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Captaincy General of Chile

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Capitanía General de Chile
1541–1818
Map of the Captaincy General of Chile in 1796 and claimed territories
Map of the Captaincy General of Chile in 1796 and claimed territories
StatusSpanish colony
CapitalSantiago
Common languagesSpanish, Mapudungun
Religion
Roman Catholicism
GovernmentMonarchy
King 
• 1541–1556
Charles I
• 1808–1813
Joseph I
• 1813–1818
Ferdinand VII
Royal Governor 
• 1541–1553
Pedro de Valdivia
• 1815–1817
Casimiro Marcó del Pont
Historical eraSpanish Empire
• Established
1541
February 12 1818
CurrencyPeso
ISO 3166 codeCL
Succeeded by
Conservative Republic

The General Captaincy of Chile (Capitanía General de Chile [kapitaˈni.a xeneˈɾal ðe ˈt͡ʃile]) or Gobernación de Chile, was a territory of the Spanish Empire, from 1541 to 1818. It comprised most of modern-day Chile and southern parts of Argentina. Its capital was Santiago de Chile. In 1818 it declared itself independent, becoming the Republic of Chile. It had a number of Spanish governors over its long history and several kings.

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Transcription

Many theories swirled that Kubrick made his movie about the real-life ultra elite and their secret occultic gatherings we'll take a look at these pictures that show an actual Rothschild event from 1972 on the surface it looks like a pretty magnificent surrealist ball but there are clear occult references much like the film Eyes Wide Shut a cult imagery is hidden throughout the night starting with the invitations which were written backwards reversal or inversion of sacred objects is typical of black magic and satanic rituals money is the god of our time and broth child is his prophet Heinrich Heine the mythology surrounding the Rothschilds wealth and power is two centuries old the resulting mythology has proved almost as long lived as the firm of nm Rothschild & Sons itself ever since the second decade of the 19th century there has been speculation about the origins and extent of the family's wealth about their political influence not only in the five countries where there were Rothschild houses but throughout the world about their Judaism the five Rothschild houses constitute an early version of what later became known as the multinational perhaps the most important point to grasp about this multinational partnership is that for most of the century between 1815 and 1914 it was easily the biggest bank in the world strictly in terms of their combined capital the Rothschilds were in a league of their own until at the earliest the 1880s the 20th century has no equivalent because they were so rich the Rothschilds could plainly claim a material equivalence with the European aristocracy they relished the sense that they were a salt parade in this sense phrases like kings of the Jews which contemporaries applied to them contained an important element of truth that was exactly the way the Rothschilds saw and conducted themselves there are no fewer than 153 species or subspecies of insect which bear the name Rothschild as well as 58 Birds 18 mammals and 14 plants including a rare slipper orchid Paphiopedilum Rothschild II annum to say nothing of three fish three spiders and two reptiles the families almost equally recurrent enthusiasm for the pleasures of the table has also bestowed the name on a souffle and the savory prawns cognac and free air on toast there are towns and numerous streets named after members of the family in Israel Rothschild own vineyards at Mouton Lafitte whose wines are drunk the world over numerous Rothschild built houses from the Vale of Aylesbury to the Riviera and there is even a Rothschild island in the Antarctic at the same time the Rothschilds energetically pursued and acquired decorations titles and other honours securing the ultimate prize an English peerage in 1885 the third generation also threw themselves into hunting and horse racing those quintessentially aristocratic pastimes they also extended their patronage to include writers Benjamin Disraeli honoré de Balzac and Heinrich Heine musicians notably Frederic Chopin and Jacques Ino Rossini as well as architects and artists in more ways than one they were the 19th century's Medicis from the very earliest days the Rothschilds appreciated the importance of proximity to politicians the men who determine not only the extent of budget deficits but also the domestic and foreign policies which so influence the financial markets and politicians soon came to realize the importance of proximity to the Rothschilds who at times seemed indispensable to the solvency of the states the politicians governed and who could always be relied upon to provide up-to-the-minute political news when the former the road shield frere director George Pompidou became prime minister in April 1962 and later president in 1969 Lucan erosion a commented simply R F equals republik Frances equals rut shield frere similar echoes can be found in the British press to inferences were sometimes drawn in the 1980s from the fact that a number of conservative politicians at work for nm Rothschild & Sons limited either before or after their political careers at a time when the firm was handling a number of important privatizations in the 1880s and 1890s their advice on Imperial matters were sought by both the Marquess of Salisbury and the Earl of roseberry Gladstone successor as Liberal prime minister indeed Roseberry was married to a Rothschild buyers daughter Hannah Rothschild influence extended to royalty as well it is extraordinary to find that the family's interests in the financial affairs of King George the fourth predated his accession to the throne by as much as fifteen years how did Mayer Amschel than the father of an obscure Manchester textile merchants come to acquire a bill on the Prince Regent the likeliest answer is that he bought it from the elector of hesse-kassel would made a number of loans to the sons of George the 3rd in the 1790s ten years later with Nathan firmly established as a banker in London the sons of Mayer Amschel turned to these other royal debts with the intention of making Nathan in AM Shoals somewhat old-fashioned phrase court banker in England nor was George the fourth the only member of the British royal family to whom Nathan lent money in the 1820s in 1824 for example he lent ten thousand pounds to the Duke of York as well as giving him 100 complimentary shares in the Alliance Assurance Company the Rothschilds also looked ahead to the next generation in 1816 the only child of the Prince Regent Princess Charlotte was betrothed to a minor German Prince Leopold of saxe-coburg the youngest son of Duke Francis Frederick the brothers at once recognized Leopold's potential importance not for nothing did one Rothschild writer of the 1840s point out the similarity between the House of Rothschild in the house of saxe-coburg-gotha those two extended German families which were to rise from obscurity to glory in the course of the 19th century indeed theirs was to be an almost symbiotic relationship the 3.5 million golden lent to the saxe-coburg by the Frankfort house between 1837 and 1842 was only one aspect of the connection of greater importance was the support which the Rothschilds gave to those members of the family who left Coburg in search of new Thrones elsewhere not that the Rothschilds lost interest in the question of the British succession following princess Charlotte's death when the Prince Regent's brother the Duke of Kent set off for Germany to marry Victoria of saxe-coburg-gotha child when the marriage produced the daughter Victoria who at once became next in line to the throne nathan hastened to offer the proud father financial advise and his exclusive messenger service Nathan's sons continued to act as the Duchess's banker after the Dukes death relaying money to her brother Ferdinand of saxe-coburg these tenuous links were enhanced by careful cultivation of Leopold of saxe-coburg who later became King Leopold the first of the Belgians nor was his nephew Albert above turning to the Rothschilds for