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Battle of Pavia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Battle of Pavia, fought on the morning of 24 February 1525, was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521–26.

An Imperial–Spanish army under the nominal command of Charles de Lannoy (and working in conjunction with the garrison of Pavia, commanded by Antonio de Leyva) attacked the French army under the personal command of Francis I of France in the great hunting preserve of Mirabello outside the city walls. In the four-hour battle, the French army was split and defeated in detail. The French suffered massive casualties, including many of the chief nobles of France. Francis himself was captured by Habsburg troops and imprisoned by Charles V and forced to sign the humiliating Treaty of Madrid, surrendering significant territory to his captor. The outcome of the battle cemented Habsburg ascendancy in Italy.

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this video was suggested and sponsored by our patron Dane McAfee you can support our channel via patreon YouTube membership or PayPal feudal fragmentation and lack of a centralized state turned Italy into a field of battle both for the countless local states and for foreign invaders Italy swallowed entire armies and Treasuries becoming the doom of many great kings and generals and nothing epitomized these centuries long all-out conflicts like the Italian Wars which pitted against each other the two greatest dynasties of Europe LaValle awara and Habsburgs the battle of Pavia was the climax of these Wars the Hundred Years War finally ended in 1453 leaving England with Calais as its sole possession on the continent the new French king louis xi fallow are used this period of relative international stability to fight disloyal vassals his main opponent the Duke of Burgundy Charles the bold was killed in action at the end of the Burgundian war in 1477 leaving his daughter Mary as the sole heiress of a vast fief both the French King Louie and the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick the 3rd Habsburg were eager to acquire these lands by marrying their sons to marry Frederick succeeded in this endeavor marrying his son Maximilian to marry in the subsequent war Louie was defeated by Maximilian the Treaty of Arras divided Burgundian lands between France and the empire via The Marriage of Louie's heir Charles with the daughter of Maximilian Margaret however Charles the eighth would renege on the marriage treaty in 1487 deciding to marry the heiress of the Duchy of Brittany and which sparked another conflict called the French Breton war although Charles won against a number of French Nobles and Maximilian and married Anne he was forced to sign the treaty of Solace in 1493 basically giving away the remainder of Burgundy to the Empire all this proved that the Valois and the Habsburgs were too ambitious to remain at peace for long Charles would look for other opportunities to add to his domain and in 1494 he would get one the Duke of Milan Ludovico Sforza asked him to invade Italy using his weak claim on the throne of Naples this invasion kick-started a six decade-long conflict called the Italian Wars we are planning to cover the Italian wars in the future but in short between 1494 and 1521 three conflicts were fought during which Spain and the Habsburgs took over Naples while France gained the Duchy of Milan in 1515 Francis the first became the King of France while in 1516 the heir of the Habsburgs Charles the first became the king of Spain the death of the Emperor Maximilian in 1519 made the Holy Roman throne vacant and both Francis the first and Charles the first worthy candidates getting that throne would have given either of them hegemony over Europe the electors voted for Charles and that meant that France was now surrounded by the Habsburg domain from all sides the dynastic rivalry multiplied by the personal animosity made a war inevitable Charles struck first in 1521 his troops restored Francesco Sforza to the throne of Milan in 1522 the local French troops were defeated as bacówka and forced to retreat Francis recruited a new army in 1523 but as charted baba rebelled against him he was delayed but Bart managed to escape into Habsburg territory the king was now forced to stay in Paris to prevent further political dissent and sent his favorite Devon of a in his stead in October of 1523 the French entered Italy with more than 25,000 troops however the experienced Spanish general Prospero Colonna outsmarted dip on Ave by indicating that he had more troops than he really did de Bonifay decided to go to his winter quarters and that gave time for the Habsburgs to gather around 30,000 troops fortunately for the French Colonna passed away in December and his replacements child illinois and baba reached the area too late to prevent the French retreat however Devon of a failed to pay his mercenaries in time so by the time he reached the French border in the spring of 1524 he had less than half of his troops meanwhile bought bonds 10,000 entered Provence in the summer and took all the major settlements safe for Marseille which was besieged in September the city stood defiant and the arrival of France's with most of his troops forced were born to retreats to Italy Frances had around 40,000 men he ordered them to enter Italy in three columns in order to cut off bullhorns troops yet the latter was too quick and managed to retreat to pavia linking up with the remainder of the Habsburg forces the French King was undeterred he ordered his troops to surround bin ESCO on the 24th thus threatening the line between Milan and pavia the citizens of Milan lost all hope and presented the French King with the keys to the city on the 25th the forces under llinois and Baba didn't know about this they moved in the night and carried out a maneuver in order to enter Milan without fighting the French when they entered the city it became clear that the fortifications were not strong enough to withstand an assault so the Spanish retreated to Lodi Frances moved his troops into the city a few hours later and gave his troops some rest a nine thousand strong Spanish garrison still remained in pavia and Francis ordered his army to besiege the city on the 28th the main force under the king remained to be north within Visconti Park four thousand under DeLong Shaw were placed to be West and four thousand commanded by more more nc were to the east of the city by the 31st French artillery reached the area and was divided into three batteries the northern eastern and