To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Captaincies of the Spanish Empire

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Captaincies (Spanish: capitanías) were military and administrative divisions in colonial Spanish America and the Spanish Philippines, established in areas under risk of foreign invasion or Indian attack. They could consist of just one province, or group several together. These captaincies general should be distinguished from the ones given to almost all of the conquistadores, which was based on an older tradition. During the Reconquista, the term "captain general" and similar ones had been used for the official in charge of all the troops in a given district. This office was transferred to America during the conquest and was usually granted along with the hereditary governorship to the adelantado in the patent issued by the Crown. This established a precedent that was recognized by the New Laws of 1542, but ultimately the crown eliminated all hereditary governorships in its overseas possessions.

With the establishment of appointed governors, who served only for a few years, captaincies were created in the areas where the crown deemed them necessary. The new captaincies general were governed by what was also called a captain general, and it is this title alone that is usually used by historians. The title of captain general itself is a high military rank of general officer grade, equivalent to the rank of Field Marshal, as well as, and a gubernatorial title. However, in practice this was a person who held two distinct offices: one military, which granted him command of the regional forces (the "captaincy general" proper), and another civilian, which included the presidency of the audiencia, if there was one in the provincial capital, (the governorship). The specific powers of any governor-captain general varied by time and place and were specified in the decrees establishing the captaincy general. The institution of the captaincy general predated the viceroyalty, but was incorporated into the latter when the viceroyalties were established in the mid-16th century.

Some captaincies general, such as Guatemala, Chile and Venezuela were eventually split off from their viceroyalties for better-administration purposes. Although under the nominal jurisdiction of their viceroys, governors-captains general were virtually independent, because the law granted them special military functions and given the considerable distance of their districts from the viceregal capital, they were authorized to deal directly with the King and the Council of the Indies, in Madrid. The institution was later revived as part of the Bourbon Reforms. Captaincies general were first introduced into Spain beginning in 1713 during the War of the Spanish Succession. After the losses of the Seven Years' War, the Bourbon kings established new ones in many American regions, which had not had them before. Along with the new governors-captains general, the Bourbons introduced the Intendant, to handle civilian and military expenses.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
    Views:
    4 044 881
    818
    18 900
  • 10 Racist Celebrities
  • First Mexican Empire
  • The encomienda system

