To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Indian auxiliaries

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tlaxcalan auxiliaries assist the Spanish in Guatemala, as depicted in the 16th century Lienzo de Tlaxcala
Tlaxcalan auxiliaries assist the Spanish in Guatemala, as depicted in the 16th century Lienzo de Tlaxcala

Indian auxiliaries or indios auxiliares is the term used in old Spanish chronicles and historical texts for the indigenous peoples who were integrated into the armies of the Spanish conquistadors with the purpose of supporting their advance and combat operations during the Conquest of America. They acted as guides, translators, or porters and in this role were also called yanakuna, particularly within the old Inca Empire and Chile. The term was also used for formations composed of indigenous warriors or Indios amigos (friendly Indians), which they used for reconnaissance, combat, and as reserve in battle. The auxiliary Indians remained in use after the conquest, during some revolts, in border zones and permanent military areas, as in Chile in the Arauco War.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/1
    Views:
    400
  • ✪ Florida Frontiers TV - Episode 9 - Fort Mose

Transcription

>>THE FLORIDA HISTORICAL SOCIETY PRESENTS FLORIDA FRONTIERS IS MADE POSSIBLE IN PART BY, THE JESSIE BALL DUPONT FUND AND BY... >>FLORIDA'S SPACE COAST OFFICE OF TOURISM, REPRESENTING DESTINATIONS FROM TITUSVILLE TO COCOA BEACH, TO MELBOURNE BEACH. THE SPACE COAST HAS A DIVERSE 72-MILES OF BEACH INCLUDING SURF TOWNS AND SEA TURTLE NESTS. WE HAVE INSPIRING ATTRACTIONS INCLUDING THE KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, BREVARD MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND NATURAL SCIENCE, AND THE MERITT ISLAND NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE. MORE INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE AT WWW.VISITSPACECOAST.COM. >>FLORIDA HISTORY AND CULTURE FROM THE ICE AGE TO THE SPACE AGE IS ON DISPLAY AT THE BREVARD MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND NATURAL SCIENCE, LOCATED AT 2201 MICHIGAN AVENUE IN COCOA. THE MUSEUM HAS NATURE TRAILS THROUGH 20-ACRES OF THREE FLORIDA ECOSYSTEMS. THE PEOPLE OF WINDOVER EXHIBITION FEATURES INFORMATION ABOUT FLORIDA'S PREHISTORIC PAST AND ACTUAL ARTIFACTS USED BETWEEN 7,000 AND 8,000 YEARS AGO. MORE INFORMATION AT BREVARDMUSEUM.ORG. ♪THEME MUSIC♪ >>WELCOME TO FLORIDA FRONTIERS PRESENTED BY THE FLORIDA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. I'M BEN BROTEMARKLE. ST. AUGUSTINE WAS ESTABLISHED IN 1565 AS THE FIRST CONTINUOUSLY OCCUPIED EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT IN WHAT IS NOW THE UNITED STATES. JUST TWO MILES NORTH OF HERE, FORT MOSE WAS BUILT IN 1738 AS THE FIRST LEGALLY SANCTIONED FREE-BLACK COMMUNITY. >>THREE YEARS AGO I HAD NEVER HEARD OF IT AND I GREW UP, GRADUATED HIGH SCHOOL IN FLORIDA. AND I NEVER HEARD OF A FORT MOSE OR FREE-BLACK SETTLEMENT IN NORTH AMERICA. SO, IT'S HISTORY AND IT ACTUALLY WAS A FORGOTTEN HISTORY BECAUSE SOME OF THE LOCAL PEOPLE WHO GREW UP IN ST. AUGUSTINE USED TO TELL PEOPLE WHEN THEY CAME TO TOWN, "HEY, YOU KNOW WHAT? THERE WAS ACTUALLY A BLACK FORT HERE." AND NO-ONE