financial assistance after he became Queen Victoria's Prince Consort in turns Victoria and Albert's eldest son was on friendly terms with many members of the family before and after he succeeded his mother as Edward the seventh the lists of Victorian politicians who were close to the Rothschilds is a long one Lionel's campaign for admission to the House of Commons in the late 1840s and 1850s enjoyed support from Whigs like Lord John Russell and P lights like Gladstone but also protectionist stories like Disraeli the more George Banting they were attracted not only to Disraeli but also to Lord Randolph Churchill Joseph Chamberlain and Arthur Balfour even as late as the first decade of the 20th century the system of partnerships continued to function in such a way that English Rothschilds had a financial stake in the Feres house and French Rothschilds a stake in the London house the history of the Rothschilds also helps to illuminate the long-running differences between British French and German banking for the obvious reason that the various Rothschild houses worked in similar though not identical ways in each country in addition to the inevitable web of credits and debits with other firms which arose from these activities the Rothschilds also offered to a select group of customers usually royal and aristocratic individuals whom they wished to cultivate a range of personal banking services ranging from large personal loans as in the case of the Austrian Chancellor Prince Metternich to a first class private postal service as in the case of Queen Victoria and the Rothschilds were also major industrial investors an aspect of their business which has often been underestimated when the development of Railways raised the possibility of transforming Europe's transport system in the 1830s and 1840s the Rothschilds were among the leading financial backers of lines beginning in France Austria and Germany indeed by the 1860s James de Rothschild had built up something like a pan-european railway network extending northwards from France to Belgium southwards to Spain and eastwards to Germany Switzerland Austria and Italy from an early stage the Rothschilds also had major mining interests beginning in the 1830s with their acquisition of the Spanish mercury mines of Almaden and expanding dramatically in the 1880s and 1890s when they invested in mines producing gold copper diamonds rubies and oil like their original financial business this was an authentically global operation extending from South Africa to Burma from Montana to Baku unlike modern multinationals however this was always a family firm with executive decision making strictly monopolized by the partners who until 1960 were exclusively drawn from the ranks of male Rothschilds there are numerous apocryphal business Maxim's attributed to the Rothschilds for example to hold a third of one's wealth in securities a third in real estate and a third in jewels and artworks to treat the stock exchange like a cold shower quick in quick out or to leave the last 10% to someone else the economic history of capitalism is therefore incomplete until some attempt has been made to explain how the Rothschilds became so phenomenally rich all nineteenth-century states ran budget deficits and some almost always did and it was war and the preparation for war which generally precipitated the biggest increases in expenditure for it was by lending to governments or by speculating in existing government bonds that the Rothschilds made a very large part of their colossal fortune the answer lies in the way these investments were carried out only a few years previously Mayer Amschel had been arranging payments of some six hundred twenty thousand Alden from the elector to Austria to pay for troops and horses in the 1809 campaign against France shortly after Mayer am shells death his son AM show was advancing two hundred fifty five thousand fooled and do purchase horses for the French army he simply backed both sides such a strategy has obvious attractions and it was to become a frequent Rothschild gambit in the decades ahead am shell was only half joking when he wrote urging Solomon do your stuff make the Frankfurt House richer by a million francs the Paris house richer by a million Louie door and the London House richer by a million pounds you'll be awarded the order of the Grande armée such transactions probably accounted for the lion's share of the profits the Rothschilds made in this decisive period in June 1814 Harris listed the payments they had so far made to Prussia Austria the French King and the British Army including money that had not yet been dispersed the total was twelve point six million francs more was to come by now the markets were tending to follow the Rothschild lead as Karl noted when we buy everybody buys this reflected the widespread belief that the Rothschilds were acting on behalf of the English government and that this was being done in order to force the rate of the pound sterling up that we succeeded very well in doing so but now let's return to Napoleon because nothing else in history more aptly demonstrates the ingenuity of the Rothschild family than their control of the British stock market after Waterloo in 1815 a year after the end of the war of 1812 in America Napoleon escaped his exile and returned to Paris just as the brothers appeared to be losing the peace Bonaparte's hundred days plunged Europe back into war restoring the financial conditions in which the Rothschild said hitherto thrived this time not only Russia and Prussia but the previously aloof Austrians found they had little option but to accept payment from the Rothschilds as did a gaggle of other states including Saxony Baden Wurttemberg Bavaria Sachs by Marr yes Denmark and Sardinia altogether Harris's account with Nathan in 1815 amounted to nine million seven hundred eighty nine thousand seven hundred seventy eight pounds in this the Rothschilds had invaluable accomplices in the Allied powers themselves naturally wish to pocket as much as they could before peace was signed and the subsidies ceased as their father had taught them the brothers were always careful to make their terms attractive not only to governments but also to the individual officials with whom they were negotiating that nathan profited from the dramatic events of 1815 is central to Rothschild mythology by obtaining the first news of Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo before even the government itself Nathan was able to make a huge sum of money on the stock exchange this is the Waterloo battlefield about 200 miles northeast of Paris in what today is Belgium here Napoleon suffered his final defeat but not before thousands of French and Englishmen gave their lives on a steamy summer day in July of 1815 the outcome was certainly in doubt in fact a Napoleon attacked a few hours earlier he would probably have won the battle Rothschild stationed a trusted agent a man named Roth worth on the north side of the battlefield closer to the English Channel once the battle had been decided Roth Werth took off for the channel he delivered the news to Nathan Rothschild about 24 hours before Wellington's own courier if Wellington had been defeated and Napoleon was loose on the continent again Britain's financial situation would become grave indeed you think he was telling Apple instead of government 153 keep on selling that theater stuff you're freezing something like a panic on the exchanger I know other nervous investors saw that Rothschild was selling it could only being one thing Napoleon must have one Wellington must have lost the market plummeted soon everyone was selling their consoles their British government bonds and prices dropped sharply but then Rothschild started secretly buying up the consoles through his agents for only a fraction of their worth hours before yes by news what do you think about this room I don't listen to rumors miss very good hear what they say Wellington defeated oh you might be what you're gonna do I know it all in oh I'm fine what's even more interesting about this story is that some authors claim that the day after the Battle of Waterloo in a matter