkshire Hathaway Energy has a subsidiary that already operates 10 geothermal plants in the area, and as of 2020 was developing a seawater desalination proposal.[16]

In 2018, the California Natural Resources Agency requested proposals to increase waterflow to the sea to reduce dust and dust-borne toxins. The 11 proposals ranged in cost from $300 million to several billion dollars.[73]

Abandoned, salt-encrusted structures on the Salton Sea shore at Bombay Beach

A June 9, 2020, research report stated that the cost of "transferring water from agricultural users to the Salton Sea" would be lower and achievable using existing infrastructure.[74] The aqueduct proposal, and others, hung on the outcome of a feasibility study.[75] The state-appointed panel of experts rejected the idea in 2022 after a yearlong review.[76]

Ecology

Salinity

Salt deposits along the eastern shore of the Salton Sea

The water of the Salton Sea has a salinity of 44 grams of salt per liter, greater than that of the Pacific Ocean (35 g/L).[77] The lack of an outflow means the Salton Sea does not have a natural stabilization system; it is very dynamic. Fluctuations in the water level caused by variations in agricultural runoff, the ancient salt deposits in the lake bed, and the relatively high salinity of the inflow feeding the sea are all causing increasing salinity. The concentration has been increasing at a rate of about 3% per year. About 3.6 million tonnes of salt are deposited in the valley each year.[78] An undated report on the University of California: Imperial County website provides these specifics: "Salton Sea salinity is about 44,000 mg/L, that is about 4.4% salt. The amount of salts that is deposited in the Imperial Valley agricultural land with irrigation water is about 4 million tons of salts annually. To maintain crop productivities, equal amount of salts must be leached from the root zone".[77]

Fertilizer runoffs have resulted in eutrophication, with large algal blooms and elevated bacterial levels.[79] By the 1970s, the runoff which was full of salty chemicals led to a warning that the salinity of the lake would no longer sustain wildlife. Both the hypersalinity and the presence of contaminants in the Salton Sea triggered massive die-offs in the fish and avian populations; salt water carries less oxygen than fresh water, which was further depleted by algal blooms and by extreme temperatures during the summer.[80]

Toxic salt ponds along the western shoreline

Fish population

Dead fish on the western shore of Salton City

The desert pupfish is the only native fish species in the sea and is a federally listed endangered species.[81] The desert pupfish, notable for its ability to withstand the rising salinity of the Salton Sea, can survive salinities ranging from freshwater to twice as salty as seawater.[82]

The body was initially a freshwater lake and was stocked with tilapia, gulf croaker, orangemouth corvina, and sargo, which sustained an important sport fishery and provided food for birds.[81] By the 1960s, its rising salinity had begun to jeopardize some of these species.[83] A September 2019 report stated that 20 years earlier, "there were some 100 million fish in the Sea. Now, more than 97% of those fish are gone".[84] It is now too saline for most species of fish. Massive fish kills involve the oxygen-depleting combination of summer sun and salt. The fish suffocate as salt water carries less oxygen than fresh water. The dead fish wash up in mass quantities on the beaches.[85]

Introduced tilapia (hybrid Mozambique × Wami) can tolerate the high salinity levels and pollution.[86][87] As of 2014, other fresh and brackish water fish species lived in the rivers and canals that fed the Salton Sea, including redbelly tilapia, threadfin shad, carp, red shiner, channel catfish, white catfish, largemouth bass, mosquitofish, and sailfin molly.[87][88]

Tilapia populations have reached such low volumes such that the fish-eating birds in the area cannot be sustained anymore. Scientists have approximated that if the sea's salinity reaches levels of 70 ppt (more likely to occur than not due to the end of mitigation flows at the start of 2018), there will not be any species of fish left that will be able to survive in the sea's main body. As the decline of tilapia populations continues, there has been an immense proliferation of the water boatman population which do serve as feed for "a limited number of aquatic and shorebird species". A direct concern of the potential eradication of fish species from the sea include mosquito production, which is usually abundant in high salinity salt marshes but have been low because of the presence of fish. There have been worries about this potential outcome as mosquitoes in warm regions have been known to "act as vectors of West Nile virus, Western equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis".[89]

The California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment developed a safe eating advisory for fish caught in the Salton Sea based on levels of mercury or PCBs found in local species. As of 2018, all species were considered acceptable for all populations.[90]

Avian population

The Salton Sea has been termed a "crown jewel of avian biodiversity" by Milt Friend of the Salton Sea Science Office.[91] It hosts "the most diverse and probably most significant populations of bird life in the continental United States, rivaled only by Big Bend, Texas;" over 400 species have been documented.[92] The Salton Sea is also a major resting stop on the Pacific Flyway. A December 2018 report by the National Geographic Society stated: "Nearly all of California's population of eared grebes, for example, stop over at the lake, and at least a third of all the white pelicans living in North America ..." The report expressed concern about the reducing input of water into the Sea and the increasing salinity. "Without that extra water, the lake's shrinking will start to accelerate—making it saltier, smaller, less welcoming to the birds that rely on it during migration".[21]