BELIEVED THEM. WAS LIKE, "NAH." YOU KNOW, THINGS GET OLD AFTER A WHILE AND THAT'S JUST RUMORS OR THAT'S JUST STUFF YOU HEAR OLD PEOPLE SAY. BUT IT WAS ACTUALLY FOUND TO BE TRUE AND THAT'S WHY IT WAS IMPORTANT TO ESTABLISH THIS. BECAUSE NOW IT'S HISTORY. NOW IT'S NOT JUST HEARSAY. NOW IT'S NOT RUMORS. >>THIS STORY IS AN INCREDIBLY IMPORTANT STORY TO ALL OF AMERICAN HISTORY, AND IT'S SOMETHING THAT NO-ONE KNOWS ABOUT. IT'S VERY UNDERRECOGNIZED AND UNDERSTUDIED. AND YET, IT WAS THE FIRST FREE-BLACK SETTLEMENT IN NORTH AMERICA. AND PEOPLE FROM THE ENGLISH COLONIES TO THE NORTH WERE ESCAPING TO THE SOUTH AND MAKING THEIR WAY TO SPANISH FLORIDA WHERE THEY FOUND RELIGIOUS SANCTUARY AND FREEDOM. SO IT'S AN AMAZING STORY OF FREEDOM AND SELF-DETERMINATION. PEOPLE AGAINST ALL ODDS REALLY CREATING A LIFE FOR THEMSELVES THAT WAS AN AMAZING THING AND NOT WELL UNDERSTOOD BY HISTORY. >>FORT MOSE WAS ESTABLISHED BY DECREE BY GOVERNOR MONTIANO IN 1738. THE FREEDOM SEEKERS WHO WERE MAKING THEIR WAY DOWN FROM THE CAROLINAS ESCAPING SLAVERY, IF THEY MADE IT DOWN TO SPANISH FLORIDA THEY COULD LIVE FREE HERE AT THE SITE OF FORT MOSE. NOW, THE REQUIREMENTS TO LIVE FREE HERE AT MOSE WAS FOR THE ABLE-BODIED MEN TO JOIN THE MILITIA AND HELP DEFEND THE CITY FROM THE NORTH. AND ALL INHABITANTS OF MOSE EMBRACE THE RELIGION OF SPAIN, WHICH WAS THE CATHOLIC RELIGION. THAT WAS A SMALL PRICE TO PAY FOR YOUR FREEDOM. >>BUT ALSO THERE WERE NATIVE AMERICANS HERE, AS WELL. BECAUSE THE NAME, GRACIA REAL DE SANTA TERESA, BASICALLY MEANS IN THE NAME OF THE KING. THE PATRON'S SAINT, SANTA TERESA, AND MOSE. MOSE BEING A PLACE NAME. BECAUSE THIS LOCATION OUT HERE WAS KNOWN AS MOSE AND IT WAS SETTLED BY NATIVE AMERICANS FROM THE INTERIOR OF FLORIDA WHO HAD COME TO ST. AUGUSTINE AFTER THE SIEGE OF 1702. >>I FIRST LEARNED ABOUT FORT MOSE WHEN I WAS A STUDENT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN THE EARLY 1970'S. AND ONE OF MY PROFESSORS, CHARLES FAIRBANKS WAS VERY INTERESTED IN LEARNING MORE ABOUT FORT MOSE AND I WAS A STUDENT ON ONE OF THE DIGS HE BROUGHT OVER HERE TO ST. AUGUSTINE TO TRY AND LOCATE IT. >>DEAGAN BUILT ON THE WORK OF FAIRBANKS LEADING HER OWN EXCAVATIONS AT THE FORT MOSE SITE IN THE MID-1980'S. SHE WAS ABLE TO CONCLUSIVELY IDENTIFY THE LOCATION OF THE FORT ON AN ISLAND IN THE MIDDLE OF A WET MARSHY AREA. >>IT IS AN AREA THAT IS HARD TO WORK IN BECAUSE IT'S IN THE MIDDLE OF A MARSH AND MUCH OF THE MARSH AREA HAS BEEN DREDGED. SO YOU COULDN'T EXACTLY WALK THERE AND YOU COULDN'T REALLY TAKE A VEHICLE OF ANY KIND. BUT FOR SOME REASON, THE DREDGING IN THIS AREA MANAGED TO LEAVE THE SPOT WHERE THE FORT ITSELF IS INTACT, AND WE'VE OFTEN WONDERED IF THOSE 19TH CENTURY EARTH MOVERS HAD A SENSE THAT, THAT'S WHERE THE FORT WAS. BUT FOR ARCHEOLOGISTS IT WAS A MATTER OF PUTTING ON YOUR HIGH BOOTS AND SLOGGING THROUGH THE MUD AND WE HAD A LOT OF STUDENTS OUT THERE. WE ISSUED THEM ALL THEIR BLACK RUBBER BOOTS. AND ONCE YOU'RE ON THE ACTUAL SITE ITSELF, WHICH IS A SMALL MARSH ISLAND HERE BEHIND ME, IT IS HIGH GROUND. WE LEARNED THAT THE SITE ACTUALLY HAS BEEN OCCUPIED BY PEOPLE FOR HUNDREDS AND HUNDREDS OF YEARS. THERE WAS A PREHISTORIC TIMUCUA INDIAN SITE THERE. AND THEN VERY BRIEFLY, THERE WAS AN