of hours Nathan Rothschild came to dominate not only the bond market but the Bank of England as well whether or not the Rothschild family seized control of the Bank of England the first privately owned central bank in a major European nation and the wealthiest one thing is certain by the mid-1800s the Rothschilds were the richest family in the world bar none they dominated the new government bond markets and branched into other banks and industrial concerns like France in Britain the Central and East European states emerged from the war with dire financial problems which could be addressed only with the assistance of foreign capital as Disraeli later put it in his novel Coningsby after the exhaustion of a war of 25 years Europe must require capital to carry on peace France wanted some Austria more Prussia a little Russia a few million moreover the policy of the Holy Alliance was bound to create additional financial needs from which the Rothschilds could also profit for the principal aim of the Alliance was to avert a recurrence of the Revolutionary epidemic which had caused such a people in Europe between 1789 and 1815 if necessary by military intervention that implied further expenditure the Rothschilds were notoriously the chief ally of the Holy Alliance through the German writer Ludwig Verna they were the nation's worst enemies they have done more than any to undermine the foundations of freedom and it is unquestionable that most of the peoples of Europe would by this time be in full possession of Liberty if such Mena's Rothschild did not lend the autocrats the support of their capital moreover the Rothschilds were also as Buddha said lending money to establish Greece as an independent monarchy had been another liberal goal of the 1820s he may even appeared to be in a position to influence the decision as to which prince would become the new Greek King therefore make more sense to argue that the Rothschilds were beginning to supplant rather than merely shore up the European monarchies the first major post-war loan which the brothers succeeded in making was to Prussia which had ended the Napoleonic period with a debt burden of around 188 million taller and continued to run large deficits in 1815 1816 and 1817 the size of the floating debt reached 20 million taller by the autumn the government began to contemplate raising alone in London banking the third Lord Rothschild once remarked consists essentially of facilitating the movement of money from point A where it is to point B where it is needed all banks have histories that not all have their histories researched and written only the Rothschilds however have a mythology the world's bankers the Rothschilds are the wonders of modern banking we see the descendants of Judah for a persecution of 2,000 years hearing above Kings rising higher than Emperor's and holding a whole continent in the hollow of their hands the Rothschilds govern a Christian world now the cabinet moves without their advice they stretched their hand with equal ease from Petersburg to Vienna from the inner to Paris from Paris to London from London to Washington Baron Rothschild the head of the house is the true king of Judah the prince of the captivity the messiah so long looked for by this extraordinary people he holds the keys of peace or war blessing or cursing they are the brokers and councilors of the kings of Europe and of the Republican Chiefs of America what more can they desire Niles weakly register 1835 236 whatever its significance for Prussian politics the 1818 Prussian loan was without question of watershed in the history of the European capital market as contemporaries came to recognize firstly the loan was not to be in taller but in sterling with the interest payable half yearly not in Berlin but in London secondly there was to be a British style sinking fund to ensure the amortization of the loan this deliberate anglicisation of a foreign loan was a new departure for the international capital market now it was much easier to invest in foreign funds the fact that throughout the century all foreign government bonds paid higher yields than British consuls meant that people did the times did not exaggerate when it later described Nathan as the first introducer of foreign loans into Britain moreover the loan was issued not just in London but also in Frankfurt Berlin Hamburg Amsterdam and Vienna in other words it represented a major step towards the creation of a completely international bond market in stipulating these conditions Nathan not only succeeded in making the Prussian loan attractive to British and Continental investors he also established a model for such international bond issues which would swiftly become standard in his book on the traffic in state bonds 1825 the German legal expert Johann Heinrich bender identified this as one of the Rothschilds principal contributions to modern economic development any owner of government bonds can collect the interest at his convenience in several different places without any effort and fourth an investor could receive the interest on Austrian Medel ich Neapolitan romped or any other Rothschild issued bonds from any of the Rothschild houses although the terms of the loan were heavily criticised in Berlin not least by the bankers there whom bolt and rotor were impressed rotor went further the Rothschild in this country has an incredible influence upon all financial affairs here in London it is widely stated it is indeed close to the truth that he entirely regulates the rate of exchange in the city his power as a banker is enormous in an unpublished passage of the baths of lucca ina sought to analyze the nature of the Rothschilds power more precisely here he acknowledges that in the short-term had served to shore up the reactionary regimes revolutions are generally triggered off by deficiency of money by preventing such deficiencies the Rothschild system may serve to preserve peace in Europe this system or rather Nathan Rothschild it's inventor is still providing firm foundations for such peace it does not inhibit one state from making war on another exactly as before but it does make it difficult for the people to overthrow established Authority religion is no longer able to guarantee the governments that the people will remain peaceful the Rothschild system of loans can perform the past much better it possesses the moral force or power which religion has lost it can act as a surrogate for religion indeed it is a new religion when the old religion finally goes under it will provide substitutes for its practical blessing strangely enough it is once again the Jews who invented this new religion as early as 1828 Prince Kublai Moscow referred to Rothschild without whom no power in Europe today seems able to make war in a multipolar world in which five powers with distinct interests sought to resolve international crises without resorting to war the Rothschilds acted not so much to ensure peace as to underwrite it once it had been made you the period Hobson regarded the Boer War as having been engineered by a small group of international finance seers chiefly German in origin and Jewish in race the Rothschilds in his view were central to this group you English examples can also be found in refusing Gladstone's request to make lionel de rothschild appear Queen Victoria explicitly questioned whether one who owes his great wealth to contracts with foreign governments for loans or two successful speculations on the stock exchange can fairly claim a British peerage a good illustration is John Reeves his book the Rothschilds the financial rulers of nations which returns a typical verdict the Rothschilds belong to no one nationality they are cosmopolitan they belong to no party they were ready to grow rich at the expense of friend and foe alike the central dilemma which confronted the Rothschilds lay here because of their wealth other Jews look to them for leadership than their pursuit of equal civil and political rights they themselves had no desire to forsake their palatial town and country residences or barren Palestine Lionel's nephew Victor struck a similar note of ambivalence when he