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Companions of the Prophet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mohammed and his companions on a Turkish miniature
Mohammed and his companions on a Turkish miniature
Part of a series on
Muhammad
Muhammad circular symbol

Companions of the Prophet or aṣ-ṣaḥābah (Arabic: الصحابة‎ meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") were the disciples and followers of Muhammad who "saw or met the prophet during his lifetime and were physically in his presence".[1][2] "Sahabah" is definite plural; the indefinite singular is masculine sahabi (ṣaḥābī), feminine sahabia (ṣaḥābīyat).

Later scholars accepted their testimony of the words and deeds of Muhammad, the occasions on which the Quran was revealed and other various important matters of Islamic history and practice. The testimony of the companions, as it was passed down through trusted chains of narrators (isnads), was the basis of the developing Islamic tradition. From the traditions (hadith) of the life of Muhammad and his companions are drawn the Muslim way of life (sunnah), the code of conduct (sharia) it requires, and the jurisprudence (fiqh) by which Muslim communities should be regulated.

The two largest Islamic denominations, the Sunni and Shia, take different approaches in weighing the value of the companions' testimonies, have different hadith collections and, as a result, have different views about the Sahabah.[3] (The next generation of Muslims after the Sahabah — who were born after Muhammed died but knew personally at least one Sahabah — are called Tabi‘un, and the generation after them (who knew at least one Tabi‘un) are called Tabi‘ al-Tabi‘in.[4] The three generations make up the salaf of Islam.)

Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas leads the armies of the Rashidun Caliphate during the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah from a manuscript of the Shahnameh.
Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas leads the armies of the Rashidun Caliphate during the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah from a manuscript of the Shahnameh.

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  • ✪ Sahaba Stories - Companions Of The Prophet | Hamzah Ibn Abdul Muttalib (RA) | Islamic Kids Stories
  • ✪ Sahaba Stories - Companions Of The Prophet | Abdullah Ibn Masood(RA) | Part 2 | Islamic Kids Stories
  • ✪ Sahaba Stories - Companions Of The Prophet | Abdullah Ibn Umm Maktum (RA) | Islamic Kids Stories
  • ✪ Stories Of Sahaba - Companions Of The Prophet | Umar Ibn Al Khattab (RA) | Islamic Kids Stories
  • ✪ When The Prophet (S) Was Attacked - Powerful True Story