APALACHEE MISSION AFTER 1704, AND THEN FORT MOSE. AND SO, ONCE YOU'RE ON THE SITE, IT'S NORMAL EXCAVATION DIGGING THROUGH SHELL AND DIRT, AND TREE ROOTS. >>DEAGAN AND HER TEAM WERE ABLE TO PROVIDE CONTEXT FOR THE DISCOVERIES THAT THEY MADE ON THE SMALL MARSH ISLAND, NORTH OF ST. AUGUSTINE PROVING THAT THEY HAD UNCOVERED THE SITE OF FORT MOSE. >>A LOT OF THE ARCHEOLOGICAL WORK OF FORT MOSE ACTUALLY WAS ORIENTED TOWARD THE ARCHITECTURE. IT WAS NECESSARY FOR US TO SHOW THAT THIS WAS IN FACT FORT MOSE. AND SO, IT WAS REALLY EXCITING TO US WHEN WE WERE ABLE TO PLOT THE MOTE AND DIG, AND LOCATE WHERE THE MOTE ITSELF FOR THE FORT WAS IN SEVERAL PLACES. AND IT REALLY HAD TO BE FORT MOSE. THE ARTIFACTS WERE OF THE RIGHT TIME PERIOD. THERE WEREN'T A LOT OF ARTIFACTS, BUT THEY WERE ALL REALLY INTERESTING. SOME THINGS YOU WOULD ASSOCIATE WITH SOLDIERS; UNIFORM BUTTONS, LOTS OF RUM BOTTLES, TOBACCO PIPES. AND THINGS YOU'D ASSOCIATE WITH FAMILY LIFE; THIMBLES AND PINS, BUTTONS, POTTERY FOR COOKING; POTTERY FOR EATING, AND IT WAS JUST I THINK AN EXCITING PROCESS TO SUDDENLY REALIZE, YES, THIS IS THE SITE OF THE PLACE THAT THERE'S BEEN SO MUCH CONTROVERSY ABOUT. WHERE WAS IT? DID IT REALLY EXIST? WAS EVEN THE THINKING IN SOME WAYS. >>THE FORT MOSE HISTORICAL SOCIETY WAS CREATED IN 1996 AS A CITIZEN SUPPORT ORGANIZATION TO ASSIST THE FLORIDA PARK SERVICE TO DEVELOP THE SITE AND TELL THE STORY OF FORT MOSE THROUGH INTERACTIVE EXHIBITS. >>WELL AT THAT TIME THERE WAS NOTHING HERE. IT WAS JUST BUSHES AND TREES. AND THERE WAS AN OLD BEAT UP HOUSE ON THIS PROPERTY. BUT, WITH THE HELP OF ST. JOHNS COUNTY, THE CITY OF ST. AUGUSTINE, AND THE FLORIDA STATE PARK SERVICE, WHICH IS KIND OF A TRULY, A UNITED EFFORT MULTI-GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY DIRECTIVE. KIND OF PUT TOGETHER THIS MUSEUM AND PARK TO REALLY KEEP THE STORY OF FORT MOSE ALIVE. >>DARCIE MACMAHON FROM THE FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL SCIENCE HELPED ARCHEOLOGIST, KATHLEEN DEAGAN TO DEVELOP EXHIBITS FOR THE MUSEUM AT THE FORT MOSE HISTORIC STATE PARK VISITOR CENTER. >>THE THING ABOUT THE SETTLEMENT AT FORT MOSE WAS VERY EPHEMERAL. IT DIDN'T LAST FOR TOO LONG AND THE PEOPLE DIDN'T HAVE A LOT OF MATERIAL WEALTH. SO THERE ACTUALLY WASN'T MUCH IN THE WAY OF PHYSICAL STUFF. THERE WERE REALLY EVOCATIVE THINGS; SMALL, BITS AND PIECES OF DAILY LIFE, LIKE A THIMBLE AND SEWING PINS, AND SMOKING PIPES, WINE BOTTLES, GUN FLINTS, MUSKET BALLS. BUT REALLY JUST VERY MODEST AMOUNT OF MATERIAL CAME OUT OF THE SITE. >>PEOPLE OF AFRICAN DESCENT HAVE BEEN AN INTEGRAL PART OF FLORIDA HISTORY FROM EVEN BEFORE THE SPANISH COLONIAL PERIOD. ALL OF THE SPANISH SHIPS THAT CAME TO FLORIDA IN THE 16TH CENTURY HAD BLACK PEOPLE ON BOARD, AND NOT ALL OF THEM WERE SLAVES. >>PEOPLE OF AFRICAN DESCENT HAVE BEEN COMING TO FLORIDA AND PART OF FLORIDA SINCE IT WAS KNOWN TO EXIST IN EUROPE. PONCE DE LEON HAD FREE BLACK SAILORS AND SOLDIERS WITH HIM. THERE WERE PROBABLY BLACK SOLDIERS WITH, OR SAILORS AT LEAST, WITH PEDRO MENENDEZ. WE KNOW THAT IMMEDIATELY HE RESCUED A LOT OF THE CAPTIVES FROM SHIPWRECKS, PARTICULARLY IN SOUTH FLORIDA. AND AMONG THEM WERE A NUMBER OF AFRICAN HERITAGE OR MIXED BLOOD MULATTO PEOPLE. AND THEY HAD BEEN