western the bombardment of the city started immediately the French still needed to surround pavia from the south in order to take control of the river Ticino 6,000 troops moved there on the 2nd of November the commander of the garrison de leyva had a very unique problem he had more than enough food but lacked the funds to pay his mercenaries according to the sources the gold from the churches was used as a salary by the middle of November the French had finally managed to destroy a small section of the war both in the east and the west de leyva started to create defensive fortifications within the walls on the 21st the French assaulted the breaches with Francis himself leading the eastern Porsche this assault failed due to overwhelming fire from within the city the French lost almost a thousand men and the king ordered a retreat the siege continued yet constant rains made artillery ineffective Francis decided to continue the siege in the hopes that speaker sieged would run out of food or money he was forced to send six thousand men to the south in order to secure Genoa as the Spanish Navy was getting ready to disembark in the area in January of 1525 Spanish troops received almost 20,000 reinforcements and they now had around 30,000 near Lodi and 9,000 in Pavia against 30,000 French troops surrounding the city by the end of the month llinois I approached the walls of Visconti Park from the east he managed to sneak in a small cavalry detachment with orders and supplies both Habsburg forces were running out of funds so the showdown was getting close the noise plan was to sneak in from the northern portion of the wolf and attack castelo de Mirabella where Francis's headquarters presumably was at the same time part of the garrison was supposed to Sally out upon a signal on the 23rd of February has 2200 hours a group of spaniards started moving towards port a PEZ Corina in order to breach the outer wall of the park French cavalry under tissa law were patrolling the area and noticed them yet he ignored it thinking that they were retreating by midnight the engineers were in position and started destroying the wall they obviously were very loud but TLR sounded the alarm only at 4:00 in the morning a 3,000 strong French pipe were sent to the area and the de left the Ross and Tessa longs one thousand horsemen joined them a small artillery battery was also placed against the point of breach by five a.m. three thousand Spanish Akabusi asunder de Vasto entered the park through the breach and opened the nearby gate they were followed by light cavalry and cannons all concealed by the morning fog at 5:30 a.m. tear salons cavalry finally came into contact with their Spanish counterparts yet the fog didn't allow the lines to engage in fold meanwhile the Spanish arquebus ears entered the forests to the north of Mirabella the cannons weren't able to enter the forest and without any support they were captured by Diller Florence at the same time Francis sent a small cavalry detachment in order to learn what was going on these horsemen attacks the Spanish Cavalry's flank and that allowed tissa la to push the enemy back messengers were sent to the king with a claim that the spanish attempt to enter the park had been repelled the signal from the main spanish camp were sounded and then their cannons started shooting volleys against Muammar in sea who prepared his soldiers for a Sally from the eastern gates but the besieged moved out of the northern gate towards Mirabella cutting off the eastern portion of the French troops from the main battle at 6:30 a.m. de Vasco's troops emerged from the forest and took Mirabella yet Francis wasn't there as expected they tried to move to the south but cannon fire from the east cost them in the open and the Spaniards retreated back to the castle meanwhile more and more Spanish troops entered the park from the north an 8,000 strong Lance connects unit Metz Dilla forces 3000 Swiss pikemen and although the latter were outnumbered they managed to fight for hours another Spanish group of 8,000 footmen and 2,000 horsemen under Pescara entered the park and moved towards Mirabella at 7:20 a.m. yet by that time the French King was aware of the situation and ordered the northern French battery to shoot towards the forest these volleys killed upwards of a thousand Spaniards 2,000 enemy horsemen were right in front of Frances so he started forming up his 4,000 elite heavy cavalry vision down their charge dispersed the Spaniards immediately yet this was a mistake in mere minutes the French cavalry were surrounded by the 15,000 strong enemy from 3 sides and as the chandan were now blocking the line of sight of their own artillery no help was coming from that side Frances still had 4,000 Lance connects and 2,000 footmen in reserve they were sent forth to relieve the cavalry yet the Spanish had one more 8,000 strong group approaching and soon the French infantry were fighting for their lives in less than an hour the best french knights and footmen were killed while their king became a hostage Dilla Florence and more Morin C attempted to retreat to the south under the pressure but many of the soldiers drowned in the Ticino only the western portion of the French and the DeLong short managed to retreat in order the French lost around 15,000 killed or captured and most of their commanders ended up dead or captive while the Spanish lost less than 3000 in total the war was effectively over and France seemed lost yes the mother of Francis Louise of Savoy became Regent and quickly stabilized the situation gaining allies in Italy England and even the Ottoman Empire with new problems in Germany Italy and on the Ottoman front charles was eager to end the war with Francis in January of 1526 the peace of madrid was signed francis promised to marry the sister of charles Eleonora seed french burgundy to the empire and milan to shall jabo born however as soon as francis returns to Paris he reneged on the treaty with the blessing of the Pope a new treaty was signed in compre Francis was to pay reparations and relinquish all his claims to Italy this war was just a page in the rivalry between France and the Holy Roman Empire and more documentaries on their conflicts are on the way so make sure you are subscribed to our channel and have pressed the bell button we would like to express our gratitude to our patreon supporters and channel members who make the creation of our videos possible now you can also support us by buying our merchandise via the link in the description this is the kings and Generals channel and we will catch you on the next one