Both the hypersalinity and presence of contaminants in the Salton Sea triggered massive die-offs in the fish and avian populations and the contamination promoted the outbreak and spread of diseases such as avian cholera. In turn, the loss of several species of fish that the avian population depended on for food increased their risk of starvation, exacerbating their decline.[80] Birdwatchers in 2017 reported that most of the American white pelicans, double-crested cormorants, and eared grebes have disappeared.[93]

The Salton Sea is notable as the only part of the United States to host a significant population of Yellow-footed gulls, a species otherwise endemic to the Gulf of California. Most of these gulls are only present in the summer months.[94]

Vegetation

According to the A. W. Kuchler U.S. potential natural vegetation types, the area roughly within 3 miles (4.8 km) of the sandy shoreline of the Salton Sea would have a saltbush/greasewood (40) vegetation type and a Great Basin shrubland (7) vegetation form.[95]

Geography

This saline, endorheic rift lake on the San Andreas Fault at the southern end of the U.S. state of California lies between and within the Imperial and Coachella valleys, all of which lie within the larger Salton Trough, a pull-apart basin that stretches to the Gulf of California in Mexico. The lake occupies the lowest elevations of the trough, known as the Salton Sink, where the lake surface is 236.0 ft (71.9 m) below sea level as of January 2018.[96] The deepest point of the lake is only 5 ft (1.5 m) higher than the lowest point of Death Valley.

The Salton Sea is about 15 by 35 miles (24 by 56 km) at its widest and longest, though it varies in dimensions and area with fluctuations in agricultural runoff and rainfall. A 2023 report puts surface area at 318 square miles.[1] The New, Whitewater, and Alamo rivers, combined with agricultural runoff, are the primary sources that feed the lake. The Salton Sea is the largest lake in California by surface area.[97][98][99] The average annual inflow is less than 1.2 million acre⋅ft (1.5 km3), which is enough to maintain a maximum depth of 43 feet (13 m) and a total volume of about 6 million acre⋅ft (7.4 km3). However, due to changes in water apportionments agreed upon for the Colorado River under the Quantification Settlement Agreement of 2003, the surface area of the sea is expected to decrease by 60% between 2013 and 2021.[100][57][needs update]

Ownership

The land under the lake is a patchwork of ownership spread across three primary entities: the federal government (mostly the Bureau of Reclamation and the Bureau of Land Management), the Imperial Irrigation District, and the Torres Martinez Desert Cahuilla Indians.[101][102]

Climate

According to the Köppen climate classification system, the Salton Sea has a hot desert climate (BWh). According to the United States Department of Agriculture, the Plant Hardiness zone is 9b with an average annual extreme minimum temperature of 28.5 °F (−1.9 °C).[103] The temperature of the surface water changes with the seasonally varying air temperature. Winter surface water can reach temperatures as low as 50 °F (10 °C) and summer surface water highs can reach 95 °F (35 °C).[104]

Climate data for Salton Sea, Imperial County, CA
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 70.9
(21.6)
74.5
(23.6)
80.3
(26.8)
86.8
(30.4)
95.0
(35.0)
102.9
(39.4)
107.2
(41.8)
106.6
(41.4)
102.0
(38.9)
91.5
(33.1)
79.0
(26.1)
69.8
(21.0)
88.9
(31.6)
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 41.7
(5.4)
45.0
(7.2)
50.1
(10.1)
55.3
(12.9)
62.4
(16.9)
69.2
(20.7)
76.7
(24.8)
77.7
(25.4)
71.3
(21.8)
59.9
(15.5)
48.5
(9.2)
40.9
(4.9)
58.3
(14.6)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.38
(9.7)
0.43
(11)
0.40
(10)
0.06
(1.5)
0.02
(0.51)
0.02
(0.51)
0.09
(2.3)
0.22
(5.6)
0.20
(5.1)
0.21
(5.3)
0.15
(3.8)
0.38
(9.7)
2.56
(65)
Average relative humidity (%) 39.6 37.8 33.7 28.6 27.3 24.5 29.6 32.2 30.6 30.7 34.6 38.9 32.3
Average dew point °F (°C) 32.0
(0.0)
33.9
(1.1)
35.9
(2.2)
36.9
(2.7)
42.2
(5.7)
45.6
(7.6)
55.8
(13.2)
58.3
(14.6)
52.1
(11.2)
42.7
(5.9)
35.3
(1.8)
30.8
(−0.7)
41.8
(5.4)
Source: PRISM Climate Group[105]

Geology

Earthquakes and tectonic setting

Aerial view of the Salton Sea from the north

The Salton Sea and surrounding basin sits over the San Andreas Fault, San Jacinto Fault, Imperial Fault Zone, and a "stepover fault" shear zone system. Geologists have determined that previous flooding episodes from the Colorado River have been linked to earthquakes along the San Andreas Fault. Sonar and other instruments were used to map the Salton Sea's underwater faults during the study. During the period when the basin was filled by Lake Cahuilla, a much larger inland sea, earthquakes higher than magnitude 7 occurred roughly every 180 years, the last one occurring within decades of 1700. Computer models suggest the normal faults in the area are most vulnerable to deviatoric stress loading by filling in of water. Currently, a risk still exists for an earthquake of magnitude 7 to 8. Simulations also showed, in the Los Angeles area, shaking and thus damage would be more severe for a San Andreas earthquake that propagated along the fault from the south, rather than from the north. Such an earthquake also raises the risk for soil liquefaction in the Imperial Valley region.[106][107]