HERE EVEN BEFORE MENENDEZ AND IT'S SORT OF INTERESTING TO THINK ABOUT THE CAPTURE OF ALL OF THESE SHIPWRECK VICTIMS OVER THE YEARS BEFORE FLORIDA WAS SETTLED. BECAUSE NOT ALL OF THE FIRST SLAVES HERE WERE BLACK. MOST OF THEM, IN FACT WERE WHITE BUT THEY WERE SLAVES OF THE CALUSA AND THE TIMUCUA. >>AS DEPICTED IN THIS HISTORIC REENACTMENT, FORT MOSE WAS ESTABLISHED IN 1738 BY MANUEL DE MONTIANO, GOVERNOR OF SPANISH COLONIAL FLORIDA. >>I CHARGE THESE MEN AND WOMEN TO FAITHFULLY SERVE OUR LORD AND KING, AND OUR HOLY MOTHER CHURCH. I ALSO APPOINT CAPTAIN FRANCISCO MENENDEZ FOR HIS COURAGE, HONOR, AND FAITHFUL SERVICE TO BE THE LEADER OF THIS PUEBLO OF GRACIA REAL DE SANTA TERESA DE MOSE, AND CHARGE HIM UNDER THE RULE OF CROWN AND CHURCH WITH ITS CARE. I ADJURE HIM TO VALIANTLY DEFEND THIS PUEBLO OF GRACIA REAL DE SANTA TERESEA DE MOSE AGAINST THE ENEMIES OF THE WORD OF GOD, THE CROWN OF THE KING, AND THE LITTLE CHILDREN OF MOSE. VIVA SANTA TERESA DE MOSE! >>VIVA! >>VIVA EL RAY! >>VIVA! >>I WILL NOW ASK CAPTAIN MENENDEZ OF THE FORT MOSE MILITIA TO SAY A FEW WORDS. >>WE HERE AT THE FORT MOSE MILITIA ACCEPTS THE KING'S CHARGE AND WE PROMISE TO FIGHT TO THE LAST DROP OF OUR BLOOD TO PROTECT FORT MOSE AND ST. AUGUSTINE. >>WE WILL NOW ASK OUR CHAPLAIN TO SAY A FEW WORDS OF INVOCATION. >>[SPEAKING IN SPANISH] FORT MOSE BROTHERS AND SISTERS, WE WELCOME YOU TO FORT MOSE. PLEASE BOW YOUR HEADS AND PRAY FOR GOD'S BLESSING. [PRAYING IN SPANISH] >>AMEN. >>[PRAYING IN SPANISH] >>THE SPANISH GOVERNMENT IN FLORIDA ENCOURAGED SLAVES FROM THE BRITISH COLONIES TO THE NORTH, TO RUN AWAY. THE BRITISH SLAVES WERE GRANTED FREEDOM IN FLORIDA AS LONG AS THEY PROMISED TO DEFEND THE COLONY AGAINST ATTACK AND CONVERT IT TO CATHOLICISM. >>THEY WERE GETTING RUNAWAYS FROM THE CAROLINAS THAT CAME DOWN. AND THEN THE SPANISH GOVERNOR HERE IN ST. AUGUSTINE DECIDED, "OKAY WHAT ARE WE GONNA DO WITH ALL THESE RUNAWAYS?" AND THEY DECIDED LET'S PUT THEM IN ONE PLACE. ORIGINALLY THEY SAY THIS PLACE THAT THEY WERE STATIONED AT WAS AN OLD INDIAN VILLAGE. SO THEY PUT THEM HERE IN AN OLD INDIAN VILLAGE AND THEN SOMEONE HAD A GREAT IDEA, LET'S JUST PUT SOME WALLS UP AND IT WOULD ACTUALLY BE A FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE FOR ST. AUGUSTINE. SO, WHEN THEY ACTUALLY DECIDED IT WAS A GOOD IDEA TO ACTUALLY KEEP THE RUNAWAYS THAT WAS COMING DOWN, BECAUSE THE CAROLINAS WANTED THEM BACK. THEY WERE LIKE, "HEY, YOU KNOW WHAT? WE WANT OUR SLAVES BACK." AND THEY WAS LIKE, "NAH, WE THINK WE GONNA KEEP THEM BECAUSE WE CAN MAKE THEM--PUT THEM IN A FORT AND EVERYBODY'S HAPPY. WE GET USE OUT OF THEM." AND THEY WEREN'T TOO HAPPY WITH THE BRITISH AT THAT TIME ANYWAY, SO I THINK THEY WAS KIND OF HAPPY TO DO ANYTHING TO IRRITATE THEM. >>THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD ACTUALLY CAME SOUTH LONG BEFORE IT WENT NORTH UP INTO CANADA AND UP INTO NEW ENGLAND. THOSE FREEDOM-SEEKERS WHO CAME DOWN HERE TO ST. AUGUSTINE, TO SPANISH FLORIDA COULD LIVE FREE. AND THAT WAS ONE OF THE MAIN REASONS THEY WERE LOOKING TO COME SOUTH TO SPANISH FLORIDA. SO, IN A SENSE, FREEDOM WAS SOUTH LONG BEFORE IT WENT NORTH. >>WHEN THE PEOPLE ARRIVED HERE FROM THE PLANTATIONS IN THE CAROLINAS, THEY WERE OBLIGATED TO BECOME