Transcription

10 racist celebrities 10. Hulk Hogan Wrestler Hulk Hogan had his WWE contract terminated and his photo removed from their hall of fame after a sex tape revealed him repeatedly using ‘the n-word’. In the video, the 6 time WWE World Heavy Weight champion is filmed having sex with his best friend’s wife, Heather Cole. Later in the video Hogan engages in pillow talk with Cole and complains about his daughter Brooke’s sex life. During the conversation he admits that he is “racist” and states that if his daughter is going to have sex with a black guy, then he’d rather she sleep with one worth a hundred million dollars, like a basketball player, rather than her then boyfriend, rapper Stack$ [stacks]. Source: BBC 09. Azealia Banks Singer Azealia Banks had her Twitter account suspended and was dropped from headlining a UK music festival after she unleashed a racist and homophobic twitter rant against ex-One Direction singer, Zayn Malik. The fallout occurred after Banks accused Malik of stealing her creative ideas and style. Among the host of homophobic and racist slurs that attacked Malik’s Pakistani heritage, Azealia Banks accused him of being ‘curry scented’. In the aftermath of the attack, Banks later apologized for her insulting language, bizarrely stating “I feel compelled to clear the air with curry itself because that’s a bridge I don’t want to burn. I still want to be able to enjoy it freely without guilt or judgment”. Source: Daily Mail, The Guardian 08. Luis Suarez Former Liverpool football player Luis Suarez was banned for eight games after racially abusing Manchester United defender Patrice Evra. During a 2011 match the two players broke into an argument, and Suarez repeatedly called Patrice Evra a ‘negro’ in his native Spanish language. Despite Suarez' defence that he used the word 'negro' amicably, video evidence - as well as Evra’s own testimony - suggested that in Spanish Suarez had told Evra that he had kicked him because he was black. He also appeared to state, "I don't speak to blacks”. Suarez was found guilty of racism by the Football Association, who accused him of “[damaging] the image of English football around the world”. Source: BBC 07. Mel Gibson Hollywood star Mel Gibson was labeled an “out-of-control racist” when leaked recordings of the actor revealed him using racist language to threaten his ex-girlfriend, Oksana Grigorieva. The recordings reveal Gibson launching a tirade against his ex partner, telling her that the way she had dressed will get her 'raped by a pack of n-words’. Grigorieva secretly recorded the threats by Gibson, in order to prove in court that he was dangerous and violent. The shocking outburst came four years after Gibson made headlines for his anti-Semitic comments to the police officers who arrested him for drink driving. During the arrest Gibson claimed, “the Jews are responsible for all the wars in the world”. Source: Daily Mail, The Guardian 06. Michael Richards Known for his role as Kramer on television sitcom Seinfeld, comedian Michael Richards’ stand up career ended after he was filmed racially attacking a group of hecklers. After an African American man in the crowd shouted at Richards, telling him that he wasn’t funny, Richards stopped his act and began repeatedly screaming at the heckler and calling him the ’n-word’. 10 racist celebrities 10. Hulk Hogan Wrestler Hulk Hogan had his WWE contract terminated and his photo removed from their hall of fame after a sex tape revealed him repeatedly using ‘the n-word’. In the video, the 6 time WWE World Heavy Weight champion is filmed having sex with his best friend’s wife, Heather Cole. Later in the video Hogan engages in pillow talk with Cole and complains about his daughter Brooke’s sex life. During the conversation he admits that he is “racist” and states that if his daughter is going to have sex with a black guy, then he’d rather she sleep with one worth a hundred million dollars, like a basketball player, rather than her then boyfriend, rapper Stack$ [stacks]. Source: BBC 09. Azealia Banks Singer Azealia Banks had her Twitter account suspended and was dropped from headlining a UK music festival after she unleashed a racist and homophobic twitter rant against ex-One Direction singer, Zayn Malik. The fallout occurred after Banks accused Malik of stealing her creative ideas and style. Among the host of homophobic and racist slurs that attacked Malik’s Pakistani heritage, Azealia Banks accused him of being ‘curry scented’. In the aftermath of the attack, Banks later apologized for her insulting language, bizarrely stating “I feel compelled to clear the air with curry itself because that’s a bridge I don’t want to burn. I still want to be able to enjoy it freely without guilt or judgment”. Source: Daily Mail, The Guardian 08. Luis Suarez Former Liverpool football player Luis Suarez was banned for eight games after racially abusing Manchester United defender Patrice Evra. During a 2011 match the two players broke into an argument, and Suarez repeatedly called Patrice Evra a ‘negro’ in his native Spanish language. Despite Suarez' defence that he used the word 'negro' amicably, video evidence - as well as Evra’s own testimony - suggested that in Spanish Suarez had told Evra that he had kicked him because he was black. He also appeared to state, "I don't speak to blacks”. Suarez was found guilty of racism by the Football Association, who accused him of “[damaging] the image of English