The effective drainage divide that separates the Salton Sea from the Gulf of California is about 30 feet (9 m) in elevation and is located near Delta, northeastern Baja California State, Mexico, south-southeast of Mexicali.[108] Past sea level rise may partially be responsible for the salinity of the lake, while potential future changes in sea levels could occur. However, other factors such as hydrothermal vents, diffusion of salt from minerals and sediment, including concentrated brine, and evaporites are another contributor to salinity, as is the recent lowering of lake levels raising the salinity, though sedimentary records show the lake surface elevation reached levels 33 to 39 feet (10 to 12 m) above world sea level in the 1500s.[109]

Satellite calibration

The Salton Sea is used to calibrate sensors on imaging satellites such as Landsat.[110]

Volcanism

A gaseous mud volcano

Evidence of geothermal activity is visible. The Salton Buttes are volcanoes in the geothermal field of the same name. Mudpots and mud volcanoes are found on the eastern side of the Salton Sea,[111] including the mobile Niland Geyser.[112]

The area is used for geothermal electricity generation, with plants located along the southeastern shore of the Salton Sea in Imperial County.[113][114][115]

The geothermal activity below the Salton Sea loosens up lithium that can be mined. Due to increased demand for lithium, which is crucial for electric-vehicle battery production, the Salton Sea area is attracting attention, and the extraction of lithium is expected to boost the local economy.[116] The California Energy Commission estimates the Salton Sea might produce 600k metric tons of lithium carbonate (Li
2
CO
3
) per year,[117] of a reserve of 3.4 million tonnes.[118]

The Salton Sea geothermal brine reservoir is located at depths of approximately 0.62 to 1.86 miles (1 to 3 km) below ground and contains fluids at temperatures ranging from 250 °C to 380 °C. Among valuable minerals the brine contains lithium (202 ppm ± 20% , i.e. more than in the Dead Sea, which is 30-40 ppm), rubidium (110 ppm ± 47%), cesium (19.8 ppm ± 15%), bromine (91 ppm ± 31% vs 5000 ppm in the Dead Sea).[119] The lake also comprises chloride, sodium, calcium, potassium and other low-value minerals, that are difficult to separate.[120] All these minerals add up to the total salinity of 24.3 ± 2.8%.

Communities

2002 satellite image of the Salton Sea with surrounding developments
Aerial view of the Salton Sea from the south

The US Navy conducted a preliminary inspection of the Salton Sea in January 1940, and the Salton Sea Test Base (SSTB, run by Sandia Labs) was initially commissioned as the Naval Auxiliary Air Station Salton Sea, in October 1942.[121] The SSTB, just to the southeast of Salton City, originally functioned as an operational and training base for seaplanes. Additional activities at the base included experimental testing of solid-fuel plane-launched rockets, jet-assist take-off testing, aeroballistic testing of inert atomic weapon test units at land and marine target areas, training bombing at marine targets, testing of the effects of long-term storage on atomic weapons, testing of the Project Mercury space capsule parachute landing systems, parachute training and testing, and military training exercises. The base was abandoned in 1978.[122]

The Salton Sea had some success as a resort area, with Salton City, Salton Sea Beach, and Desert Shores, on the western shore and Desert Beach, North Shore, and Bombay Beach, built on the eastern shore in the 1950s. Due to the increasing salinity and pollution of the lake over the years from agricultural runoff and other sources, the communities substantially shrank in size, or have been abandoned. The smell of the lake, combined with the stench of the decaying fish, also contributed to the decline of the tourist industry around the Salton Sea. The US Geological Survey describes the smell as "objectionable", "noxious", "unique", and "pervasive".[123]

Arts and culture

A 2020 article provided this comment about the settlements around the Salton Sea:[124]

Since 2011, Bombay Beach and its surrounds have been reinvented as a destination for desert art. It's not alone in that distinction – south of the city lie the towns of Niland and Slab City, other areas that have attracted artists and led to creations like East Jesus and Salvation Mountain.

Some people are visiting the Salton Sea and the surrounding settlements to explore the abandoned structures and see the squatter settlement of Slab City. The town of Niland is 1.5 miles (2.4 km) southeast of the sea, with a population of 1,006. In late June 2020, a fire in Niland caused a great deal of damage, displacing 112 people; by that time, the estimated population had diminished to 500.[125]

The population of Bombay Beach declined for years and the buildings were rotting away, but some people had moved into the settlement.[126] A news item in April 2018 stated that it was "enjoying a rebirth of sorts with an influx of artists, intellectuals and hipsters who have turned it into a bohemian playground".[127] Many of the derelict structures and empty lots in the small settlement have been converted into elaborate art installations, including a large collection of elaborate sculptures built on the ruins of the former waterfront south of the dike. The 2016 dystopian film The Bad Batch used the area as a filming location for its surreal wasteland setting.

