To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Hawthorne, California

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hawthorne, California
Official seal of Hawthorne, California
"City of Good Neighbors"
Location of Hawthorne in Los Angeles County, California.
Location of Hawthorne in Los Angeles County, California.
Hawthorne is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area
Location in the United States
Hawthorne is located in California
Hawthorne (California)
Hawthorne is located in the United States
Hawthorne (the United States)
Coordinates: 33°55′2″N 118°20′55″W / 33.91722°N 118.34861°W / 33.91722; -118.34861
Country United States
State California
CountyLos Angeles
IncorporatedJuly 12, 1922[1]
Named forNathaniel Hawthorne
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • MayorAlex Vargas
 • City ManagerVontray (Von) Norris
 • Total6.09 sq mi (15.78 km2)
 • Land6.08 sq mi (15.75 km2)
 • Water0.01 sq mi (0.03 km2)  0.18%
Elevation72 ft (22 m)
 • Total88,083
 • Rank92nd in California
 • Density14,000/sq mi (5,600/km2)
Time zoneUTC−8 (Pacific Time Zone)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7 (PDT)
ZIP Codes
90250 and 90251[7]
Area codes310/424,[8] 213/323
FIPS code06-32548
GNIS feature IDs1652717, 2410720

Hawthorne is a city in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, located in southwestern Los Angeles County, California. It is part of a seventeen-city region commonly called the South Bay. As of the 2020 US census, Hawthorne had a population of 88,083.[6]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    1 472
    1 434
    1 808
  • Why Isn't It More Popular? You NEED to Check Out Hawthorne CA right now!
  • ✔Things to know before moving to Hawthorne, California💥
  • Hawthorne, California ⭐️🌎 AMERICAN CITIES 🌎⭐️
  • Sundown Series #12 Hawthorne, California
  • Holly Glen, Hawthorne, CA Homes for Sale & Real Estate with FULL Neighborhood Tour



Hawthorne was originally part of Rancho Sausal Redondo, granted in 1837 to Antonio Ygnacio Ávila, of the prominent Ávila family of California.

Hawthorne was once part of the Rancho Sausal Redondo (Round Willow-grove Ranch) of the 22,458-acre (91 km2) Mexican land grant in present day Los Angeles County, California given in 1837 to Antonio Ygnacio Ávila by Juan Alvarado the Mexican Governments Governor of Alta California.[9] Rancho Sausal Redondo covered the area that now includes Playa Del Rey, El Segundo, Manhattan Beach, Lawndale, Hermosa Beach, Inglewood, Hawthorne, and Redondo Beach.[10][11]

Hawthorne was founded in 1905 as the "Hawthorne Improvement Company" by real estate developers B.L. Harding and H.D. Lombard. Harding's daughter shared her birthday—the 4th of July, American Independence Day—with New England author Nathaniel Hawthorne, and a decision was made to name the small village after him.[12]

Hawthorne was once a "whites only" settlement, commonly called a sundown town.[13] During the 1930s, signs warned African-Americans to be out of Hawthorne by sundown.[14]


According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 6.1 square miles (16 km2), over 99% of it land.[citation needed]

To the north of Hawthorne is the unincorporated community of Lennox and the city of Inglewood. To the east is the unincorporated community of Athens and the city of Gardena. To the south is the unincorporated community of El Camino Village, and the cities of Lawndale and Redondo Beach. Manhattan Beach is at the southwest corner of Hawthorne. To the west is the city of El Segundo, and the Los Angeles neighborhood of Westchester is to the northwest of Hawthorne. Hawthorne surrounds the unincorporated community of Del Aire on three sides.

The Century Freeway (Glenn Anderson Freeway, I-105) runs along the northern boundary of Hawthorne, with the C Line light rail line running down the center of the Century Freeway. The San Diego Freeway (I-405) runs along the western boundary of Hawthorne. Major east–west streets in Hawthorne include Rosecrans Avenue, El Segundo Boulevard, and Imperial Highway. Major north–south streets include Aviation Boulevard, Inglewood Avenue, Hawthorne Boulevard, Prairie Avenue, Crenshaw Boulevard, and Van Ness Avenue.