CATHOLIC IN ORDER TO GAIN FREEDOM, TO BE EMANCIPATED. IT WAS A RELIGIOUS SANCTUARY IS THE WAY THE SPANIARDS LOOKED AT IT. AND THERE DOESN'T SEEM TO BE ANY INDICATION AT ALL THAT THIS WAS PROBLEMATICAL OR DISTASTEFUL TO ANY OF THE PEOPLE OF MOSE. THEY HAD THEIR CHILDREN BAPTIZED IN THE CHURCH. THEIR RECORDS ARE THERE. THEY HAD GOD-PARENTS AND SO FROM EVERY OUTWARD APPEARANCE, THEY FULLY EMBRACED THE NOTION OF RELIGIOUS CONVERSION. NOW, WHETHER THEY THOUGHT THAT, WE DON'T KNOW. BUT WE DIDN'T FOR EXAMPLE, FIND ANY KIND OF MATERIAL CULTURE THAT WOULD SUGGEST ONE OF THE SYNCRETIC RELIGIONS THAT YOU SEE SO OFTEN IN LATIN AMERICA WHERE CATHOLICISM IS BLENDED WITH A NON-CHRISTIAN TRADITION. WE DIDN'T SEE THAT AT ALL AT MOSE, BUT THAT DOESN'T MEAN PEOPLE WEREN'T THINKING. >>THE BLACK RESIDENTS OF FORT MOSE WERE NOT A MONOLITHIC GROUP. THE POPULATION CONSISTED OF PEOPLE FROM MANY DIFFERENT AFRICAN TRIBES. >>AFRICA'S A HUGE PLACE AND THE PEOPLE WHO CAME TO FORT MOSE WERE FROM ALL OVER WEST AFRICA. IF YOU THINK ABOUT THE SIZE OF THAT CONTINENT COMPARED TO SAY, THE U.S., YOU'RE TALKING ABOUT A LOT OF CULTURAL DIVERSITY BECAUSE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC SPREAD. SO, I CAN ONLY IMAGINE WHAT IT WOULD HAVE BEEN LIKE TO HEAR THE LANGUAGES BEING SPOKEN, LEARN ABOUT THE DIFFERENT CULTURAL PRACTICES. AND YET, PEOPLE WERE HERE BLENDING AND BLENDING IN WITH THE SPANISH TRADITIONS AS WELL. SO IT'S DEFINITELY A VERY MUTLI-CULTURAL INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY. >>FANCISCO MENENDEZ ESCAPED SLAVERY TO BEGIN A NEW LIFE IN FLORIDA. HIS MILITARY SKILL AND BRAVERY DEFENDING ST. AUGUSTINE FROM ATTACK, LED TO HIS BEING NAMED HEAD OF THE MILITIA AT FORT MOSE. >>THE LEADER OF THE GROUP AT FORT MOSE AND THE HEAD OF THE MILITIA, FRANCISCO MENENDEZ, HAS TO BE ONE OF THE MOST INTERESTING PEOPLE AND COLORFUL PEOPLE IN FLORIDA HISTORY. MAYBE EVEN AMERICAN HISTORY. HE WAS A MANDINGO. HE CAME TO THE CAROLINAS PROBABLY AS A YOUTH AND ESCAPED SLAVERY. HE ALLIED WITH THE YAMASEE INDIANS IN THEIR FIGHT AGAINST THE ENGLISH, THE YAMASEE WAR. CAME WITH THE YAMASEE TO FLORIDA, WENT THROUGH SEVERAL SERIES OF BEING BETRAYED AND SOLD INTO SLAVERY AND ESCAPING. HE WAS A CORSAIR. HE WAS APPARENTLY A WELL EDUCATED PERSON. HE COULD WRITE, AND DID WRITE. AND WAS--HIS STORY IS REALLY REMARKABLE. YOU WOULDN'T REALLY BELIEVE IT IF YOU SAW IT IN A MOVIE. YOU WOULD THINK IT WAS INVENTED. >>BY 1738 THE BRITISH THREAT TO THE NORTH WITH THE FOUNDING OF GEORGIA HAD MOVED MUCH CLOSER TO ST. AUGUSTINE. SO, THE THREAT WAS NOW ALONG THE ST. MARY'S RIVER. SO THE GOVERNOR WAS IN THE PROCESS OF BEEFING UP THE DEFENSES OF ST. AUGUSTINE BY ESTABLISHING THE SERIES OF DEFENSIVE LINES. SO FORT MOSE WAS GOING TO BECOME THE NORTHERN MOST DEFENSIVE LINE. AS PART OF THE WAR OF JENKINS' EAR BETWEEN SPAIN AND GREAT BRITAIN, GENERAL JAMES OGLETHORPE LED AN INVADING FORCE INTO SPANISH FLORIDA. IN THE EARLY MORNING OF JUNE 26, 1740 THAT INVASION WAS REPELLED AT FORT MOSE. >>BY LATE 1739 THE GOVERNOR OF GEORGIA, GENERAL ORGLETHORPE IS PLANNING, AND HAS ALREADY BASICALLY STARTED APPROACHING ST. AUGUSTINE COMING FROM THE WEST AND CAPTURING THE VARIOUS SPANISH FORTS TO THE WEST HERE. AND THEY WERE ALSO BEGINNING TO