Contents

Prelude

The French, in possession of Lombardy at the start of the Italian War of 1521–26, had been forced to abandon it after their defeat at the Battle of Bicocca in 1522. Determined to regain it, Francis ordered an invasion of the region in late 1523, under the command of Guillaume Gouffier, Seigneur de Bonnivet; but Bonnivet was defeated by Imperial troops at the Battle of the Sesia and forced to withdraw to France.

Charles de Lannoy now launched an invasion of Provence under the command of Fernando d'Avalos, Marquess of Pescara, and Charles III, Duke of Bourbon (who had recently betrayed Francis and allied himself with the Emperor). While initially successful, the Imperial offensive lost valuable time during the Siege of Marseille and was forced to withdraw back to Italy by the arrival of Francis and the main French army at Avignon.

The French advance into Lombardy and the Pavia campaign of 1524–25. French movements are indicated in blue and Imperial movements in red.
The French advance into Lombardy and the Pavia campaign of 1524–25. French movements are indicated in blue and Imperial movements in red.

In mid-October 1524, Francis himself crossed the Alps and advanced on Milan at the head of an army numbering more than 40,000. Bourbon and Pescara, their troops not yet recovered from the campaign in Provence, were in no position to offer serious resistance.[3] The French army moved in several columns, brushing aside Imperial attempts to hold its advance, but failed to bring the main body of Imperial troops to battle. Nevertheless, Charles de Lannoy, who had concentrated some 16,000 men to resist the 33,000 French troops closing on Milan, decided that the city could not be defended and withdrew to Lodi on 26 October.[4] Having entered Milan and installed Louis II de la Trémoille as the governor, Francis (at the urging of Bonnivet and against the advice of his other senior commanders, who favored a more vigorous pursuit of the retreating Lannoy) advanced on Pavia, where Antonio de Leyva remained with a sizable Imperial garrison of about 9000.[5]

The main mass of French troops arrived at Pavia in the last days of October. By 2 November, Anne de Montmorency had crossed the Ticino River and invested the city from the south, completing its encirclement. Inside were about 9,000 men, mainly mercenaries whom Antonio de Leyva was able to pay only by melting the church plate.[6] A period of skirmishing and artillery bombardments followed, and several breaches had been made in the walls by mid-November. On 21 November, Francis attempted an assault on the city through two of the breaches, but was beaten back with heavy casualties; hampered by rainy weather and a lack of gunpowder, the French decided to wait for the defenders to starve.[7]