Hawthorne is five miles (8 km) from the Los Angeles International Airport.[15]

Hawthorne comprises ZIP codes 90250 and 90251. It is in the 310 area code, except for a small portion of northeastern Hawthorne, which is located in the 323 area code.


Hawthorne, California
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches / NWS
Metric conversion
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

Hawthorne, like the rest of the Los Angeles basin, has a Mediterranean climate:

  • On average, the warmest month is August.
  • The highest recorded temperature was 111 °F (44 °C) in 1961.
  • On average, the coolest month is January.
  • The lowest recorded temperature was 15 °F (−9 °C) in 1963.
  • Most rainfall occurs during winter and spring.

Hawthorne has a Mediterranean climate or dry-summer subtropical (Köppen climate classification Csb on the coast, Csa inland), enjoying plenty of sunshine throughout the year, with an average of 263 sunshine days and only 35 days with measurable precipitation annually.[16]

The period of April through November is warm to hot and dry with average high temperatures of 71–79 °F (22–26 °C) and lows of 50–62 °F (10–17 °C). Due to the moderating effect of the ocean, temperatures are cooler than more inland areas of Los Angeles, where temperatures frequently exceed 90 °F (32 °C) and occasionally reach 100 °F (38 °C).[citation needed]

The Los Angeles area is also subject to the phenomena typical of a microclimate. As such, the temperatures can vary as much as 18 °F (10 °C) between inland areas and the coast, with a temperature gradient of over one degree per mile (1.6 km) from the coast inland. California has also a weather phenomenon called "June Gloom or May Grey", which sometimes brings overcast or foggy skies in the morning at the coast, but usually gives way to sunny skies by noon, during late spring and early summer.[citation needed]

The Los Angeles region averages 15 inches (385 mm) of precipitation annually, which mainly occurs during the winter and spring (November through April) with generally light rain showers, but sometimes as heavy rainfall and thunderstorms. On November 6, 1966, the first-ever documented tornado touched down within city limits. It caused significant damage, running for about one-half mile (0.80 km), from 132nd Street and Ramona Avenue to 140th Street and Ramona Avenue. Snowfall is extremely rare but not impossible in the city basin.[citation needed]


Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[17]


At the 2010 census Hawthorne had a population of 84,293. The population density was 13,835.7 inhabitants per square mile (5,342.0/km2). The racial makeup of Hawthorne was 27,678 (32.8%) White (10.3% Non-Hispanic White),[6] 23,385 (27.7%) African American, 565 (0.7%) Native American, 5,642 (6.7%) Asian, 974 (1.2%) Pacific Islander, 22,127 (26.3%) from other races, and 3,922 (4.7%) from two or more races. There were 44,572 people of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race (52.9%).[18]

The census reported that 83,754 people (99.4% of the population) lived in households, 208 (0.2%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 331 (0.4%) were institutionalized.

There were 28,486 households, 12,330 (43.3%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 10,833 (38.0%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 6,369 (22.4%) had a female householder with no husband present, 2,357 (8.3%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,309 (8.1%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 191 (0.7%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. Of the households, 7,125 (25.0%) were one person and 1,430 (5.0%) had someone living alone who was 65 or older. The average household size was 2.94. There were 19,559 families (68.7% of households); the average family size was 3.54.

The age distribution was 23,157 people (27.5%) under the age of 18, 9,487 people (11.3%) aged 18 to 24, 27,035 people (32.1%) aged 25 to 44, 18,395 people (21.8%) aged 45 to 64, and 6,219 people (7.4%) who were 65 or older. The median age was 31.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.6 males.

There were 29,869 housing units at an average density of 4,902.7 per square mile, of the occupied units 7,623 (26.8%) were owner-occupied and 20,863 (73.2%) were rented. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.5%; the rental vacancy rate was 4.6%. 25,869 people (30.7% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 57,885 people (68.7%) lived in rental housing units.