Recreation

The Salton Sea State Recreation Area offers hunting, fishing, swimming, and camping to visitors on the northeastern side of the sea.[128]

Powerboat racing

"Low barometric pressure and greater water density make the Salton Sea the fastest body of water in the world for speedboat racing," according to an article in the January–February 1950 issue of National Motorist magazine.[129] (This statement, however, erroneously conflates low barometric pressure with low altitude, when in fact the opposite is true, and the extremely low altitude of the region provides higher barometric pressure, beneficial for internal combustion engines) "The low altitude was thought to be ideal for carburetion and there was talk that this was the 'fastest body of water in the world.'"[129] Beginning in the late 1920s, these properties have made the Salton Sea attractive as a venue for such races.[129][130]

Although these natural advantages were at first attacked as unfair by other courses, by the mid 1930s the Salton Sea racing organization was backed by the National Power Boat Association and attracting some of the best boats and drivers in the US.[129] Races were held at Desert Beach annually between 1941 and 1951 and subsequently at other beaches, ultimately on the west side of the Sea.[129]

From 1961 through 1965, the Sea hosted the Salton City 500, a marathon endurance race which attracted drivers as notable as Mickey Thompson and astronaut Gordon Cooper.[131][132][133]

After a lengthy hiatus, in 2008 racing returned when new world records were set by a sprint boat at the Salton Sea Speed Week.[130]

In popular culture

An abandoned boat stuck in the ground, close to the west coast marina of the Salton Sea