Battle of Pavia by Joachim Patinir
Battle of Pavia by Joachim Patinir

In early December, a Spanish force commanded by Ugo de Moncada landed near Genoa, intending to interfere in a conflict between pro-Valois and pro-Habsburg factions in the city. Francis dispatched a larger force under the Marquis of Saluzzo to intercept them. Confronted by the more numerous French and left without naval support by the arrival of a pro-Valois fleet commanded by Andrea Doria, the Spanish troops surrendered.[8] Francis then signed a secret agreement with Pope Clement VII, who pledged not to assist Charles in exchange for Francis's assistance with the conquest of Naples. Against the advice of his senior commanders, Francis detached a portion of his forces under the Duke of Albany and sent them south to aid the Pope.[9] Lannoy attempted to intercept the expedition near Fiorenzuola, but suffered heavy casualties and was forced to return to Lodi by the intervention of the infamous Black Bands of Giovanni de' Medici, Italian mercenaries which had just entered French service. Medici then returned to Pavia with a supply train of gunpowder and shot gathered by the Duke of Ferrara; but the French position was simultaneously weakened by the departure of nearly 5,000 Grisons Swiss mercenaries, who returned to their cantons in order to defend them against marauding landsknechts.[10]

In January 1525, Lannoy was reinforced by the arrival of Georg Frundsberg with 15,000 fresh landsknechts from Germany and renewed the offensive. Pescara captured the French outpost at Sant'Angelo Lomellina, cutting the lines of communication between Pavia and Milan, while a separate column of landsknechts advanced on Belgiojoso and, despite being briefly pushed back by a raid led by Medici and Bonnivet, occupied the town.[11] By 2 February, Lannoy was only a few miles from Pavia. Francis had encamped the majority of his forces in the great walled park of Mirabello outside the city walls, placing them between Leyva's garrison and the approaching relief army.[12] Skirmishing and sallies by the garrison continued through the month of February. Medici was seriously wounded and withdrew to Piacenza to recuperate, forcing Francis to recall much of the Milan garrison to offset the departure of the Black Band; but the fighting had little overall effect. On 21 February, the Imperial commanders, running low on supplies and mistakenly believing that the French forces were more numerous than their own, decided to launch an attack on Mirabello Castle in order to save face and demoralize the French sufficiently to ensure a safe withdrawal.[13]

Battle

The times given here are taken from Konstam's reconstruction of the battle.

Movements in the dark

The Battle of Pavía by Juan de la Corte.
The Battle of Pavía by Juan de la Corte.

On the evening of 23 February, Lannoy's imperial troops, who had been encamped outside the east wall of the park, began their march north along the walls. Although Konstam indicates that at the same time, the Imperial artillery began a bombardment of the French siege lines—which had become routine during the extended siege—in order to conceal Lannoy's movement[14], Juan de Oznaya - a soldier who participated in the battle and wrote about it in 1544 - indicates that at that moment, the Imperial troops set their tents on fire to mislead the French into believing that they were retreating[15]. Meanwhile, Imperial engineers quickly worked to create a breach in the park walls, at the Porta Pescarina near the village of San Genesio, through which the Imperial army could enter.[16] By 5:00 am, some 3,000 arquebusiers under the command of Alfonso d'Avalos had entered the park and were rapidly advancing on Mirabello Castle, where they believed the French headquarters to be; simultaneously, Imperial light cavalry spread out from the breach into the park, intending to intercept any French movements.[17]

Meanwhile, a detachment of French cavalry under Charles Tiercelin encountered the Imperial cavalry and began a series of skirmishes with them. A mass of Swiss pikemen under Robert de la Marck, Seigneur de la Flourance moved up to assist them, overrunning a battery of Spanish artillery that had been dragged into the park.[18] They missed De Vasto's arquebusiers—who had, by 6:30 am, emerged from the woods near the castle and swiftly overrun it—and blundered into 6,000 of Georg Frundsberg's landsknechts. By 7:00 am, a full-scale infantry battle had developed not far from the original breach.[19]

Francis attacks

Leather Box for the Pennant of Francis I at the Battle of Pavia[20] The Walters Art Museum.
Leather Box for the Pennant of Francis I at the Battle of Pavia[20] The Walters Art Museum.