MOVE DOWN FROM THE NORTH. BUT THEN THE BULK OF HIS TROOPS WERE BEGINNING TO COME BY SHIP AND THE TROOPS OF COURSE CONSISTED OF THE CAROLINA RANGERS, ORGLETHORPE'S OWN 42ND AND THEN THEIR NATIVE AMERICAN ALLIES, THE CREEK AND THE CHEROKEE. SO BY LATE 1739 THEY'RE BEGINNING TO APPROACH ST. AUGUSTINE. BY THE SUMMER, EARLY SUMMER OF 1740 THEY'RE ACTUALLY IN CLOSE PROXIMITY OF ST. AUGUSTINE. >>JUST BEFORE DAWN, THE BLACK MILITIA FROM FORT MOSE, TOGETHER WITH SPANISH SOLDIERS FROM ST. AUGUSTINE AND YAMASEE INDIAN AUXILIARIES LAUNCHED AN ATTACK AGAINST THE BRITISH, SCOTTISH, AND NATIVE AMERICAN FORCES UNDER GENERAL OGLETHORPE. WHAT BECAME KNOWN AS THE BLOODY BATTLE OF FORT MOSE, SUCCESSFULLY ENDED OGLETHORPE'S SIEGE OF ST. AUGUSTINE AND RETURNED CONTROL OF FLORIDA TO THE SPANISH. >>THE FORT ITSELF, IT WAS DESTROYED DURING THE SIEGE OF 1740. AND IT WASN'T UNTIL 12 YEARS LATER THAT THE SECOND MOSE WAS BASICALLY BUILT. AND THAT LASTED FOR MAYBE APPROXIMATELY ELEVEN YEARS UNTIL GREAT BRITAIN TOOK OVER FLORIDA FROM THE SPANISH IN 1763. AFTER SPAIN CAME BACK IN 1783 THERE REALLY WAS NO EFFORT TO REBUILD A FORTIFICATION OUT HERE. >>WHEN FLORIDA WAS SEEDED TO ENGLAND IN EXCHANGE FOR HAVANA AFTER THE END OF THE SEVEN YEARS WAR, ALL OF THE RESIDENTS OF ST. AUGUSTINE LEFT, RATHER THAN STAY AND LIVE WITH THE PROTESTANT ENGLISH. AND ALL OF THE PEOPLE OF MOSE WERE AMONG THEM. THERE WERE 86 PEOPLE AT MOSE THEN AND THEY ALL WENT TO CUBA, TO THE PROVINCE OF MATANZAS WHERE SOME OF THEM STAYED. MANY OF THEM LEFT AND MOVED BACK TO HAVANA. BUT THE RECORDS OF THEIR LIVES HAVE BEEN UNCOVERED IN CUBA, BY JANE LANDERS WHO IS LEARNING THEIR FATE AND IF THERE MIGHT EVEN BE SOME DESCENDANTS TODAY. >>METICULOUS RESEARCH OF HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS COMBINED WITH THE MATERIAL DISCOVERIES AT THE FORT MOSE ARCHEOLOGICAL SITE HAS PRODUCED A MUCH MORE COMPLETE PICTURE OF WHAT LIFE WAS LIKE FOR PEOPLE OF AFRICAN DESCENT IN 18TH CENTURY FLORIDA. >>THERE ARE TIMES WHEN I HAVE THOUGHT THE BEST THING THAT CAME OUT OF THE ARCHEOLOGY WAS THE HISTORY, BECAUSE AS PART OF THE PROJECT, REALLY BEFORE WE BEGIN, WE ALWAYS WANT TO HAVE A REAL HISTORIAN SEARCH THE RECORDS; DO ORIGINAL RESEARCH, SO WE JUST DON'T FIND OUT WHAT THEY REALLY ALREADY KNEW. AND AT THAT TIME IN REALLY THE 70'S AND EARLY 80'S, THE THINKING WAS THAT THERE'S DISENFRANCHISED PEOPLE; AFRICAN-AMERICANS, SLAVES, WOMEN, CHILDREN, POOR PEOPLE DIDN'T HAVE A HISTORY. AND THE IDEA WAS IT'S UP TO THE ARCHEOLOGISTS TO PROVIDE A HISTORY, WORDS FROM THE EARTH. BUT WHEN JANE LANDERS, WHO WAS A GRADUATE STUDENT WORKING WITH ME AT THE TIME WENT TO SPAIN TO SPECIFICALLY LOOK FOR INFORMATION ABOUT THE PEOPLE OF MOSE, WE WERE ALL ASTOUNDED AT THE AMOUNT OF DETAIL THERE WAS AND HOW MUCH INFORMATION THERE IS. SOMETIMES YOU JUST HAVE TO ASK THE RIGHT QUESTION TO FIND IT. SO THE ORIGINAL RESEARCH THAT CAME OUT OF THE PROJECT I THINK HAS BEEN A MAJOR CONTRIBUTION TO FLORIDA HISTORY. >>TODAY, VISITORS TO FORT MOSE HISTORIC STATE PARK CAN TAKE A BOARDWALK THROUGH FLORIDA'S NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND LOOK AT WHERE THE FORT ONCE STOOD. HISTORIC REENACTMENTS ARE PERFORMED FREQUENTLY AND MUSEUM EXHIBITS OFFER INSIGHTS INTO AN