During 2009–2013, Hawthorne had a median household income of $44,649, with 19.2% of the population living below the federal poverty line.[6]


As of the census[19] of 2000, there were 84,112 people in 28,536 households, including 19,775 families, in the city. The population density was 13,879.4 inhabitants per square mile (5,358.9/km2). There were 29,629 housing units at an average density of 4,889.1 per square mile (1,887.7/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 29.3% White, 39.0% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American, 7.7% Asian, 0.9% Pacific Islander, 24.2% from other races, and 5.2% from two or more races. 44.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 28,536 households, 43.7% included children under the age of 18, 38.6% were married couples living together, 23.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.7% were non-families. Of all households 24.5% were one person and 4.5% were one person aged 65 or older. The average household size was 2.93 and the average family size was 3.50.

The age distribution was 31.7% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 34.9% from 25 to 44, 16.1% from 45 to 64, and 6.1% 65 or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males.

The median household income was $31,887 and the median family income was $35,149. Males had a median income of $29,481 versus $27,427 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,022. About 18.4% of families and 20.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.6% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over.

Mexican (27.1%) and Filipino (2.6%) are the most common ancestries in the city. Mexico (45.1%) and Guatemala (9.3%) are the most common foreign places of birth in the city.[20]


In 2022, Los Angeles Homeless Services Authority's Greater Los Angeles Homeless Count counted 173 homeless individuals in Hawthorne.[21]

Homeless population
2016 106—    
2017 95−10.4%
2018 149+56.8%
2019 108−27.5%
2020 208+92.6%
2022 173−16.8%
Source: Greater Los Angeles Homeless Count
Los Angeles Homeless Services Authority


SpaceX headquarters in Hawthorne.

As of 2022 the city is known as a center for the space industry and hosts numerous space related private companies, industries and startups.[22] The relatively large number of aerospace engineers and technicians, history of established aerospace companies, and the presence of SpaceX has facilitated the development of space engineering industry cluster in the city.[22] According to the city's 2021 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[23] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 SpaceX 6,094
2 Amazon Fulfillment Center 1,500
3 Hawthorne School District 900
4 Wiseburn Unified School District 394
5 City of Hawthorne 360
6 Home Depot 340
7 OSI Systems 280
8 Expeditors 260
9 Teledyne Relays 253
10 Target 250
P-61s being built by Northrop Corp. during World War II in Hawthorne[24]

Besides the current top employers, the following businesses are currently located in Hawthorne:

Previously in Hawthorne:

  • Mattel (formerly), toy manufacturer; originally started in Hawthorne in 1945 and moved to their current facility in nearby El Segundo, California by 1991.[25]
  • Hawthorne Plaza, a regional shopping center, now closed
  • The Boring Company, infrastructure and tunnel construction services company.
  • Northrop Corporation, founded in 1939 and headquartered in Hawthorne, became a major manufacturer of aircraft during World War II, as well as a major subcontractor to other aircraft companies. Jack Northrop developed his famous flying wings, which ultimately led to the B-2 stealth bomber. Northrop also produced the P-61 Black Widow fighter in its Hawthorne plant, which was on the south side of Northrop Field (present-day Hawthorne Airport). The facility was, for some time, used as an aircraft plant, producing fuselage sections for Boeing 747s and 787s.[26] The building is currently used as the headquarters and main factory of SpaceX.[27]


Municipal government

Hawthorne has an elected city council composed of a mayor elected every four years and four city council members elected on four year terms.