Transcription

Assalamu Alaikum Walaikum Assalam Uncle, which story are you going to tell me today? Hmmm. Inshallah, I think I will tell you the story of the paternal uncle of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) Huh? Who was he? His name was Hamzah ibn Abdul Muttalib (Rali Allahu Anhu). He was the paternal uncle of the Prophet Muhammad(Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) Please tell his story uncle Alright, now listen carefully! Bismillahirrahmanirrahim The Story of Hamzah bin Abdul Muttalib(Rali Allahu Anhu) Hamzah ibn Abdul Muttalib was the son of Abdul Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy, who belonged to the Qurayshi tribe in Mecca. Hamzah was the paternal uncle of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Hamzah used to know the Prophet not only as a nephew, but also as a brother and friend because they belonged to the same generation. They always played together and walked together on the same road of life. But as they grew older, they departed each one in his own way. Hamzah preferred the life of leisure, trying to climb the ranks among the prominent Quraysh in Meccah While the young Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) chose the life of seclusion from crowd, immersed in deep spiritual meditation that prepared him to receive the truth. Hamzah was a warrior, a hunter and a sportsman. He was little interested in the day to day affairs of the city. He was big and strong, and people respected him for his courage. Despite the fact that Prophet and Hamzah led a different life, Hamzah was always attentive to the virtues of his friend and nephew. After being bestowed with Prophethood, Prophet Muhammad(Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) started preaching Islam publicly. But this was not received well among the disbelievers in Mecca. One day, Hamzah Ibn Abdul Muttalib was walking around as usual. When he reached the Kabbah, he found of group of Quraishi noblemen sitting under a tree, engaged in serious discussion. Hamzah sat with them to listen what they were discussing. He was surprised to hear that they were talking about the Prophet, his nephew! For the first time, Hamzah Ibn Abdul Muttalib saw they were worried about his nephew. There was a tone of bitterness and rage against the Prophet in their voices. Never before had they paid any serious attention to the Prophet. But now, he could see that they were really worried. Hamzah laughed at their talks and told them that they were exaggerating. But the Quraishi didn’t pay any attention, and they continued with their talks. Hamzah sat there listening to them, sometimes smiling, sometimes frowning. Days passed and there were frequent discussions among the Quraishi about the Prophet. Later, whispering turned into provocations and Hamzah watched all this from a distance. Hamza was impressed by his nephews composed, steadfast attitude towards their provocations. He knew the prophet from his early childhood to his youth, then his honest manhood. Hamza knew the Prophet as he knew himself. Since they had grown up together, his nephew's life had been as pure as the sunlight to him. It never occurred to Hamza that the Prophet could do anything wrong in his life. He never saw his nephew angry, hopeless or greedy. Hamzah was not only physically strong, but was also wise in the head. It was natural for him to follow a man of honesty, truthfulness he wholeheartedly believed in. One day, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) was in deep meditation at the foot of Safa mountain. It was then that Abu Jahl, one of the leader of Quraish, was passing by. When Abu Jahl found that the Prophet was alone, he decided to take this opportunity. Abu Jahl went to him and started abusing him in a vulgar language, and struck him! But the Prophet remained calm, he stood up and not uttering a word, returned home. That day Hamzah, as usual was returning home after hunting, carrying his bow in his hand. It was then that the servant girl of Abu Jahl ran to him shouting She said “Oh Hamzah, have you seen what happened to your nephew at the hands of Abu Jahl?”. she went on to explain what Abu Jahl had done to the prophet Hamzah was really angry when he heard this. He rushed to the Kabbah to confront Abu Jahl. When he saw him sitting among other Quraysh leaders, he roared like a lion! Hamzah walked calmly towards Abu Jahl and hit him with his bow till it broke, and his skin bled. Then he said “How dare you rebuke my nephew and strike him?” Then he declared “I recite la illahaillalahu Muhammad rasulullah and I accept Islam, the religion of Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam)”. In a moment the men gathered there all forgot about how their leader Abu Jahl had been insulted! They were all thunderstruck by the news that Hamzah had converted to Islam! They couldn’t believe that the strongest and the most dignified among the Quraishi young men had been converted to Islam. The Quraishi knew that this was a disaster. They knew that Hamza’s conversion would inspire many young men to follow the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) They were concerned that the Prophet would soon gain many more followers. Hamzah possessed a sharp sight and clear consciousness. He went home and after he had relaxed from the days exhaustion, he sat down to think over what had happened. He had announced his conversion in a moment of rage. He hated to see his nephew being insulted and suffering without any help. But he was confused of whether he had done the right thing. Was this the ideal way for anyone to change the religion of his parents and ancestors? He was not yet familiar with the teachings of Islam, and didn’t acquire enough knowledge of this religion. It was true that Hamzah never had any doubts about Prophet’s integrity, but could anybody embrace a new religion just in a moment of rage as he had done? Hamzah started thinking. He spent many restless days and sleepless nights. When one tries to attain the truth by the power of mind, uncertainity will become a means of knowledge, and this is what happened to Hamzah. At the Kabbah, he prayed and supplicated to the heaven, seeking help from every source that existed in the universe to be guided to the right path. And at last he got his answers. Allah filled his heart with faith and certainity. In the morning, he went to Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam), and he told him about his decision to convert to Islam. The Prophet was happy to hear about this and He prayed to Allah to keep His heart stable in Islam. That’s all Abu. Next time I will tell you another story. Thanks! Massalama Yusuf Uncle! May Allah bless you! Massalam Abu

Contents

Types of Sahabah

In Islām, followers of Muḥammad are classified to categories including the muhajirūn [a] who accompanied the Prophet from Mecca to Medina, the anṣar who lived in Medina, and the badriyun who fought at the Battle of Badr.[3][b][c]

Two important groups among the companions are called the Muhajirun or "exiles"—those who had faith in Muhammad when he began to preach in Mecca who fled with him when he was persecuted there—and the Ansar—people of Medina who welcomed Muhammad and his companions and stood as their protectors.[d][e]

Lists of prominent companions usually run to 50 or 60 names, being the people most closely associated with Muhammad. However, there were clearly many others who had some contact with Muhammad, and their names and biographies were recorded in religious reference texts such as Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi's (Muḥammad ibn Sa'd) early Kitāb at-Tabāqat al-Kabīr (The Book of the Major Classes). The book entitled Istî'âb fî ma'rifat-il-Ashâb by Hafidh Yusuf bin Muhammad bin Qurtubi (died 1071) consists of 2,770 biographies of male and 381 biographies of female Sahabah. According to an observation in the book entitled Mawâhib-i-ladunniyya, an untold number of persons had already converted to Islam by the time Muhammad died. There were 10,000 by the time Mecca was conquered and 70,000 during the Battle of Tabouk in 630. Some Muslims assert that they were more than 200,000 in number: it is believed that 124,000 witnessed the Farewell Sermon Muhammad delivered after making his last pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca.

