To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia
Compañía Franca de Voluntarios de Cataluña
Active1767–1815
Country Spain
Branch
Escudo del Ejército de Tierra.PNG
Spanish Army
TypeLight Infantry
RoleGarrison
Garrison/HQGuadalajara (1772–1800) El Perote (1800–1815)
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Pere d'Alberní Pere Fages

The Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia (Spanish: Compañía Franca de Voluntarios de Cataluña, Catalan: Companyia Franca de Voluntaris de Catalunya) was a military company of the Spanish Army serving in the Spanish colonial empire.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
    Views:
    67 907
    7 134
    15 127
  • ✪ Triple bottom line & sustainability: the science of good business
  • ✪ Sustainability Gap: Creative tension engenders motion (ABCD)
  • ✪ 4 Principles to Win the Sustainability 'Game' (conditions of success)

Transcription

Hi Alex here you've probably heard about the triple bottom line a concept that is used a lot when speaking about sustainability and particularly sustainability and business John Elkington a global authority on corporate responsibility and sustainability coined the phrase in a book in 1997 his argument was that the methods by which companies measure value should include not only a financial bottom line profit or loss but a social and environmental one as well the concept has evolved into one that's often described as three overlapping circles you've probably seen this image before sustainability is typically defined as the place where economy social realities and environmental health overlap the concept of the triple bottom line mainstreamed the idea of sustainability as including people planet and profit. It helped business to understand that long-term sustainability of an organization required more than just financial equity it also helped to clarify that when businesses were considering what sustainability meant for them he didn't mean to had to give up the notion of financial success but this overlapping circles image of the triple bottom line can convey a lot more the circles are all the same size does this indicate that the economy is the same relative size or value as the other two circles which deal with society and the environment can we trade say two social and three environment for five economy as long as we stay in the overlapping bit in the middle sustainability let's see if science can help us understand this better for more details about this check out earlier videos science tells us that left to its own devices the planet operates in a balanced way we call this the cycles of nature and they're powered by energy from the Sun science also tells us that matter is not created or destroyed while laws of thermodynamics tell us that everything tends towards dispersal that's the principle of entropy because plant cells are for all intents and purposes the only cells that can produce structure from energy photosynthesis is the process by which matter is structured on our planet this is why we say that photosynthesis pays the bills without it creation up structure from energy would not occur and entropy could rule the day so how does this help us understand the triple bottom line plant cells belong to the environment circle of the triple bottom line if plant cells are the original creators of structure then this is the circle on which everything else depends or in which everything is embedded everything comes from nature at some point society which is related to the social circle of the triple bottom line exists within the environment and economy is a byproduct of society so instead of three overlapping circles we have three nested circles where the economy is a wholly owned subsidiary of the environment to achieve sustainability we need to comply with social and environmental conditions meet human needs within ecological constraints does this mean that business has to put financial gain last of course not but economic decisions are part of a strategy to make more money while getting closer to social and ecological sustainability the economy is a means to an end not the end itself it's important to remember that paying the bills happens on multiple levels and ultimately we're all dependent on photosynthesis this is helpful for business because it provides new perspective on the rational integrating sustainability into who and how they are in the world there you have it a new look at the triple bottom line viewed through the lens of science if you enjoyed this video please subscribe and consider becoming a patron by making a pledge of one dollar or more for each new video we create thank you to our patrons we cannot make these videos without you and thank you for watching

Contents

Origins

The company was raised in Barcelona in 1767 for service in New Spain, as a part of an effort to improve the defenses of Spain's overseas empire, which in turn was part of the larger Bourbon Reforms of King Carlos III. Initially recruited from the 2nd Regiment of Light Infantry of Catalonia, the company was composed of four officers and one hundred enlisted men and was commanded by Captain Agustín Callis, a veteran of Spain's wars in Italy and Portugal.[1]

Service in Sonora

The Catalan Volunteers arrived in Guaymas, Sonora in May 1768 as a part of an expedition of some 1200 Spanish soldiers and native allies assembled to quell a revolt by Pima and Seri Indians. After years of active campaigning, the Volunteers returned to Mexico City in April 1771.[2]

The Establishment of Alta California

In September 1768, Lieutenant Pedro Fages and a detachment of 25 Volunteers were ordered south to San Blas, Nayarit to form a part of the expedition of Gaspar de Portolà to establish a Spanish foothold in Alta California. After 110 days at sea, the Volunteers arrived at San Diego Bay in April 1769. By this time, over half the soldiers and most of the crew were incapacitated with scurvy.