addressed a meeting of the earl baldwin fund for refugees the slow murder of 600,000 people he told his audience is an act which has rarely happened in history yet he went on in spite of humanitarian feelings we probably all agree that there is something unsatisfactory in refugees encroaching on the privacy of our country even for relatively short periods of time even in 1946 speaking in the House of Lords Victor defended the policy of restricting immigration to Palestine the only logical solution was therefore to find some alternative territory for the Jews to go to the Nazis themselves voted of Madagascar at around the same time the Paris House forwarded to new court a proposal to purchase 200,000 acres of brazil's matter grocer and another to settle Jews in Sudan's Upper Nile Valley Kenya Northern Rhodesia and Guyana were also considered only at the 11th hour it seems did the Rothschilds recognize the need to admit refugees into Britain and France this was broadly the argument of the early Zionists like tailed or Herzl who came to believe that the only solution to the Jewish Question was indeed for the Jews to leave Europe and found their own Union stopped Herzl made a succession of attempts to win the support of the Rothschilds in the belief that they were about to liquidate their vast capital as a response to anti-semitic attacks but his 66 page address to the Rothschild family council was never sent as he concluded from an initial rebuff that they were vulgar contemptuous egotistical people the Rothschilds he later declared were a national misfortune for the Jews he even threatened to liquidate them or to wage a barbaric campaign against them if they opposed him if a zionist could use such language in the 1890s that is perhaps not surprising that the radical anti-semites who flourished in the defeated states of Central Europe after the first world war did so - a good example is Dietrich Eckart address to all working people of 1919 the House of Rothschild owns 40 billion they only need to administer their wealth to see that it is nicely placed they do not need to work at least not what we understand by work but who provides them and their like with such an enormous amount of money who does this you do it nobody but you that's right it is your money hard earned through care and sorrow which is drawn as if magnetically into the coffers of these insatiable people another early National Socialists who cited the Rothschilds as examples of the Jewish problem he pledged to solve was Adolf Hitler in an article in the Nazi fukushi beobachter in May 1921 for example he named them as one of a group of Jewish capitalists who controlled the socialist press on at least two occasions in 1922 he gave speeches in which he referred to the significant difference between the achievements of a man like Alfred Krupp who has bequeathed an immense national achievement through his indefatigable work as an innovator and the rapacity of a Rothschild who financed Wars and revolutions and brought the peoples into interest servitude through loans the television preacher and Republican politician Pat Robertson's book the New World Order published in 1991 states that the Rothschilds were polluted by the occultism of illuminated Freemasonry and that Paul Warburg architect of the Federal Reserve System was a Rothschild agent from a completely different political milieu Khalid Mohammed a former assistant to Louis Farrakhan leader of the radical african-american organization Nation of Islam has repeated the suggestion that the Rothschilds financed Hitler and aided his anti-semitic policies a cursory search of the internet reveals a plethora of conspiracy theories the Rothschilds arranged the murder of President Lincoln as his post-war policies would have wrecked their commodity speculations the Rothschilds financed the rise of Hitler as a bulwark against the Soviet Union the Rothschilds are interwoven with the Catholic Church and jointly with the traditional mafia and the American CIA which was pro-nazi they are the hidden power which controls other well-known banks such as warbirds Schroeder's and lazarre's as well as being behind American Finance ears such as JP Morgan the Rockefellers Kuhn Loeb & Company the spires and the Lehman's not to mention the Bank of England and the Federal Reserve System an obvious Rothschild front through this network of global power they have been responsible for among other things the Boer War the creation of Israel to control the oil of the Middle East the Russian Revolution a coup on Russia by the United States financial arm largely controlled by the Rothschilds and even the floating of the dollar by President Nixon that's it theories swirled that Kubrick made his movie about the real-life ultra elite and their secret occultic gatherings we'll take a look at these pictures that show an actual Rothschild event from 1972 on the surface it looks like a pretty magnificent surrealist ball but there are clear occult references much like the film Eyes Wide Shut a cult imagery is hidden throughout the night starting with the invitations which were written backwards reversal or inversion of sacred objects is typical of black magic and satanic rituals money is the god of our time and broth child is his prophet Heinrich Heine the mythology surrounding the Rothschilds wealth and power is two centuries old the resulting mythology has proved almost as long lived as the firm of nm Rothschild & Sons itself ever since the second decade of the 19th century there has been speculation about the origins and extent of the family's wealth about their political influence not only in the five countries where there were Rothschild houses but throughout the world about their Judaism the five Rothschild houses constitute an early version of what later became known as the multinational perhaps the most important point to grasp about this multinational partnership is that for most of the century between 1815 and 1914 it was easily the biggest bank in the world strictly in terms of their combined capital the Rothschilds were in a league of their own until at the earliest the 1880s the 20th century has no equivalent because they were so rich the Rothschilds could plainly claim a material equivalence with the European aristocracy they relished the sense that they were sawn Perret in this sense phrases like kings of the jewels which contemporaries applied to them contained an important element of truth that was exactly the way the Rothschilds saw and conducted themselves there are no fewer than 153 species or subspecies of insect which bear the name Rothschild as well as 58 Birds 18 mammals and 14 plants including a rare slipper orchid Paphiopedilum Rothschild II annum to say nothing of three fish three spiders and two reptiles the families almost equally recurrent enthusiasm for the pleasures of the table has also bestowed the name on a souffle and a savory prawns cognac and free air on toast there are towns and numerous streets named after members of the family in Israel Rothschild own vineyards at Mouton Lafitte whose wines are drunk the world over numerous Rothschild built houses from the Vale of Aylesbury to the Riviera and there is even a Rothschild island in the Antarctic at the same time the Rothschilds energetically pursued and acquired decorations titles and other honours securing the ultimate prize an English peerage in 1885 the third generation also threw themselves into hunting and horse racing those quintessentially aristocratic pastimes they also extended their patronage to include writers benjamin disraeli honoré de Balzac and heinrich heine musicians notably frederic chopin and Jacques Ino Rossini as well as architects and artists in more ways than one they were the 19th century's Medicis from the very earliest days the Rothschilds appreciated the importance of proximity to politicians the men who determined not only the extent of budget deficits but also the domestic and foreign policies which so influence the financial markets and politicians soon came to realize the importance of proximity to the Rothschilds who at times seemed indispensable to the solvency of the states the