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Current Information on the Salton Sea". Pacific Institute. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  2. ^ Black, Kent (March 4, 2020). "Bombay Beach Riding Resurgence Wave With Literary Week Set". Palm Springs Life. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  3. ^ Alles, DL (August 6, 2007). "Geology of the Salton Trough" (PDF). Biology Department. Western Washington University. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
  4. ^ a b c Singer, Eugene. "Ancient Lake Cahuilla". Excerpted from Geology of the Imperial Valley, a monograph by Eugene Singer. Archived from the original on June 1, 2009. Retrieved July 10, 2009.
  5. ^ Aschmann, Homer (January 1, 1959). "The Evolution of a Wild Landscape and Its Persistence in Southern California". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 49 (3): 34–56. JSTOR 2561246.
  6. ^ Patten, Michael A.; McCaskie, Guy; Unitt, Philip (2003). Birds of the Salton Sea: Status, Biogeography, and Ecology. University of California Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780520235939.
  7. ^ Schaefer, Jerry. "Prehistoric Native American Responses to Ancient Lake Cahuilla". California Department of Fish and Wildlife. Archived from the original on December 2, 2022. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  8. ^ Carpelan, Lars H. (c. 1954). "History of the Salton Sea". Fish Bulletin. California Department of Fish and Wildlife (113). Archived from the original on December 11, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  9. ^ a b Laflin, P. (1995). "Chapters 1–4". The Salton Sea: California's overlooked treasure. The Periscope. Indio, California: Coachella Valley Historical Society. Archived from the original on July 3, 2021.
  10. ^ a b c Cory, H. T. (1913). "Irrigation and River Control, Colorado River". Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 76: 1287. Retrieved September 25, 2012.
  11. ^ a b Clarence Everett Tait (1908). Irrigation in Imperial Valley, California: its problems and possibilities. Washington Government Printing Office. pp. 13, 51, 52. ISBN 978-1-113-10178-5. Retrieved August 26, 2010. pilot knob imperial canal intake.
  12. ^ Newell, F. H., ed. (1906). "Geological Survey 1904-1905". Annual Report of the Reclamation Service. United States Bureau of Reclamation. 4. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  13. ^ Detailed maps, and a film of the breach (and subsequent redamming) are in Metzler, Chris and Springer, Jeff (directors) (2004). Plagues & Pleasures on the Salton Sea (Documentary). Tilapia Film.
  14. ^ Laflin, P. (1995). "Chapters 5–6". The Salton Sea: California's overlooked treasure. Indio, California: Coachella Valley Historical Society. Retrieved February 11, 2024. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  15. ^ Cory, Harry Thomas; Blake, William Phipps (1915). The Imperial Valley and the Salton Sink. San Francisco: John J. Newbegin. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  16. ^ a b c James, Ian; Roth, Sammy (2017). "Salton Sea: Two paths for long-term fixes at California's shrinking sea". The Desert Sun. Retrieved February 8, 2021.
  17. ^ Kennan, G (1917). The Salton Sea: An Account of Harriman's Fight With The Colorado River. New York: The Macmillan Company. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
  18. ^ Larkin, EL (1907). "A Thousand Men Against A River: The Engineering Victory Over The Colorado River And The Salton Sea". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XIII: 8606–10. Retrieved July 10, 2009.
  19. ^ Martin, Frank G. (May 1906). "The New Inland Sea In California". Appleton's Magazine. pp. 679–684. Retrieved November 26, 2022.
  20. ^ Sperry, Robert L. "When the Imperial Valley Fought for its Life". The Journal of San Diego History. San Diego Historical Society. Retrieved June 2, 2010.
  21. ^ a b c d e Borunda, Alejandra (December 28, 2018). "The West Coast's biggest bird oasis is dying. Will it be saved?". National Geographic. Archived from the original on January 11, 2019. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  22. ^ a b c Goodyear, Dana (May 4, 2015). "The dying sea: what will California sacrifice to survive the drought?". Letter from the Imperial Valley. The New Yorker. Vol. 91, no. 11. pp. 22–27. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  23. ^ Jaspers, Bret (March 6, 2018). "The Colorado River's First Dam Transformed The Desert Southwest". KPBS Public Media. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
  24. ^ Streitfeld, David (July 1, 2007). "Salton City: A land of dreams and dead fish". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
  25. ^ a b Morton, Ella (February 4, 2014). "Salton Sea: From Relaxing Resort to Skeleton-Filled Wasteland". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved January 30, 2021.
  26. ^ a b c d e Fendt, Lindsay (January 13, 2020). "As the Salton Sea shrinks, it leaves behind a toxic reminder of the cost of making a desert bloom". Food and Environment Reporting Network. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  27. ^ a b c d e f Zelenko, Michael (June 6, 2018). "Dust Rising". The Verge. Retrieved October 15, 2020.
  28. ^ a b c d e f Iovenko, Chris (November 9, 2015). "California's Largest Lake Is Now a Public-Health Threat". The Atlantic. Retrieved March 8, 2021.
  29. ^ a b c Spagat, Elliot (June 3, 2015). "Salton Sea threatened by urban water transfer". Southern California Public Radio. Associated Press. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  30. ^ a b c d Runyon, Luke (March 21, 2019). "How A Dying Lake In California Factors Into The Colorado River's Future". KPBS Public Media. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  31. ^ Raftery, Miriam (September 8, 2015). "Hurricane Kathleen Anniversary: A Look Back at the Worst Storm Ever to Hit Our Region". East County Magazine. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  32. ^ a b c d Simon, Matt (September 14, 2012). "The Salton Sea: Death and Politics in the Great American Water Wars". Wired. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
  33. ^ "Salton Sea rescue to be named for Sonny Bono". CNN. January 16, 1998. Archived from the original on January 16, 2000. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  34. ^ a b US Bureau of Reclamation 1999