Twelve Volunteers succumbed to illness while awaiting the arrival of the overland arm of the expedition under Captain Fernando Javier Rivera y Moncada, who arrived a month later. Still short of provisions, however, the lot of the soldiers improved very little. Despite these privations, the Volunteers participated in the Portola expedition that established San Diego and Monterey, and remained as the first garrison of the Presidio of Monterey, under Fages' command. Volunteers accompanied Fages on expeditions to explore the San Francisco Bay region in 1770 and 1772.

In June 1770, command of the military forces in California passed from Portola to the short tempered and relatively inexperienced Fages. His often high handed treatment of soldiers and missionaries and his possible mishandling of the distribution of rations led to criticism from Father Junípero Serra, who successfully petitioned Viceroy Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa for his removal. Fages and the detachment of Volunteers left Monterey to rejoin their Company in July 1774.[3]

At least one of the Volunteers later returned to retire in California. Jose Antonio Yorba settled in what is now Orange County, California to become the patriarch of an important Californio family. The city of Yorba Linda, California is named for the Yorba family.

Reorganization

In Sonora, the Catalan Volunteers served alongside the Fusileros de Montaña (Mountain Fusiliers), another independent company from Catalonia associated with the 2nd Regiment. As a part of new regulations promulgated in 1772, the two commands were merged and reorganized into two companies of 80 men and 3 officers each: The First Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia, which included the detachment in California under Fages and remained under the command of Captain Callis, and a Second Company under Captain Antonio Pol. Both companies were based in Guadalajara.[4]

Garrison Duty in Central Mexico

As light infantry, the Volunteers were thought to be particularly well suited for duty in the mountainous country of central Mexico. Though based in Guadalajara, detachments of Volunteers were frequently posted to the Presidio of Mesa del Tonati in the mountains of Nayarit, the Real del Monte near Mexico City, and to serve as harbor guards at San Blas, the headquarters for Spanish naval operations in the Pacific. For the most part, this service was fairly routine, except for occasional calls to quell disturbances.

Return To Sonora

Fages, his reputation now rehabilitated, was promoted to Captain and assigned command of the Second Company in early 1776. At the urging of Teodoro de Croix, comandant general of the Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas, Fages and his new command were deployed to Sonora, arriving at Alamos in February 1777.

The following April, the Volunteers of the Second Company were posted to the Presidio of El Pitic (modern Hermosillo) in response to renewed hostilities with the Seris, who quickly surrendered.

At the urging of Lt. Col Juan Bautista de Anza, the Company was posted at the Presidio of Santa Cruz de Terrenate, which had recently been moved from its previous location to one on the San Pedro River north of modern Tombstone, Arizona, to reinforce the beleaguered garrison against the Apaches, arriving in the fall of 1778. Though Fages, now a Lieutenant Colonel, was able to restore order and discipline to the presidio, the garrison proved unable to mount an effective counter-offensive.

In December 1780, with the Second Company now down to half strength, Fages left Terrenate for Mexico City for new recruits. In his absence, the Presidio was ordered abandoned, and the garrison moved to its previous location at Santa Cruz, Sonora, which was believed to be more defensible and easily supplied. The Company was soon once again posted at El Pitic, where they were employed in putting down another rebellion by the Seris.

In September 1781, Fages led an expedition that included 40 men of the Second Company to the Yuma Crossing to quell a rebellion by the Quechan and their allies. Though they were able to liberate Spanish captives, secure the remains of the slain Father Francisco Garcés and recover sacred vessels from the destroyed missions of Mission Puerto de Purísima Concepción and Mission San Pedro y San Pablo de Bicuñer, Fages' command was unable to subdue the tribe. Despite two subsequent expeditions by Fages and the Second Company over the next 2 years, the crossing would remain closed to Spain.

During the third expedition in the Fall of 1783, Fages was appointed Governor of California, and the Volunteers returned without him to Pitic. In subsequent years, the Volunteers of the Second Company were posted around Sonora, assigned to duties at the presidios of Buenavista, Fronteras, Pitic and Tucson where they were employed fighting the Apaches and Seris, until 1785, when they were assigned to the Villa de Chihuahua. From there, they continued active campaigning against the Apaches.

The Pacific Northwest and California

Pere d'Alberní was named Captain of the First Company when Callis died in 1782. In August 1789, after years of routine garrison duty in Guadalajara, the Company was assigned to duty in the Pacific Northwest in response to the Nootka Crisis. They arrived at Nootka Sound in April 1790 where they re-established the abandoned redoubt of Fort San Miguel, becoming the first regular European military unit posted to present-day British Columbia.[5]

The Volunteer's mission was to secure Spain's claims to the Pacific Northwest against incursions by the British and, in particular, the Russians. To that end, Alberni's men were employed as marines in the expeditions of Jacinto Caamaño, Salvador Fidalgo, Dionisio Alcalá Galiano, Salvador Menéndez, and Manuel Quimper of the Pacific coast from the Strait of Juan de Fuca to Kodiak Island.