football around the world”. Source: BBC 07. Mel Gibson Hollywood star Mel Gibson was labeled an “out-of-control racist” when leaked recordings of the actor revealed him using racist language to threaten his ex-girlfriend, Oksana Grigorieva. The recordings reveal Gibson launching a tirade against his ex partner, telling her that the way she had dressed will get her 'raped by a pack of n-words’. Grigorieva secretly recorded the threats by Gibson, in order to prove in court that he was dangerous and violent. The shocking outburst came four years after Gibson made headlines for his anti-Semitic comments to the police officers who arrested him for drink driving. During the arrest Gibson claimed, “the Jews are responsible for all the wars in the world”. Source: Daily Mail, The Guardian 06. Michael Richards Known for his role as Kramer on television sitcom Seinfeld, comedian Michael Richards’ stand up career ended after he was filmed racially attacking a group of hecklers. After an African American man in the crowd shouted at Richards, telling him that he wasn’t funny, Richards stopped his act and began repeatedly screaming at the heckler and calling him the ’n-word’. Then making reference to lynching, Richard screamed, “fifty years ago we'd have you upside down with a f***ing fork up your ass." The rant goes on for three minutes before the audience leave in disgust. The racist incident became immortalized in popular culture and was parodied on TV shows including Curb Your Enthusiasm, with Richards himself poking fun at the event. Source: TMZ 05. Donald Sterling Billionaire Donald Sterling received a lifetime ban from the NBA and was forced to sell the Clippers basketball team when a leaked phone call revealed a series of racist remarks. In September 2013 Sterling called his mistress V. Stiviano to complain about a photo she had posted on Instagram, in which she was posing with NBA legend Magic Johnson. Referring to the photo, Sterling tells Stiviano “it bothers me a lot that you want to broadcast that you're associating with black people”. He also tells her not to bring any to his basketball games. Stiviano leaked the conversation to gossip website TMZ, leading to Sterling’s comments gaining widespread criticism. President Obama called the content of the recording "incredibly offensive racist statements”. Source: TMZ 04. John Terry English football player John Terry lost the captaincy of the England team when the Football Association found him guilty of racially abusing football player Anton Ferdinand. During a football match between Chelsea and Queens Park Rangers in 2011, Terry got into an argument with Ferdinand in which he called him a “f****** black ‘C word’”. The severity of the comment led to the incident being investigated in a criminal law case. The panel agreed that Terry meant his words to be a racial insult, but decided that the incident was down to a misunderstanding. However, the Football Association held their own inquiry, which found John Terry guilty of racism. Consequently Terry was banned for four matches and fined a quarter of a million dollars. Source: The Guardian, The Telegraph 03. Duane "Dog" Chapman In 2007 reality TV star and bounty hunter Duane "Dog" Chapman briefly had his TV show removed from viewing schedules after his son leaked a phone conversation revealing his racist views. During the phone call, Dog tells Tucker to dump his African American girlfriend, because he doesn’t want to have to stop saying ‘the n-word’ due to her presence. He goes on to refer to Tucker’s black girlfriend as the racial slur, before stating that he fears she’ll ruin his career by secretly revealing him to be a racist to a gossip magazine. Despite the initial backlash towards Dog and his comments, his TV show was reinstated just three months later. Source: Fox News 02. John Galliano British fashion designer John Galliano was sacked from his position as the creative director of Dior after a series of drunken racist outbursts. In February 2011 a French couple were drinking outside a bar when Galliano racially attacked them. He allegedly directed 30 anti-Jewish insults towards them in the space of 45 minutes. Galliano was arrested for the tirade and stood trial for his comments. Other evidence against Galliano included a similar incident at the same bar, in which he claimed to love Hitler, before telling a group of Italian women that their “mothers and forefathers would all be gassed." Galliano was found guilty of making the remarks and fined $6000. Source: The Guardian 01. Mark Wahlberg Hollywood actor Mark Wahlberg was sentenced to prison for committing a series of racially motivated attacks as a teenager. In 1986 aged just 15, Wahlberg and his friends racially abused a group of fourth grade black students, before chasing them and hitting them with rocks. Despite being warned that another hate crime would land him in jail, two years later Wahlberg attacked two Vietnamese men, while trying to steal their beer. Confronting the first man, Wahlberg called him a racial slur before beating him over the head with a wooden stick until Lam lost consciousness. He then punched another Vietnamese man in the eye and commented on his “slant eyes”. In 2014 Wahlberg filed an application to be pardoned for his hate crimes, arguing that he’s a changed man. Source: The Guardian

Spanish Captaincies

See also

This page was last edited on 16 May 2018, at 06:48
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.