politicians governed and who could always be relied upon to provide up-to-the-minute political news when the former the road shield prayer director George Pompidou became prime minister in April 1962 and later President in 1969 Lucan erosion a commented simply R F equals république française equals rut shield frere similar echoes can be found in the British press to inferences were sometimes drawn in the 1980s from the fact that a number of conservative politicians had work for nm Rothschild & Sons Limited either before or after their politicals between the Rothschilds and the European Central Bank's with us almost always close and symbiotic a growing importance as a non-exclusive source of financial information and misinformation in this period was of course the press it might be thought that the proliferation of newspapers in the 19th century tended to erode the advantages which the Rothschilds were able to derive from their private system of communications on the other hand the existence of financial pages in newspapers presented new opportunities for influencing the markets which the Rothschilds were not slow to exploit Nathan responded to early press attacks by establishing what was to be an enduring relationship with the most influential of all British papers The Times The Times correspondent reported from saint-petersburg that the mere appearance of James Rothschild at the bourse was expected to boost Russian bond prices by the summer of 1825 therefore the Rothschild said succeeded triumphantly in establishing themselves as the leading specialists in European public finance and not only European new fiscal needs quickly arose from the political crises which beset the Spanish and Ottoman empires in this period it was this need which Nathan and his brothers successfully met the system they developed enabled British investors and other rich capitalists in Western Europe to invest in the deaths of those states by purchasing internationally tradable fixed interest transferable bonds the significance of this system for 19th century history cannot be overemphasized for this growing international bond market brought together Europe's true capitalists that elite of people wealthy enough to be able to tie up money in such assets and shrewd enough to appreciate the advantages of such assets as compared with traditional forms of holding wealth land venal office and so on bonds were liquid they could be bought and sold five and a half days out of seven on the major forces of Europe and traded informally at other times and in other places and they were capable of accruing large capital gains if investors bid up the price of a government stock that government could feel secure if they dumped its stock that government was quite possibly living on borrowed time as well as money for this reason bond prices had a significance which historians have too seldom spelt out they were it might be said the kind of daily opinion poll an expression of confidence in a given regime of course they were an opinion poll based on a highly unrepresentative sample by modern democratic standards only the wealthy the capitalists got the vote these capitalists were thus to a large extent Europe's political class indeed the kind of people who held government bonds were very roughly speaking the people who were represented politically and their opinions were the opinions that mattered in a stratified undemocratic society the singular beauty of the bond market was that virtually every state including as the century advanced all the new nation states and colonies had sooner or later to come to it and most states had sizable amounts of tradable debt in circulation the varying fortunes of government bonds provide a vital insight into the political history of the period they are also the key to understanding the extent of the power of a bank like Rothschilds which for much of the 19th century was the prime market maker for such bonds what determined the ups and downs of the 19th century bond market the answer to this question is central to any understanding of the history of the Rothschild bank obviously economic factors played an important part but the most important factor was political confidence the confidence of investors and especially a big market making investors like the Rothschilds in the ability of the bond issuing states to continue to meet their obligations that is to pay the interest on their bonds there were only really two things which might cause them not to do so war which would increase their expenditures and decrease their tax revenues and internal instability ranging from a change of ministry to full-blown revolution it was for indications of either of these possible crises that the markets and the Rothschilds more than anybody watched three things would give an investor an edge over his rival closeness to the center of political life the source of news the speed with which he could receive news of events in states far and near and the ability to manipulate the transmission of that news to other investors this explains why the Rothschilds spent so much time energy and money maintaining the best possible relations with the leading political figures of the day it also explains why they carefully developed a network of salaried agents in other key financial markets whose job it was not only to trade on their behalf but also to keep them supplied with the latest financial and political news the rothschilds communications network gave them an important advantage over their competitors even after they lost this edge they continued to exercise an influence over the financial press through which news reached a wider public indeed it can be argued that by modifying the existing system for government borrowing to make bonds more easily tradable the Rothschilds actually created the International bond market in its modern form as early as August 1820 the Bremen delegate to the German Confederation stired in Frankfurt had a conversation with his Austrian counterpart Count bull which acutely identified the unrivaled extent of the Rothschilds political influence in Europe this house has through its enormous financial transactions and its banking and credit connections actually achieve the position of a real power it has to such an extent acquired control of the general money market that it is in a position either to hinder or to promote as it feels inclined the movements and operations of potentates and even of the greatest European powers in fact the rest of the 19th century was known as the age of the Rothschilds they financed Cecil Rhodes making it possible for him to establish a monopoly over the diamond and gold fields of South Africa in America they financed the Harriman's and railroads the Vanderbilts and railroads and the press and Carnegie in the steel industry among many others by 1850 James Rothschild the heir of the French branch of the family was said to be worth 600 million French francs 150 million more than all the other bankers in France put together he built this mansion called Ferrier just east of Paris they'll helm the first on scene it exclaimed Kings couldn't afford this it could only belong to a Rothschild another 19th century French commentator put it this way there is but one power in Europe and that is Rothschild by the end of the 19th century one expert estimated that the Rothschild family controlled half the wealth of the world despite this overwhelming well the family has generally cultivated an aura of invisibility although the family controls scores of industrial commercial mining and tourist corporations only a handful bear the Rothschild name there is no evidence that their predominant standing in European or world finance has changed a dynasty turns jet things were getting back to normal in 1945 but what in family terms was normal see the hazard Hamilton plays though phileo became one of London's most luxurious comes another Rothschild residence in Kensington Gardens now constitutes the Soviet Russian embassy and in France the Titanic man sat to Wolff law on terror on the Place de la Concorde has gone the way of all Titanic manses Tallyho had lived there before Eduardo