A third mass of troops—the German and Spanish heavy cavalry under Lannoy himself, as well as d'Avalos's Spanish infantry—had meanwhile been moving through the woods to the west, closer to where Francis was encamped. The French did not realize the magnitude of the Imperial attack for some time; however, by about 7:20 am, d'Avalos's advance had been spotted by a battery of French artillery, which commenced firing on the Spanish lines. This alerted Francis, who launched a charge against Lannoy's outnumbered cavalry with the entire force of French gendarmes, scattering the Spanish by 7:40 am.[21]

Francis's precipitate advance, however, had not only masked the fire of the French artillery, but also pulled him away from the mass of French infantry, commanded by Richard de la Pole, and by Francois de Lorraine, who led the Black Band of renegade landsknecht pikemen (not to be confused with the Italian mercenary company of arquebusiers by the same name), which was 4,000 to 5,000 men strong. Pescara, left in command of the Spanish forces after Lannoy had followed the retreating cavalry, formed his men up at the edge of the woods and sent messengers to Bourbon, Frundsberg, and De Vasto requesting assistance.[22]

Frundsberg meanwhile mauled the heavily outnumbered Swiss infantry opposing him; Tiercelin and Flourance were unable to hold their troops together, and the French foot began to flee the field.

Endgame

Battle of Pavia by Juan de Orea.
Battle of Pavia by Juan de Orea.

By 8:00 am, a mass of Imperial pikemen and arquebusiers descended on the French cavalry from all sides. Lacking room to maneuver by the surrounding woods, the French gendarmes were surrounded and systematically killed. Richard de la Pole and Lorraine, advancing to assist Francis, were met by Frundsberg's arriving landsknechts; the French infantry was broken and routed, and de la Pole and Lorraine were both killed. In a particularly bitter contest between Imperial and renegade landsknechts, the Black Band was surrounded by Frundsberg's pikemen and exterminated where it stood. The French king fought on as his horse was killed from under him by Cesare Hercolani, an Italian Condottiere;[23][24] surrounded by Spanish arquebusiers, he was taken prisoner and escorted from the field.[25]

Meanwhile, Antonio de Leyva had sortied with the garrison, overrunning the 3,000 Swiss under Montmorency that had been manning the siege lines. The remnants of the Swiss–both Montmorency's and Flourance's—tried to flee across the river, suffering massive casualties as they did.[26] The French rearguard, under the Duke of Alençon, had taken no part in the battle; when the Duke realized what had occurred in the park, he quickly began to retreat towards Milan. By 9:00 am, the battle was over.

Francis' Capture

The exact nature of Francis's surrender—in particular, who exactly had taken him prisoner—is uncertain, with a variety of candidates ranging from Alonso Pita da Veiga, Juan de Urbieta and Diego Dávila[27] to Lannoy himself being put forward by various historians. The fact of the matter was that, as documented in the article for Alonso Pita da Veiga, at the time, no single individual was given credit for the capture of Francis I. The decree granting a coat of arms to Alonso Pita da Veiga for his deeds at the Battle of Pavia, was archived at the General Archive of Simanca (Archivo general de Simancas, legajo 388, rotulado de "Mercedes y Privilegios.’) and was issued by Emperor Charles V on 24 July 1529. In that decree, Charles V does not credit a single individual but, rather, a group of individuals that includes da Veiga: " ..... and in the same battle, you (Alonso Pita da Veiga) accomplished so much that you reached the person of said King (Francis I of France) and captured him, jointly with the other persons that captured him.” (" .... y en la misma batalla ficistes tanto que allegastes á la misma persona del dicho Rey, y fuistes en prenderle, juntamente con las otras personas que le prendieron ....")

Oznaya indicates that Joan de Urbieta captured Francis.[28] There are allegations that Francis would have been killed by mistake by one of Charles soldiers had Pedro de Valdivia —the future conqueror of Chile— not intervened.[29]

Aftermath

Battle of Pavia, one of a tapestry suite woven at Brussels c 1528-31 after cartoons by Bernard van Orley
Battle of Pavia, one of a tapestry suite woven at Brussels c 1528-31 after cartoons by Bernard van Orley

The French defeat was decisive. Aside from Francis, a number of leading French nobles—including Montmorency and Flourance—had been captured; an even greater number—among them Bonnivet, La Tremoille, La Palice, Richard de la Pole, and Lorraine—had been killed in the fighting. Francis was taken to the fortress of Pizzighettone, where he wrote a letter to Louise of Savoy, his mother:

Soon afterwards, he finally learned that the Duke of Albany had lost the larger part of his army to attrition and desertion, and had returned to France without ever having reached Naples.[31] The broken remnants of the French forces, aside from a small garrison left to hold the Castel Sforzesco in Milan, retreated across the Alps under the nominal command of Charles IV of Alençon, reaching Lyon by March.[30]

Francis was taken to Madrid and jailed in a tower until the Treaty of Madrid was signed.