The First Company returned to Guadalajara in 1792, though some Volunteers remained on detached duty in Nootka as late as 1794. In 1796, as a response to the War of the First Coalition and rumors of American incursions, Alberni, now a Lieutenant Colonel, and his company were sent to reinforce California. Detachments of Volunteers augmented the Presidios of Monterey, San Diego, and San Francisco.

Part of Alberni's mission in California was to establish a new civilian settlement called the Villa de Branciforte, which was established in 1797, with the intention that the community would be settled by retired Catalan Volunteers. This however did not materialize, and the project was abandoned in 1802.

Alberni was appointed Governor of California in 1800 and was replaced as Captain by José Font. Font and his scattered command were active in guarding Spain's claim's in California against incursions by foreign vessels, particularly American ones. Despite an increase in such activity, the First Company (except for a detachment that remained in San Diego for a few more years) was withdrawn to Guadalajara in 1803 and were not replaced.

Dissolution of the Companies

Lt. Col. Alberni died in Monterey in 1802. He was the last of the original group of officers who had sailed from Barcelona in 1767. By this time, the unit was no longer Catalan in character with men and even officers largely from other parts of Spain and criollos from Mexico.

In 1810 the Volunteers were mobilized against the revolt of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. The First Company, still posted at Guadalajara, was reorganized and absorbed into other units. As the Mexican War of Independence escalated, the Second Company, posted at El Perote near Mexico City under Captain Juan Antonio de Viruega since 1800, was deployed to Morelos to join an army under General Calleja in a massive campaign against the insurgency. During the Siege of Cuautla in 1812, the Volunteers were assigned to man an ambuscade at the Campo de Sacatepec. Though Calleja later praised their valiant stand, the Second Company was unable to prevent the escape of scrappy rebels under José María Morelos and suffered heavy casualties.

The Volunteers managed to survive as a Company, participating in the battles of Tuxpango, Tlacótepe, and Ajuchitlán, through 1815, by which time they were no longer a discrete unit, having been absorbed into larger battalions.[6]

Uniform

Its uniform consisted of blue coat with yellow collar and cuffs, yellow waistcoat, blue breeches and black tricorne hat with the red cockade of the House of Bourbon.

There were two drummers on the strength of the company. After 1760, Spanish army drummers wore the livery of the King of Spain – a blue coat with scarlet collar and cuffs, along with a scarlet waistcoat. Both coat and waistcoat were trimmed with scarlet lace that was embroidered with a white chain pattern. This same pattern of lace had decorated French uniforms before the French Revolution began in 1789. The Bourbon kings of Spain were a branch of the French royal family, and adopted a similar livery.

Images in Modern Culture

The crest of the Defense Language Institute at the Presidio of Monterey includes an image of a feathered leather helmet that is meant to symbolize the Catalan Volunteers and to commemorate their role in the founding of the post. Though such helmets were briefly a uniform item for the Spanish infantry at the turn of the 19th century, it is unlikely that they were ever worn by the Catalan Volunteers in North America.[7]

The Catalan Volunteers are portrayed in the 1955 American film Seven Cities of Gold, which presents a fanciful and historically inaccurate account of the founding of Spanish California. Lieutenant Fages is played by Mexican actor Victor Junco. In the credits, Fages' name is misspelled as "Faces."[8]

An infantry soldier wearing a Catalan Volunteer uniform briefly appears in the opening scene of the 1968 film Guns of San Sebastian which, like Seven Cities of Gold, stars Anthony Quinn. However, the movie is supposed to take place in 1746, twenty years before the Volunteers' arrival in New Spain.[9]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Sanchez, pgs. 3–12.
  2. ^ Sanchez, pg 16–30
  3. ^ Sanchez, pg. 32–57
  4. ^ Sanchez, pg. 103–104
  5. ^ Chartrand 2000, The Nootka Incident.
  6. ^ Sanchez, pg. 134–140
  7. ^ "Crest". Defense Language Institute.
  8. ^ Seven Cities of Gold on IMDb
  9. ^ Guns of San Sebastian on IMDb

References

  • Catalans al Canadà
  • Chartrand, Réné (2000), Canadian Military Heritage, II, Art Global, retrieved 29 November 2007;
  • Sanchez, Joseph (1990), Spanish Bluecoats: The Catalonian Volunteers in Northwestern New Spain, 1767–1810, University of New Mexico Press;

This page was last edited on 25 March 2018, at 07:03
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.