Hass she would move it in whenever I put it on the market only one customer could afford the price Uncle Sam it became the European headquarters of the Marshall Plan and today is talented by the United States mission to NATO and two European regional organizations Oh a giraffe's she is huge place at 33 world or football Santa maría now houses the secular inter alia a fancy international diplomatic Club on the same street the United States Embassy has taken over number 41 built by the first that all heed mall the Rothschild monograms still con the great portals of both houses last not least they're here the crown jewel among Rothschild possessions no one was rich enough to buy it nor did the French Brant want to part with such a symbol initially a great deal of labor went into untangling the various pre-war debts on which countries like Chile and Hungary had defaulted new issues like the 1951 offering of five million pounds of dock for the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development usually known as the World Bank had to be shared with other city houses the old Rothschild predominance in the South African gold market had already been reasserted three years previously when the international gold market reopened once again the world gold prize was formally set in new quartz fixing room through a string of holding companies new court could now tap monumental lumber power mineral particular uranium resources and Winston Churchill appreciative of the scale of the thing termed it a grand Imperial concept after Anthony's death his two nephews Edmund and Leopold took over together with Antony's son Evelyn in addition Eveland sat on the boards of Beaver book newspapers The Economist and later The Telegraph PLC Edmund the senior partner struck out in still other directions as owner and operator of the Royal Mint refinery as gold agent to the Bank of England and as merchant banker extraordinaire consolidating still further new courts position as a key boolean broker in the English Commonwealth and laying the foundation for its present preeminent position in the in natural resources market Rothschild Australia accounts for around a third of the nm Rothschild group's profits it retained its long-standing interest in gold even after the breakdown of the gold pool as a consequence of the pressures brought to bear on the dollar by the Vietnam War above all it was the countries of the developing European Economic Community that the Bank looked most farsighted of all was the Rothschild plan for a new currency called the yoco European composite unit based on the values of nine major European currencies forerunner of the later akyuu and yellow in September 1967 a channel study group was formed along with Morgan Grenfell Lazar and bearings in an effort to revive the old Victorian dream of a tunnel under the English Channel nm Rothschild maintained its interest in the project and acted as adviser to the European Channel Tunnel group which initiated the present tunnel in 1981 it was at around this time that he the head of the Paris House with being couched in some quarters as AEC banker Rothschild the French Shiraz shears are richer still and they have become richer faster since the honky assumed the reins the death of his father Eduardo civ miss he has fortified the position of Davos shield fire as the largest private bank in France his main instrument here is the company de norm the railroad network which became family property after the dinner asked James financed it into existence through its railroad turned investment trust the family controlled and after the Nazi nightmare controls again mining corporations metal plants oil interests chemical industries and many others this sort of setup requires a feudal allegiance there are whole families that have been on the Rothschild payroll for over a century a first tentative step in this direction was taken in 1960 an nm Rothschild and Warburg placed 340,000 pounds shares in the August Bison steel company on the London market the first German shares to be closed in London since the war then there is G's cousin ed mourn he is faithful enough to family discretion to keep the portals of number 45 Rudy Faubourg saint-honore signless and anonymous from this headquarters he runs the company P Nasia a worldwide organization which builds villas hotels pipelines in Israel throws up giant housing projects in PI's finances banks and car factories in Brazil he greatly enlarged the family Holdings on the slopes of Mont Blanc complete with ski lifts swimming pools tennis courts and nightclubs he also under writes and develops not merely hotels but entire new tourist regions in martinique and guadeloupe in the French Caribbean with Lord Rothschild as partner he is responsible for the flowering of Israel's luxury Golf Resort at Caesarea Edmund James Rothschild memorial group contributed 1 million dollars to the Weitzman scientific Institute in Tel Aviv gave three million dollars towards the construction of the Knesset and puts the bill for many of Israel's archaeological expeditions pre-1914 links to Japan were also renewed by Edmund who made several visits there between 1962 and 1969 arranging euro dollar bond issues in partnership with Nomura Securities for a number of Japanese companies including Hitachi and pioneer the logical way of advancing Britain's financial integration with the continent was to establish some kind of cross channel institutional link the creation of Rothschilds continuation Holdings AG as the Swiss based parent company was in this sense pregnant with historical significance to recreate something like the system of international partnership which had been the Rothschilds greatest strengths in 19th century the nm Rothschild group is thus a multinational entity more than 50% of its assets are now held outside the UK with a wide geographical reach again reminiscent of the system of houses which had been developed by my I am sure some after 1815 skullenbones members have included a president vice presidents Supreme Court justices congressmen and Senators captains of Science and Industry the very best of America exterior of the Chateau d'If au lait is lit up and a moving orange light giving it the appearance of a fiery Inferno here's some MKULTRA programming many guests are wearing masks with multiple faces victims of MKULTRA programming report systematic and ritualized pedophilia drug and sexual abuse and torture designed to deliberately shatter the minds of victims into multiple personalities called altars which can be molded and manipulated at will this hat designed by Dali also has hidden symbolism of androgyny by having half of Mona Lisa's face harnessing the male and female power is important to practitioners of the left-hand path and although Dali traditionally paints ants and grasshoppers in his paintings to evoke death decay and trauma this work of art has scarab beetles which symbolized the Egyptian mysticism of Osiris the Sun King it looks again look the devil is coming out of that portal right so we've got it you got a guy an actual person on the stage dressed as a goat this is a real ceremony for the opening of what's being built Switzerland's construction of this century leaders from Germany Italy Austria and France join Swiss president Johann Schneiderman at the spectacle in collegio Switzerland the European leaders who gathered for the celebration of the tunnel are so proud this it was confirmed by this under Fitz's you wonder I trust the precision of the Swiss architects it's a great day for the north and south are being connected are you from the south yes the deep south the stream the back there's a transposed image of the devil the goatman and they have they put like a red like a fire behind it put their objective the world domination ladies never tolerate outrageous conspiracy theories do you want to know what it is if this drug was in fact with the AIDS virus sent parents a letter warning them to make sure their children are vaccinated immunization for all children admits the group takes money from the vaccine industry to have Radio Frequency Identification ships place inside their hands you