Differing views

Sunni Muslim

The most widespread definition of a companion is someone who met Muhammad, believed in him and died as a Muslim. The Sunni scholar Al-Hâfidh Ibn Hajar (d.852H) said: “The most correct of what I have come across is that a Sahâbî (Companion) is one who met the Prophet Muhammad - sallallâhu ’alayhi wa sallam - whilst believing in him, and died as a Muslim. So, that includes the one who remained with him for a long or a short time, and those who narrated from him and those who did not, and those who saw him but did not sit with him and those who could not see him due to blindness".[5]

Anyone who died after rejecting Islam and becoming an apostate is not considered as a companion. Those who saw him but held off believing in him until after his passing are not considered Sahaba but Tabi`in.

According to Sunni scholars, Muslims of the past should be considered companions if they had any contact with Muhammad, and they were not liars or opposed to him and his teachings. If they saw him, heard him, or were in his presence even briefly, they are companions. All companions are assumed to be just (udul) unless they are proven otherwise; that is, Sunni scholars do not believe that companions would lie or fabricate hadith unless they are proven liars, untrustworthy or opposed to Islam.[6]

Some Quranic references are important to Sunni Muslim views of the reverence due to all companions;[7][8][9][10][11][12][f][g][h][i] It sometimes admonishes them, as when Aisha, daughter of the first Sunni caliph Abu Bakr and the wife of Muhammad, was accused of infidelity. [j][k]

Shia Muslim

As Shia Muslim believe[13][14] as well as some sunni scholars like Javed Ahmad Ghamidi and Amin Ahsan Islahi state that not every individual who met or had accidentally seen Muhammad can be considered as a Companion. In their view, the Quran has outlined a high level of faith as one of the distinctive qualities of the Sahabah. Hence, they admit to this list only those individuals who had substantial contact with Muhammad, lived with him, and took part in his campaigns and efforts at proselytizing.[15] In other words, Companion is called to followers of prophet who be in a long-term relationship with him and support him in essential event up to their death.[14]

In view of such admonitions, Shias have different views on each Sahabi, depending on what he or she accomplished. They do not accept that the testimony of nearly all Sahabah is an authenticated part of the chain of narrators in a hadith and that not all the Sahaba were righteous just because they saw or were with Muhammad. Shias further argue[citation needed] that the righteousness of Sahabah can be assessed by their loyalty towards Muhammad's family after his death and they accept hadith from the Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt, believing them to be cleansed from sin through their interpretation of the Quran [l] and the hadith of the Cloak.

Shia Muslims believe that some companions are accountable for the loss of caliphate by the Ali's family.[2]

As verses 30-33 from Al-Ahzab, Shias believe their argument[where?] that one must discriminate between the virtues of the companions by verses relating to Muhammad's wives.[m]

Baha'i Faith

The Bahá'í Faith recognises the companions of Muhammad. They are mentioned in the Kitáb-i-Íqán, the primary theological work of the Baha'i religion.[16]

Hadith

Sunni views

According to Tarikh al-Tabari, After the death of Muhammad prophet, Abu Bakr, Umar Ibn al-khattab and abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah and some companions called Ansar made a consultation and selected Abu Bakr as the first caliph. Then Abd al-Rahman bin Awf (the first companion of prophet) and Uthman ibn Affan (companion and son-in-law of Muhammad also essential chief of the Banu Umayya clan) selected Umar ibn al-Khattab as the second caliph after the death of Abu Bakr and other members of Ansar and Muhajirun accepted him.[17][18]

Sunni Muslim scholars classified companions into many categories, based on a number of criteria. The hadith quoted above ([n][o]) shows the rank of ṣaḥābah, tābi‘īn, and tābi‘ at-tābi‘īn. Al-Suyuti recognized eleven levels of companionship. Shia does not have a ranking system dependent on when the Sahabi embraced Islam but according to what they did during their life. If a Sahabi made Muhammad angry or questioned his decision several times then he is viewed as unreliable.[citation needed]