  35. ^ Salton Sea Authority 2000
  36. ^ a b c d Roth, Sammy; James, Ian (2017). "Salton Sea: California far from solutions as Salton Sea crisis looms". The Desert Sun. Retrieved February 7, 2021.
  37. ^ McClurg, Sue (2006–2007). "Controlling The Salt: Crafting a Restoration Plan for the Salton Sea" (PDF). River Report. Vol. Winter. Water Education Foundation. pp. 1, 4.
  38. ^ Salton Sea Authority 2006
  39. ^ Ferro, James (August 9, 2005). Salton Sea: A Shifting Seascape of Identity and Policies (PDF) (Thesis). University of Southern California. p. 27 – via University of Vermont.
  40. ^ U.S. Bureau of Reclamation 2007
  41. ^ California Legislative Analyst's Office 2008
  42. ^ a b Roth, Sammy (June 9, 2017). "Salton Sea: A history of broken promises". The Desert Sun. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  43. ^ Wilson, Janet (January 31, 2021). "Imperial Valley water champion Kevin Kelley, who fought to save the Salton Sea, dies at 61". The Desert Sun. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
  44. ^ Singh, Maanvi (July 24, 2021). "'The air is toxic': how an idyllic California lake became a nightmare". The Guardian. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  45. ^ Rodriguez, Olivia; Sinclair, Ryan (April 25, 2020). "Valley Voice: Salton Sea communities needed relief long before coronavirus". The Desert Sun. Retrieved October 15, 2020.
  46. ^ Biddle, T.; Chakraborty, R.; Li, Q.; Maltz, M.; Gerrard, J.; Lo, D. (April 22, 2022). "The drying Salton Sea and asthma: A perspective on a "natural" disaster". California Agriculture. 76 (1): 27–36. doi:10.3733/ca.2022a0003. ISSN 0008-0845. S2CID 248348750.
  47. ^ Pittalwala, Iqbal (May 24, 2019). "Dust to Dust: How the Salton Sea's toxic dust is poisoning the community". UC Riverside Magazine. Retrieved February 22, 2021 – via Medium.
  48. ^ James, Ian (2017). "Salton Sea: Dusty air and the asthma crisis at the Salton Sea". The Desert Sun. Retrieved February 8, 2021.
  49. ^ "House Appropriations Subcommittee Issues Testimony From Riverside County Flood Control and Water Conservation District General Manager Uhley". InsuranceNewsNet. March 11, 2021. Retrieved March 12, 2021. Exposed seabed's and frequent dust storms have caused significant air quality issues adding to the worsening health problems in one of California's poorest regions, where Latinos make up the majority of the population and many are farmworkers and essential workers.
  50. ^ a b Anderson, Erik (March 1, 2021). "State Water Project Takes Aim At Restoring Salton Sea, Alleviating Health Risks". KPBS Public Media. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
  51. ^ a b c d Cohen, Michael J. (September 2014). Hazard's Toll: The Costs of Inaction at the Salton Sea (PDF). Executive Summary (Report). Oakland: Pacific Institute. ISBN 9781893790575.
  52. ^ a b Olalde, Mark (December 21, 2020). "Will California finally fulfill its promise to fix the Salton Sea?". High Country News. The Desert Sun, USA Today Network. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
  53. ^ Von Quednow, Cindy (September 10, 2012). "Foul odor reported in Simi Valley may have originated in Salton Sea". Ventura County Star. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  54. ^ a b James, Ian (November 7, 2017). "California commits to timetable for Salton Sea projects". Ventura County Star. The Desert Sun, USA Today Network. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  55. ^ a b Perry, Tony (November 21, 2014) "'Looming environmental crisis' at Salton Sea prompts plea for help" Los Angeles Times
  56. ^ Perry, Tony (September 3, 2014) "'Salton Sea inaction could cause 'catastrophic change,' report says" Los Angeles Times
  57. ^ a b Than, Ker (February 18, 2014). "Can California Farmers Save Water and the Dying Salton Sea?". National Geographic News. Archived from the original on March 2, 2014. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  58. ^ a b James, Ian (March 16, 2017). "California has a new $383 million plan for the shrinking Salton Sea". The Desert Sun. Archived from the original on June 17, 2017. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  59. ^ Dooley, Emily C. (April 9, 2021). "Salton Sea Dust, Air Quality to Get Closer Look in California". Bloomberg Law News. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  60. ^ Congressional Research Service 2020
  61. ^ "SPL-2019-00951-KJD Salton Sea Management Program 10-Year Plan Projects" (Press release). US Army Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District. March 17, 2021. Retrieved June 22, 2022.
  62. ^ a b Metz, Sam (January 8, 2020). "Newsom wants an extra $220 million for Salton Sea plan in upcoming California state budget". The Desert Sun. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  63. ^ Testimony of Wade Crowfoot, California Secretary for Natural Resources House Natural Resources Committee Subcommittee on Water, Oceans and Wildlife (PDF) (Report). California Natural Resources Agency. September 24, 2020. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  64. ^ Roth, Sammy (December 6, 2015). "At Salton Sea, political pressure finally spurs progress". The Desert Sun. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  65. ^ Rosentrater, Phil (April 20, 2018). "First state-funded project completed at the Salton Sea". Salton Sea Authority (Press release). Association of California Water Agencies. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  66. ^ Anderson, Erik (March 14, 2019). "Salton Sea Management Effort Lags As Water Continues To Recede". KPBS Public Media. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  67. ^ a b Olalde, Mark (February 26, 2020). "California Natural Resources Agency lays out aggressive Salton Sea mitigation goals". The Desert Sun.
  68. ^ Olalde, Mark (January 13, 2021). "Salton Sea habitat project breaks ground near New River delta". The Desert Sun. Retrieved February 7, 2021.
  69. ^ Fountain, Henry; Lampcov, Mette (February 25, 2023). "The Salton Sea, an Accident of History, Faces a New Water Crisis". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 5, 2023.
  70. ^ Ronayne, Kathleen (November 29, 2022). "Drying California lake to get $250M in US drought funding". AP News. Retrieved November 29, 2022.