Contents

Name

The General Captaincy of Chile was incorporated to the Crown of Castile as were all the other Spanish possessions in the New World. The General Captaincy of Chile was first known as New Extremadura (a name subsequently given to a part of Mexico) and then as Indian Flanders. The Captaincy was a part of the Viceroyalty of Perú.

The administrative apparatus of the General Captaincy of Chile was subordinate to the Council of the Indies and the Laws of the Indies, like the other Spanish colonial possessions. The day-to-day work was handled mostly by viceroys and governors, who represented the king in the overseas territories. The areas of the Americas, which had been the site of complex civilizations or became rich societies were usually referred to by the Spanish as "kingdoms," such as the "New Kingdom of Granada", the "Kingdom of Mexico", or the "Kingdom of Guatemala."

Chile never reached the status of a viceroyalty and was instead classified as a captaincy general because this was a very warlike territory and thus was ruled by a military and not a nobleman like a viceroy.

History

Exploration and conquest

In 1536 Diego de Almagro formed the first expedition to explore the territories to the south of the Inca Empire, which had been granted to him as the Governorship of New Toledo. After Almargo's death, Pedro de Valdivia solicited and was granted in 1539 the right to explore and conquer the area with Francisco Pizarro's approval. Valdivia founded the city of Santiago del Nuevo Extremo and a few months later its cabildo (municipal council) appointed him governor and Captain General of New Extremadura on June 11, 1541. Other cities founded during Valdivia's administration were Concepción in 1550, La Imperial in 1551, Santa María Magdalena de Villa Rica and Santa María la Blanca de Valdivia in 1552, and the following year Los Confines and Santiago del Estero on the eastern side of the Andes. In 1553 Valdivia also founded a series of forts for protection of the settled areas: San Felipe de Araucan, San Juan Bautista de Purén and San Diego de Tucapel. After Valdivia's death that same year, these last forts, Villarica and Concepcion were lost. they were recovered following the war with Lautaro and Caupolicán. Following the defeat of the Mapuche by García Hurtado de Mendoza, settlements continued to grow and more cities were founded: Cañete de la Frontera on the site of the former Fort San Diego de Tucapel and Villa de San Mateo de Osorno in 1558, San Andrés de Angol in 1560, Ciudad de Mendoza del Nuevo Valle de La Rioja in 1561, San Luis de Loyola Nueva Medina de Rioseco and San Juan de la Frontera in 1562, and Santiago de Castro in 1567. Martín García Óñez de Loyola founded a last city south of the Bio Bio River, Santa Cruz de Coya, in 1595.

Collapse of southern Chile

Illustration of the Arauco War in Jerónimo de Vivar's book Crónica y relación copiosa y verdadera de los reynos de Chile (1558).
Illustration of the Arauco War in Jerónimo de Vivar's book Crónica y relación copiosa y verdadera de los reynos de Chile (1558).

A Mapuche revolt was triggered following the news of the battle of Curalaba in on the 23 of December 1598, where the vice toqui Pelantaru and his lieutenants Anganamon and Guaiquimilla with three hundred men ambushed and killed the Spanish governor Martín García Óñez de Loyola and nearly all his companions.

Over the next few years the Mapuche were able to destroy or force the abandonment of seven Spanish cities in Mapuche territory: Santa Cruz de Coya (1599), Santa María la Blanca de Valdivia (1599), San Andrés de Los Infantes (1599), La Imperial (1600), Santa María Magdalena de Villa Rica (1602), San Mateo de Osorno (1602), and San Felipe de Araucan (1604).

17th century: Consolidation of the colony

In the 17th century, the Spanish colony of Chile saw a rearrangement of its population center. While in the 16th century, most of the cities founded by the Spanish were located from Bio-Bio southward, with only Santiago, La Serena and some transandine cities located north of it, in the 17th century, Spanish authority and settlements were bought down south of Bío-Bío Region. The colony went from being a gold exporter with potential for expanding to the Strait of Magellan to being one of the Spanish Empire's most problematic and poor in natural resources. The Spanish Empire had to divert silver from Potosí to finance a standing army in Chile to fight in the Arauco War. Since the raids of Francis Drake in Chilean waters more seaborne assaults followed in the 17th century, mostly from Dutch corsairs. The Spanish Empire's attempts to block the entrance to the Pacific Ocean by fortifying the Straits of Magellan were abandoned after the discovery of Drake's Passage, focusing then on fortifying the coastal cities of Chile.

18th century: Reforms and development

Political history

As noted, the area had been designated a governorship (gobernación) during the initial exploration and settlement of the area, but because the local Amerindian peoples demonstrated fierce resistance, a more autonomous, military-based governmental authority was needed. Thus, the governor was given command of the local military and the title of captain general. This arrangement was seen in many places of the Spanish Empire.

The greatest set back the Spanish settlements suffered was the Disaster of Curalaba in 1598, which nearly wiped them out. All cities south of the Biobío River with the exception of Castro were destroyed. The river became La Frontera the de facto border between Spanish and Native areas for the next century. (See Arauco War.)

Chile lost more than half of its territory with the Bourbon reforms of Charles III, when all of its trans-Andean possessions were transferred to the domain of the newly created Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776[citation needed]. Chile gained two intendancies, Santiago and Concepción in 1786 and became a Bourbon-style Captaincy General in 1789.

Society

Societal groups

"Baile del Santiago antiguo" by Pedro Subercaseaux. Chile's colonial high society were made up by landowners and government officials.
"Baile del Santiago antiguo" by Pedro Subercaseaux. Chile's colonial high society were made up by landowners and government officials.

The Chilean colonial society was based on a caste system. Local of criollos (American born Spaniards) enjoyed privileges like the ownership of encomiendas (Indian labor jurisdictions) and were allowed to access some public charges like corregidor or alférez. Mestizos made up initially a small group but came with time to make up the bulk of Chilean society becoming more numerous than indigenous peoples.[1] Mestizos were not a homogeneous group and were judged more by appearance than by actual ancestry.[1] Indians had the lowest prestige among societal groups in colonial Chile; many of them were used as cheap labor in encomienda but their numbers decreased over time due to diseases and mestization. Pehuenche's, Huilliches and Mapuches living south of La Frontera were not part of the colonial society since they were outside the de facto borders of Chile. Black slaves made up a minority of the population in colonial Chile and had a special status due to their high cost of import and maintenance.[1] Black slaves were often used as housekeepers and other posts of confidence.[1] Peninsulares, Spaniards born in Spain, were a rather small group in late colonial times, some of them came as government officials and some other as merchants. Their role in high government positions in Chile led to resentment among local criollos.[1] Mixing of different groups was not uncommon although marriage between members of the different groups was rare.