Shia views

Following the consultation of companions about the successor of Muhammad prophet, the Shia scholars, therefore, deprecate hadith believed to have been transmitted from alleged unjust companions and place much more reliance on hadith believed to have been related by Muhammad's family members and companions who supported Ali. The Shia claim that Muhammad announced his successor during his lifetime at Dawat Zul Asheera[19] then many times during his prophethood and finally at Ghadeer e Khum.[20]

Shias consider that any hadith where Muhammad is claimed to have absolved all Sahabah from sin is a false report by those who opposed the Ahl al-Bayt.[21]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Qur'an, 8:72
  2. ^ Qur'an, 3:103
  3. ^ Qur'an, 48:29
  4. ^ Qur'an, 9: 100
  5. ^ Qur'an, 9: 117
  6. ^ Qur'an, 48:10
  7. ^ Qur'an, 8:74
  8. ^ Qur'an, 8:75
  9. ^ Qur'an, 57:10
  10. ^ Qur'an, 24:11-16...Indeed, those who came with falsehood are a group among you. Do not think it bad for you; rather it is good for you. For every person among them is what [punishment] he has earned from the sin, and he who took upon himself the greater portion thereof - for him is a great punishment. Why, when you heard it ...
  11. ^ Qur'an, 9:101...And among those around you of the bedouins are hypocrites, and [also] from the people of Madinah. They have become accustomed to hypocrisy. You, [O Muhammad], do not know them, [but] We know them. We will punish them twice [in this world]; then they will be returned to a great punishment
  12. ^ Qur'an, 33:33
  13. ^ Qur'an, 33:30-33
  14. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:48:820
  15. ^ Sahih Muslim, 31:6150

References

  1. ^ Adil, Hajjah Amina. Muhammad the Messenger of Islam: His Life & Prophecy. Islamic Supreme Council of America. ISBN 978-1930409118.
  2. ^ a b Encyclopedia Britannica. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. ISBN 978-0852299647.
  3. ^ a b The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. "Companions of the Prophet". britannica.
  4. ^ Esposito, John L. (2003). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 301. ISBN 9780195125597. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  5. ^ [Source: Al-Isâbah (1/4-5) of al-Hâfidh lbn Hajar]
  6. ^ Muhammad ibn Ahmad (died 1622), also known as "Nişancızâde", Mir’ât-i-kâinât (in Turkish):

    "Once a male or female Muslim has seen Muhammad only for a short time, no matter whether he/she is a child or an adult, he/she is called a Sahaba with the proviso of dying with as a believer; the same rule applies to blind Muslims who have talked with the Prophet at least once. If a disbeliever sees Muhammad and then joins the Believers after the demise of Muhammad, he is not a Sahaba; nor is a person called a Sahaba if he converted to Islam afterward although he had seen Muhammad as a Muslim. A person who converts to Islam after being a Sahaba and then becomes a Believer again after the demise of Muhammad is a Sahaba.

  7. ^ "Sharh al-`Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah", by Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tahawi, p.526-528
  8. ^ "Al-I`tiqad `ala Madhhab al-Salaf Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a", by Al-Bayhaqi, pg.109–113
  9. ^ "Al-Tajrid fi Asma' al-Sahaba", by Al-Dhahabi, pg.57
  10. ^ Word Games With Verse 33:33, By: Ibn al-Hashimi
  11. ^ Mothers of the Believers, By: Ibn al-Hashimi
  12. ^ Al-Ifk: Quran Defends Aisha, By: Ibn al-Hashimi
  13. ^ Jabali, Fu'ad. "A STUDY OF THE COMPANIONS OF THE PROPHET: GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRlBUTION AND POLITICAL ALIGNMENTS (1999)" (PDF). nlc-bnc.ca.
  14. ^ a b Taqi poor, Hussain. "reviewing of the article "Companions of the Prophet" authored by linda L. Kim". noormags.
  15. ^ Fundamentals of Hadith Interpretation by Amin Ahsan Islahi
  16. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-01-08. Retrieved 2014-12-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "The Kitáb-i-Íqán PART ONE". BAHA'I REFERENCE LIBRARY. Retrieved 2014-09-10.
  17. ^ Fitzpatrick, Coeli. Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture. ABC-CLIO 2014. ISBN 978-1610691772.
  18. ^ Afsaruddin, Asma. "Companions of the Prophet (2008)". oxford islamic studies.
  19. ^ Burton, Sir Richard (1898). (The Jew the Gypsy and El Islam. San Francisco.
  20. ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims. p. 276.
  21. ^ Hadi, Muhammad. "Companions of the Prophet in view of Quran and Imams". noormags.

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 13 November 2019, at 15:56
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