  71. ^ Miller, Saige (February 11, 2024). "Like Utah, California has had pipeline dreams to save its drying Salton Sea". Deseret News and KUER. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
  72. ^ Deegan, Joe (February 26, 2004). "Inventor Tackles Salton Sea Disaster". San Diego Reader. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
  73. ^ Metz, Sam (April 16, 2018). "10 questions about the 11 proposals to save the Salton Sea". The Desert Sun. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  74. ^ Levers, L.; Story, S.; Schwabe, K. (June 9, 2020). "Boons or boondoggles: An assessment of the Salton Sea water importation options". California Agriculture. 74 (2): 73–79. doi:10.3733/ca.2020a0009. ISSN 0008-0845.
  75. ^ Parker, Chuck; Nunez, Feliz (July 7, 2020). "Valley Voice: Importing water to save the Salton Sea can work. Let's prove and do it now". The Desert Sun. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  76. ^ James, Ian (October 5, 2022). "As Salton Sea faces ecological collapse, a plan to save it with ocean water is rejected". Los Angeles Times.
  77. ^ a b Montazar, Ali (October 5, 2013). "Salton Sea and Salinity". Cooperative Extension: Imperial County. University of California: Agriculture and Natural Resources. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
  78. ^ Barnum, Douglas A.; Bradley, Timothy; Cohen, Michael; Wilcox, Bruce; Yanega, Gregor (2017). State of the Salton Sea—A science and monitoring meeting of scientists for the Salton Sea (Report). United States Geological Survey. Open-File Report 2017–1005.
  79. ^ Descloitres, Jacques (October 23, 2003). "Algal bloom in the Salton Sea, California". Visible Earth. NASA. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
  80. ^ a b Purper, Benjamin (February 8, 2019). "Massive Bird Die-Off At Salton Sea Raises Alarms About A Coming Environmental Crisis". KVCR News. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  81. ^ a b "Salton Sea, History". California Department of Water Resources. April 29, 2010. Archived from the original on January 2, 2018. Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  82. ^ "Appendix Q. Baseline Biology Report". Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan Proposed Land Use Plan Amendment and Final Environmental Impact Statement (PDF). U.S. Bureau of Land Management. 2015.
  83. ^ Parker, Stephanie (October 9, 2019). "How the Salton Sea Became an Eco Wasteland". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
  84. ^ Cohen, Michael (September 13, 2018). "Salton Sea +20". Pacific Institute. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
  85. ^ Marcum, Diana (August 12, 1999). "7.6 Million Fish Die in a Day at Salton Sea". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  86. ^ Riedel, R.; B. A. Costa-Pierce (2002). "Review of the Fisheries of the Salton Sea, California, USA: Past, Present, and Future". Reviews in Fisheries Science. 10 (2): 77–112. doi:10.1080/20026491051686. S2CID 214614676.
  87. ^ a b Lorenzi, V.; D. Schlenk (2014). "Impacts of combined salinity and temperature extremes on different strains and species of Tilapia inhabiting the watershed of the Salton Sea". North American Journal of Aquaculture. 76 (3): 211–221. doi:10.1080/15222055.2014.893471.
  88. ^ U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (2008). "Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge: Wildlife List" (PDF).
  89. ^ Bradley, T.; Ajami, H.; Porter, W. (April 22, 2022). "Ecological transitions at the Salton Sea: Past, present and future". California Agriculture. 76 (1): 8–15. doi:10.3733/ca.2022a0004. ISSN 0008-0845. S2CID 248363086.
  90. ^ "Salton Sea". OEHHA. March 18, 2009. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
  91. ^ Vartan, Starre (August 6, 2018). "The Warning Lights Are Flashing for California's Once-Glorious Salton Sea". NRDC. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
  92. ^ Morrison, Patt (September 18, 2014). "A persuasive case for saving the Salton Sea, California's biggest lake". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
  93. ^ James, Ian (2017). "Salton Sea: As the Salton Sea deteriorates, bird populations are crashing". The Desert Sun. Retrieved February 8, 2021.
  94. ^ "Yellow-footed Gull". Audubon Field Guide. Retrieved November 10, 2023.
  95. ^ "U.S. Potential Natural Vegetation, Original Kuchler Types, v2.0 (Spatially Adjusted to Correct Geometric Distortions)". Data Basin. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
  96. ^ "USGS 10254005 Salton Sea NR Westmorland CA". waterdata.usgs.gov.
  97. ^ U.S. Bureau of Reclamation 2007, p. 1-1, Chapter 1
  98. ^ Rañoa, Raoul (October 21, 2014). "Drought, drawdowns and death of the Salton Sea". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  99. ^ Wilson, Janet; James, Ian (March 2, 2019). "Breaking impasse, feds will include Salton Sea in seven-state drought plan, IID says". The Desert Sun. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  100. ^ San Diego County Water Authority (2014). "Quantification Settlement Agreement". San Diego County Water Authority. Retrieved October 14, 2014.
  101. ^ "Salton Sea Ownership" (PDF). Salton Sea Authority. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 30, 2007. Retrieved March 24, 2021. Sources: Ownership boundaries are approximate. California Spatial Information Library. Government Ownership GIS data set. 1/1/1997 – U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. GIS dataset of NWR holdings. September 2003 – Imperial Irrigation District. Map of Salton Sea Property Ownership. March 1998
  102. ^ California Legislative Analyst's Office 2018
  103. ^ "USDA Interactive Plant Hardiness Map". United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on July 4, 2019. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
  104. ^ Carpelan, Lars H. (October 1958). "The Salton Sea. Physical and Chemical Characteristics1". Limnology and Oceanography. 3 (4): 373–386. Bibcode:1958LimOc...3..373C. doi:10.4319/lo.1958.3.4.0373.
  105. ^ "PRISM Climate Group, Oregon State University". prism.oregonstate.edu. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  106. ^ Brothers, Daniel; Kilb, Debi; Luttrell, Karen; Driscoll, Neal; Kent, Graham (July 2011). "Loading of the San Andreas fault by flood-induced rupture of faults beneath the Salton Sea". Nature Geoscience. 4 (7): 486–492. Bibcode:2011NatGe...4..486B. doi:10.1038/ngeo1184.