IMPORTANT ASPECT OF FLORIDA'S COLONIAL HISTORY. >>WELL THE STORY OF FORT MOSE IS REALLY IMPORTANT FOR ALL OF AMERICAN HISTORY, NOT JUST FLORIDA. IT PROVIDES I THINK A WIDE AUDIENCE, AN ALTERNATE VISION OF WHAT AFRICAN-AMERICAN HERITAGE IN AMERICA IS ALL ABOUT. IT WASN'T JUST A STORY OF SLAVERY AND OPPRESSION. IT WAS ALSO THIS VERY SUCCESSFUL STORY OF RESISTANCE AND FLIGHT AND REBUILDING A NEW PLACE, AND A NEW TIME. >>I WAS BORN AND RAISED IN ST. AUGUSTINE AND THERE WAS AN OLD WIVES TALE THAT KIND OF A GOSSIP THAT WE HAD A FORT TOO. AND I THINK ABOUT IT AND AT THAT TIME I THOUGHT, "WELL, THAT MAY BE SOMETHING THAT THE OLD-TIMERS ARE JUST TELLING US" SO MAYBE WE'VE GOT THE CASTILLO DOWNTOWN, BUT THEN WE HAD A FORT TOO. BUT WHEN I WENT TO COLLEGE IN TALLAHASSEE AT FLORIDA A&M, THE HISTORY PROFESSOR ASKED US, EACH ONE OF US WHERE WE WERE FROM. AND I TOLD HIM I WAS FROM ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA. AND HE SAID, "WELL HAVE YOU EVER HEARD OF FORT MOSE?" AND I SAID, "WELL, NO, SIR. I HAVEN'T." SO HE SAID, "WHEN YOU COME TO MY NEXT CLASS YOU NEED TO TELL ME SOMETHING ABOUT FORT MOSE." WHICH I DID JUST TO KEEP HIM OFF MY BACK, BUT BASICALLY WHEN I FOUND OUT ABOUT IT AND I CAME ACROSS THE REENACTMENT AND ALL OF WHAT WAS GOING ON DOWNTOWN I JUST REALIZED THERE WAS AN ABSENCE OF THE STORY OF FORT MOSE. SO, ME AND A COUPLE OF OTHER FOLKS DECIDED THAT WITH THE HELP OF THE PARK SERVICE, FLORIDA PARK SERVICE THAT WE WERE GONNA TELL THIS STORY AND JUST KIND OF CONTINUE TO TELL THE STORY AS LONG AS WE COULD, SO THAT SOME OF THE KIDS COME GROWING UP WOULD KNOW THE STORY LONG BEFORE THEY FOUND OUT IN COLLEGE. >>THE TOWN OF EATONVILLE, NORTH OF ORLANDO IS THE FIRST INCORPORATED AFRICAN-AMERICAN MUNICIPALITY IN THE UNITED STATES, BUT FORT MOSE, NORTH OF ST. AUGUSTINE WAS THE FIRST LEGALLY SANCTIONED FREE-BLACK COMMUNITY IN AMERICA. YOU'VE BEEN WATCHING FLORIDA FRONTIERS PRESENTED BY THE FLORIDA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. VISIT US ON THE WEB AT MYFLORIDAHISTORY.ORG. THANKS FOR JOINING US, I'M BEN BROTEMARKLE. >>THE FLORIDA HISTORICAL SOCIETY PRESENTS FLORIDA FRONTIERS IS MADE POSSIBLE IN PART BY THE JESSIE BALL DUPONT FUND AND BY... >>FLORIDA'S SPACE COAST OFFICE OF TOURISM, REPRESENTING DESTINATIONS FROM TITUSVILLE TO COCOA BEACH, TO MELBOURNE BEACH. THE SPACE COAST HAS A DIVERSE 72-MILES OF BEACH INCLUDING SURF TOWNS AND SEA TURTLE NESTS. WE HAVE INSPIRING ATTRACTIONS INCLUDING THE KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, BREVARD MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND NATURAL SCIENCE, AND THE MERITT ISLAND NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE. MORE INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE AT WWW.VISITSPACECOAST.COM. >>FLORIDA HISTORY AND CULTURE FROM THE ICE AGE TO THE SPACE AGE IS ON DISPLAY AT THE BREVARD MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND NATURAL SCIENCE, LOCATED AT 2201 MICHIGAN AVENUE IN COCOA. THE MUSEUM HAS NATURE TRAILS THROUGH 20-ACRES OF THREE FLORIDA ECOSYSTEMS. THE PEOPLE OF WINDOVER EXHIBITION FEATURES INFORMATION ABOUT FLORIDA'S PREHISTORIC PAST AND ACTUAL ARTIFACTS USED BETWEEN 7,000 AND 8,000 YEARS AGO. MORE INFORMATION AT BREVARDMUSEUM.ORG.