Art

The Battle of Pavia in an engraved rock crystal cameo relief commissioned by Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici, by Giovanni Bernardi, Rome, c 1531-35 (Walters Art Museum)
The Battle of Pavia in an engraved rock crystal cameo relief commissioned by Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici, by Giovanni Bernardi, Rome, c 1531-35 (Walters Art Museum)

In Rome Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici, who acted as Florentine emissary to Charles V in 1535, expressed support for the Emperor's victory by commissioning a rock crystal low relief in the manner of an Antique cameo, from the gem engraver Giovanni Bernardi. The classicizing treatment of the event lent it a timeless, mythic quality and reflected on the culture and taste of the patron.

An oil-on-panel Battle of Pavia, painted by an anonymous Flemish artist, depicts the military engagement between the armies of Charles V and Francis I. Because of its detail, the painting is considered an accurate visual record, probably based on eyewitness accounts.[32] A suite of seven Brussels tapestries after cartoons by Bernard van Orley (left) celebrate the Imperial–Spanish victory.

In 2016, the Spanish writer Arturo Pérez-Reverte published his short story Jodía Pavía (1526)[33] ("Fucking Pavia (1526)"), a enhanced version of a column published in El País Semanal in October 2000. It is a fictional letter by king Francis to his lover, written from his Madrid prison. In it, Francis explains the battle and laments his situation. Pérez-Reverte uses a satyrical and colloquial language with frequent anachronism (as an example, there are allusions to Errol Flynn and films).

Notes

  1. ^ This is the only identified work of the master Ruprecht Heller
  2. ^ a b Knecht, R. J. (1994). Renaissance Warrior and Patron. New York: Press Syndicate of University of Cambridge. p. 225.
  3. ^ Konstam, Pavia 1525, 89.
  4. ^ Konstam, Pavia 1525, 30—33.
  5. ^ Konstam, Pavia 1525, 34.
  6. ^ Konstam, Pavia 1525, 34–35.
  7. ^ Konstam, Pavia 1525, 36–39.
  8. ^ Konstam, Pavia 1525, 40–41.
  9. ^ Blockmans, Emperor Charles V, 57; Konstam, Pavia 1525, 42–43.
  10. ^ Konstam, Pavia 1525, 43–45.
  11. ^ Blockmans, Emperor Charles V, 59; Konstam, Pavia 1525, 46–50.
  12. ^ Konstam, Pavia 1525, 50.
  13. ^ Konstam, Pavia 1525, 52–53.
  14. ^ Konstam, Pavia 1525, 56–57.
  15. ^ Oznaya. de, Juan (1842). Pidal, Marquis of; Miraflores, Marquis of; Salvá, M., eds. Historia de la Guerra de Lombardia, Batalla de Pavia y Prision del Rey Francisco de Francia. Colección de Documentos Inéditos Para la Historia de España. XXXVIII. Madrid: Imprenta de la viuda de Calero. pp. 289–405.
  16. ^ Konstam, Pavia 1525, 56–58. It is unclear whether the breach was in the east wall of the park or the north one; Konstam, based on an analysis of the later course of the battle, suggests that the north is the more likely option.
  17. ^ Konstam, Pavia 1525, 58–61.
  18. ^ Konstam, Pavia 1525, 62–63.
  19. ^ Konstam, Pavia 1525, 63–65.
  20. ^ "Leather Box for the Pennant of Francis I at the Battle of Pavia". The Walters Art Museum.
  21. ^ Konstam, Pavia 1525, 65–69.
  22. ^ Konstam, Pavia 1525, 69–72.
  23. ^ [1] Archived 25 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ Storia di Pavia
  25. ^ Konstam, Pavia 1525, 72–74.
  26. ^ Konstam, Pavia 1525, 74.
  27. ^ Juan Carlos Losada, Batallas Decisivas de la Historia de España (Decisive battles of Spanish History), Ed. Punto de lectura, 2004 [Pavía, pg 224]
  28. ^ Op Cit
  29. ^ Córdoba, J. (2014). "Inés Suárez y la conquista de Chile". Iberoamérica Social: revista-red de estudios sociales (in Spanish). III: 38–42.
  30. ^ a b Konstam, Pavia 1525, 76.
  31. ^ Guicciardini, History of Italy, 348.
  32. ^ Birmingham Museum of Art : guide to the collection. Birmingham, Ala: Birmingham Museum of Art, 2010.
  33. ^ (in Spanish) Nueva edición de Jodía Pavía (1525), de Arturo Pérez-Reverte, 4 July 2016, Zenda Libros.

References

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