  107. ^ Ross, JE (June 26, 2011). "Flooding of Ancient Salton Sea Linked to San Andreas Earthquakes". Scripps Institution of Oceanography. University of California at San Diego. Archived from the original on December 7, 2022.
  108. ^ Tingle, A. "Flood Maps". Firetree.net. Flood. Archived from the original on October 1, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
  109. ^ Wardlaw, GD; Valentine DL (January 2005). "Evidence for salt diffusion from sediments contributing to increasing salinity in the Salton Sea, California" (PDF). Hydrobiologia. 533 (1–3): 77–85. doi:10.1007/s10750-004-2395-8. S2CID 20454442. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 16, 2007. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
  110. ^ "Test Sites Catalog: Salton Sea". EROS CalVal Center of Excellence. US Geological Survey. Retrieved July 18, 2023.
  111. ^ Lynch, DK; Hudnut, KW (2008). "The Wister Mud Pot Lineament: Southeastward Extension or Abandoned Strand of the San Andreas Fault?" (PDF). Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 98 (4): 1720–29. Bibcode:2008BuSSA..98.1720L. doi:10.1785/0120070252.
  112. ^ Reyes-Velarde, Alejandra; Lin II, Rong-Gong (November 1, 2018). "A San Andreas fault mystery: The 'slow-moving disaster' in an area where the Big One is feared". Los Angeles Times.
  113. ^ Cart, Julie (February 25, 2021). "Will California's desert be transformed into Lithium Valley?". CalMatters. Retrieved February 26, 2021.
  114. ^ Roth, Sammy (October 14, 2019). "Lithium will fuel the clean energy boom. This company may have a breakthrough". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
  115. ^ Baker, David R. (November 19, 2020). "California Wants Its Imperial Valley to Be 'Lithium Valley'". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved November 19, 2020.
  116. ^ Fernández, Caleb J. (August 31, 2021). "Lithium fuels hope for Salton Sea". KYMA. Associated Press. Retrieved September 4, 2021.
  117. ^ Alistair MacDonald and Jim Carlton. (February 8, 2022). "Where Is There More Lithium to Power Cars and Phones? Beneath a California Lake.". Wall Street Journal Retrieved February 9, 2022.
  118. ^ Ferry, Tim (November 29, 2023). "'Once in a generation' | US confirms huge lithium deposits in California's Salton Sea". Recharge | Latest renewable energy news.
  119. ^ Characterizing the Geothermal Lithium Resource at the Salton Sea. . 2023-11-22. LBNL Report. 350. P. Dobson, Araya, N., Brounce, M., Busse, M.M., Camarillo, M.K., English, L., Humphreys, J., Kalderon-Asael, B., Mckibben, M.A., Millstein, D., Nakata, N., O'sullivan, J., Planavsky, N., Popineau, J., Renaud, T., Riffault, J., Slattery, M., Sonnenthal, E., Spycher, N., Stokes-Draut, J., Stringfellow, W.T., White, M.C.A. . https://escholarship.org/uc/item/4x8868mf .
  120. ^ Scheyder, Ernest (October 5, 2022). "U.S. steps away from flagship lithium project with Buffett's Berkshire". Reuters. Retrieved October 6, 2022.
  121. ^ "BRAC Bases | California | Former Salton Sea Test Base". Department of the Navy. Retrieved May 20, 2023.
  122. ^ "2-1". Salton Sea Test Base Site Inspection Report (Report). July 31, 1995. Archived from the original on September 24, 2017 – via California Department of Fish and Wildlife.
  123. ^ Jim Setmire, ed. (September 7–8, 2000). Eutrophic Conditions at the Salton Sea (PDF). Eutrophication Workshop. Salton Sea Authority, the Salton Sea Science Office, and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 29, 2016.
  124. ^ "Bombay Beach CA, Reinvented Destination for Art". DesertUSA Newsletter. 2020. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  125. ^ Miller, Betty (July 6, 2020). "Niland: In search of a miracle". The Desert Review. Retrieved October 15, 2020.
  126. ^ O'Dowd, Peter (February 22, 2023). "Future of the Salton Sea is tied to fate of imperiled Colorado River". WBUR. Retrieved February 24, 2023.
  127. ^ Carroll, Rory (April 23, 2018). "In a forgotten town by the Salton Sea, newcomers build a bohemian dream". The Guardian. Retrieved October 15, 2020.
  128. ^ "Salton Sea: Past and Present". DesertUSA. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
  129. ^ a b c d e Laflin, P. "SPEEDBOATS IN THE DESERT". The Salton Sea: California's overlooked treasure. The Periscope, Coachella Valley Historical Society. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
  130. ^ a b "Speed Record Set at 125 MPH on Salton Sea". NBC Los Angeles. KNBC. December 6, 2008. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
  131. ^ Whall, Hugh. "DESERT FULL OF MOTORBOATS". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
  132. ^ "SALTON SEA MONSTERS – Part 1". RIVER DAVES PLACE. September 16, 2020. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
  133. ^ "Salton City 500 Winner – Cream Puff". Borrego Sun. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
  134. ^ Harrington, Curtis (2013). Nice Guys Don't Work in Hollywood: The Adventures of an Aesthete in the Movie Business. Drag City. ISBN 978-1937112073.
  135. ^ "Curtis Harrington's On the Edge". June 18, 2013. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved April 6, 2014 – via YouTube.
  136. ^ Gow, Gordon (August 1971). "Up from the Underground: Curtis Harrington". Films and Filmmaking. 17 (11): 17.
  137. ^ "SOS: Plagues and Pleasures on the Salton Sea", Rotten Tomatoes, retrieved November 7, 2020
  138. ^ "Plagues and Pleasures on the Salton Sea (motion picture) Summary". The Paley Center for Media. 2005. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
  139. ^ "Engineering Disasters 18 DVD". Archived from the original on September 22, 2013. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
  140. ^ Barragan, Bianca (February 24, 2016). "The Useless Sea". Curbed LA. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
  141. ^ Brooker, Heather (September 22, 2020). "Salton Sea Documentary Sheds New Light on a Looming Environmental Disaster". NBC Los Angeles. Retrieved November 20, 2020.

References

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 11 February 2024, at 15:44
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.