Contents

History

The formations of auxiliary Indians arose commonly from alliances established by the Spaniards, exploiting ethnic and tribal antagonisms that they found during their occupation of the territory they were attempting to conquer. Hernán Cortés was one of the first captains who was known to strengthen his columns with these natives. Commonly after the conquest these auxiliary Indians were divided among the settlers of the territories already conquered. They often constituted the most numerous group of the conquerors' followers:

Fall of Tenochtitlan

During Hernán Cortés' campaign against the Aztecs from 1519 to 1521, he supplemented his meagre force of Spanish soldiers (numbering some 1,300) with hundreds of thousands of native auxiliaries, from various states such as Tlaxcala. During the final siege of the Aztec capital city of Tenochtitlan Cortés, according to the account of one of his soldiers, Bernal Díaz del Castillo, had some 200,000 Tlaxcallan and other native auxiliaries, while the Aztec warriors drawn from the numerous cities surrounding Lake Xochimilco in the Valley of Mexico numbered more than 300,000.

Guatemala

The expedition of Pedro de Alvarado to Guatemala was composed of 480 Spaniards and thousands of auxiliary Indians from Tlaxcala, Cholula and other cities in central Mexico.[1] In Guatemala the Spanish routinely fielded indigenous allies; at first these were Nahua brought from the recently conquered Mexico, later they also included Maya. It is estimated that for every Spaniard on the field of battle, there were at least 10 native auxiliaries. Sometimes there were as many as 30 indigenous warriors for every Spaniard, and it was the participation of these Mesoamerican allies that was particularly decisive.[2] Some newly conquered Maya groups remained loyal to the Spanish once they had submitted to the conquest, such as the Tz'utujil and the K'iche' of Quetzaltenango, and provided them with warriors to assist further conquest.[3]

In 1524, fresh from his victory over the Tz'utujil, Pedro de Alvarado led his army against the non-Maya Xinca of the Guatemalan Pacific lowlands.[4] At this point Alvarado's force consisted of 250 Spanish infantry accompanied by 6,000 indigenous allies, mostly Kaqchikel and Cholutec.[5]

The Mam fortress of Zaculeu was attacked by Gonzalo de Alvarado y Contreras, brother of Pedro de Alvarado,[6] in 1525, with 40 Spanish cavalry and 80 Spanish infantry,[7] and some 2,000 Mexican and K'iche' allies.[8] When the Spanish besieged the Ixil city of Nebaj in 1530, their indigenous allies managed to scale the walls, penetrate the stronghold and set it on fire. Many defending Ixil warriors withdrew to fight the fire, which allowed the Spanish to storm the entrance and break the defences.[9]

Perú and Chile

Colonial Period after the Conquest

After the initial conquest, most of these allies were considered less necessary and, sometimes, a liability. At times they were needed for defense of the extended Spanish Empire. They were incorporated into the military forces of the Empire, forming their own units, organised along European models under their own names, such as Compañías de Indios Nobles ("Companies of Noble Indians"). The necessity of defence came from either European threats like the Caribbean buccaneers and pirates or American threats such as the Chichimeca, Apache or Comanche tribes or the protracted Arauco war. These units fought in the independence wars.[10][page needed]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Sharer and Traxler 2006, p. 763. Lovell 2005, p. 58. Matthew 2012, pp. 78-79.
  2. ^ Restall and Asselbergs 2007, p. 16.
  3. ^ Carmack 2001, pp. 39–40.
  4. ^ Letona Zuleta et al., p. 5.
  5. ^ Letona Zuleta et al., p. 6.
  6. ^ Gall 1967, p.39.
  7. ^ Lovell 2005, p. 61.
  8. ^ Carmack 2001, p. 39.
  9. ^ Lovell 2005, p. 65.
  10. ^ Martínez Laínez and Carlos Canales 2009.

References

Carmack, Robert M. (2001). Kik'aslemaal le K'iche'aab': Historia Social de los K'iche's (in Spanish). Guatemala City, Guatemala: Cholsamaj. ISBN 99922-56-19-2. OCLC 47220876.
Gall, Francis (July–December 1967). "Los Gonzalo de Alvarado, Conquistadores de Guatemala". Anales de la Sociedad de Geografía e Historia (in Spanish). Guatemala City, Guatemala: Sociedad de Geografía e Historia de Guatemala. XL. OCLC 72773975.
Letona Zuleta, José Vinicio; Carlos Camacho Nassar; Juan Antonio Fernández Gamarro. "Las tierras comunales xincas de Guatemala". In Carlos Camacho Nassar. Tierra, identidad y conflicto en Guatemala (in Spanish). Guatemala: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO); Misión de Verificación de las Naciones Unidas en Guatemala (MINUGUA); Dependencia Presidencial de Asistencia Legal y Resolución de Conflictos sobre la Tierra (CONTIERRA). ISBN 978-99922-66-84-7. OCLC 54679387.
Lovell, W. George (2005). Conquest and Survival in Colonial Guatemala: A Historical Geography of the Cuchumatán Highlands, 1500–1821 (3rd ed.). Montreal, Canada: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-2741-9. OCLC 58051691.
Martínez Laínez, Fernando; Carlos Canales (2009). Banderas Lejanas: La exploración, conquista, y defensa por España del territorio de los actuales Estados Unidos [Distant Flags: The exploration, conquest, and defence of the modern territory of the United States by Spain] (in Spanish). Madrid, Spain. ISBN 9788441421196. OCLC 428447626.
Matthew, Laura E. (2012). Memories of Conquest: Becoming Mexicano in Colonial Guatemala (hardback)|format= requires |url= (help). First Peoples. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-3537-1. OCLC 752286995.
Restall, Matthew; Florine Asselbergs (2007). Invading Guatemala: Spanish, Nahua, and Maya Accounts of the Conquest Wars. University Park, Pennsylvania, US: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 978-0-271-02758-6. OCLC 165478850.
Ruiz-Esquide Figueroa, Andrea (1993). Los indios amigos en la frontera araucana (PDF). Colección Sociedad y cultura (in Spanish). 4. Santiago, Chile: Dirección de Bibliotecas, Archivos y Museos: Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana. ISBN 956-244-013-3. OCLC 30918538.
Sharer, Robert J.; Loa P. Traxler (2006). The Ancient Maya (6th ed.). Stanford, California, US: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4817-9. OCLC 57577446.

Further reading

Matthew, Laura E.; Michel R. Oudijk, eds. (2007). Indian Conquistadors: Indigenous Allies in the Conquest of Mesoamerica. Norman: University of Oklahoma. ISBN 978-0806138541.
This page was last edited on 7 March 2019, at 04:37
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.