During late colonial times new migration pulses took off leading to large numbers of Basque people settling in Chile mingling with landowning criollos, forming a new upper class.[1] Scholar Louis Thayer Ojeda estimates that during the 17th and 18th centuries fully 45% of all immigrants in Chile were Basques.[2]

Sex and marriage

Indigenous women in the colonial society were noted, from a Spanish point of view, for their sexual liberalism and engaged often sexually with men from other ethnicities.[3] The same was true for the black slaves who due to their "many" intercourses with other groups were strictly prohibited by law to engage in sexual activities with other ethnicities in order to avoid the proliferation of black individuals.[3]

16th century Spaniards are known to have been pessimistic about marriage.[3] Many of the initial conquistadores had left their wives in Spain and engaged in adultery in Chile.[3] Examples of this is Pedro de Valdivia who held Inés de Suárez as lover.[3] Adultery was explicitly forbidden for Catholics and the Council of Trent (1545–1563) made the climate prone for accusations of adultery.[3] Over the course of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries marital fidelity increased in Chile.[3]

Chilean Antarctica in colonial times

World Map by Abraham Ortelius (1570), where appears the Terra Australis Incognita.
World Map by Abraham Ortelius (1570), where appears the Terra Australis Incognita.

For many years, cartographers and European explorers speculated about the existence of the Terra Australis Incognita, a vast territory located in the south of the Strait of Magellan and Tierra del Fuego and reached the South Pole.

The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed on June 7 of 1494, set the areas of influence of Spain and Portugal, west and east, respectively, of a line running from pole to pole that was never demarcated (at 46° 37 'W in the Spanish classical interpretation, and further west, according to the Portuguese interpretation), so the Antarctic areas claimed by Chile today, while still unknown at that time, fell within the control of Spain. The treaty, backed by the papal bull Ea quae pro bono pacis in 1506 was made mandatory for all Catholic countries, was not recognized by European non-Catholic states and even by some that were, like France. For Britain, Dutch, Russia and other countries, the Antarctic areas were considered res nullius, a no man's land not subject to the occupation of any nation.

In 1534, The Emperor Charles V divided in three governorates the South American territory :

In 1539, a new governorate was formed south of New León called Terra Australis to Pedro Sanchez de la Hoz. In 1554, the conqueror Pedro de Valdivia, who led the Governorate of Chile, he talked to the Council of the Indies to give the rights of New León and the Terra Australis to Jeronimo de Alderete, which, after the death of Valdivia the following year, became governor of Chile and annexed the Chilean colonial territory.

Proof of this are numerous historical documents, among which include a Royal Decree of 1554:

Because it was personally consulted, we will grant, to the Captain Jeronimo de Alderete the land across the Magellan Strait

Later, in 1558, the Royal Decree of Brussels it prompted the Chilean colonial government to take ownership in our name from the lands and provinces that fall in the demarcation of the Spanish crown in Referring to the land across the Strait, because at that time it was thought that Tierra del Fuego was an integral part of the Terra Australis.

One of the most important works of Spanish literature, the epic poem La Araucana by Alonso de Ercilla (1569), is also considered by Chile as favorable to their argument, as you can read in the seventh stanza of his Canto I:

Is Chile, North South, very long

New sea coast, of the south called
will from east to west, of wide
one hundred miles, so wider taken
under the Antarctic Pole height
Twenty-seven of prolonged degrees
until the Sea Ocean and Chilean
mix their waters within narrow

In the fourth stanza of his Canto III:

This was the one who found the sections

Indians of Antarctic regions

There are also stories and maps, both Chilean and Europeans, indicating the membership of the Terra Australis Antarctica as part of the Captaincy General of Chile.

The Spanish navigator Gabriel de Castilla sailed from Valparaiso in March 1603 in command of three ships in an expedition entrusted by his brother cousin viceroy of Peru, Luis de Velasco y Castilla, to repress the incursions of Dutch privateers in the Southern Seas, reaching 64 degrees south latitude. There have not founded in the Spanish archives documents confirming the reached latitude and sighted land; however, the story of the Dutch sailor Laurenz Claesz (is a testimony dateless, but probably after 1607), documents the latitude and time. Claesz said:

sailed under the Admiral don Gabriel of Castile with three ships along the coasts of Chile towards Valparaiso, and from there to the strait. In March of 1603 he reached 64 degrees and they had a lot of snow there. In the following April they returned back to the coast of Chile

Another Dutch document, published in Amsterdam in three languages in 1622, says that at 64°S there are "very high and mountainous, snow cover, like the country of Norway, all white, land It seemed to extend to the Solomon Islands" This confirms a previous sighting of the lands would be the South Shetland Islands.

Other historians attribute the first sighting of Antarctic land to the Dutch marine Dirk Gerritsz, which would have found the islands now known as South Shetland. According to his account, his ship was diverted from course by a storm after transposing the Strait of Magellan, in the journey of a Dutch expedition to the East Indies in 1599. There are doubts about the veracity of Gerritsz.

At this time was already known the existence of a white continent in south of the Drake Passage, separated from the Tierra del Fuego. In 1772, the British James Cook circumnavigated the waters of the Southern Ocean.

Economy

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Villalobos, Sergio. Historia De Chile, Tomo 2. Editorial Universitaria, Chile.
  2. ^ William A. Douglass, Jon Bilbao (2005). "Amerikanuak: Basques in the New World". University of Nevada Press. p.81. ISBN 0-87417-625-5
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Historia de la vida privada en Chile. El Chile tradicional. De la conquista a 1840. 2005. Aguilar Chilena de Ediciones S.A. pp. 53-63.

External links

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