Current City Council Members[28]
Mayor Alex Vargas December 2024
Mayor Pro Tem Angie Reyes-English December 2024
Councilmember L. David Patterson December 2024
Councilmember Alex Monteiro December 2026
Councilmember Katrina Manning December 2026
Elected Officials[29]
City Treasurer Marie Poindexter-Hornback December 2026
City Clerk Dayna Williams-Hunter December 2026

According to the city's most recent[when?] "Comprehensive Annual Financial Report," its various funds had $126.1 million in revenues, $113.2 million in expenditures, $220.2 million in total assets, $152.7 million in total liabilities, and $29.6 million in cash and investments.[30] The structure of the management and coordination of city services is:[31] The city manager is Vontray Norris.[3]

State and federal representation

In the California State Legislature, Hawthorne is in the  35th Senate District, represented by Democrat Steven Bradford, and in the  62nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Anthony Rendon.[32]

In the United States House of Representatives, Hawthorne is in California's  43rd congressional district, represented by Democrat Maxine Waters.[33]


Primary and secondary schools

Hawthorne is served by multiple school districts.[34] Schools that include portions of Hawthorne include:[35]

Centinela Valley Union High School District[34]
Hawthorne School District
Lawndale Elementary School District[34]
Lennox School District[34]
  • Elementary schools with boundaries coinciding include: Buford, Felton, Jefferson, Dolores Hutera and Moffett[38]
  • All district residents are zoned to Lennox Middle School (grades 6–8)
Wiseburn Unified School District[34]
  • Juan Cabrillo Elementary School (Kindergarten-2nd grade)
  • 138th St School (3rd-5th grade) (To Be Renamed)
  • Richard Henry Dana Middle School (6th-8th grade)
  • Da Vinci Schools (9th-12th grade)
Los Angeles Unified School District[34]

In addition Los Angeles County Office of Education operates Southwest Day (5th-12th grade).

Hawthorne Math and Science Academy is a charter high school in Hawthorne associated with the Hawthorne School District.[39]

Private schools

  • Saint Joseph's Parish School (Catholic)
  • Trinity Lutheran School
  • Al Huda Islamic School

Colleges and universities

Los Angeles Community College District


The Hawthorne Press Tribune is the community newspaper for the City of Hawthorne.[40]


The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Curtis Tucker Health Center in Inglewood, serving Hawthorne.[41]

The United States Postal Service Hawthorne Post Office is located at 12700 Inglewood Avenue.[42]

Notable people


  1. ^ "California Cities by Incorporation Date". California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Archived from the original (Word) on October 17, 2013. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
  2. ^ "City Council". City of Hawthorne. Archived from the original on April 5, 2020. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
  3. ^ a b "City Manager's Office". City of Hawthorne. Archived from the original on March 13, 2020. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
  4. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  5. ^ "Hawthorne". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved October 11, 2014.
  6. ^ a b c d "Hawthorne (city) QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 16, 2021.
  7. ^ "USPS – ZIP Code Lookup – Find a ZIP+ 4 Code By City Results". Retrieved January 18, 2007.
  8. ^ "Number Administration System – NPA and City/Town Search Results". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
  9. ^ Ogden Hoffman, 1862, Reports of Land Cases Determined in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, Numa Hubert, San Francisco
  10. ^ Map of Rancho Sausal Redondo
  11. ^ "Map of old Spanish and Mexican ranchos in Los Angeles County". Archived from the original on July 27, 2016. Retrieved August 8, 2023.
  12. ^ Dixon, Walt; Roberts, Jerry (2005). Hawthorne. Arcadia. p. 10. ISBN 9780738529714.
  13. ^ KAPLAN, ERIN AUBRY (January 24, 2007). "Sun hasn't set on 'sundown towns'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
  14. ^ Wexler, Laura (October 23, 2005). "Book Review: Darkness on the Edge of Town (A review of SUNDOWN TOWNS: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism by James W. Loewen)". The Washington Post. p. BW03. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
  15. ^ "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
  16. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Los Angeles, California, United States of America". Retrieved January 8, 2009.
  17. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  18. ^ "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA – Hawthorne city". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  19. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  20. ^ "Hawthorne Profile – Mapping L.A." Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on February 2, 2022.
  21. ^ "Homeless Count by City/Community". LAHSA. Retrieved April 14, 2023.
  22. ^ a b Sarah, McBride (May 12, 2022). "A Sleepy California City Gets the Elon Musk Makeover". Retrieved May 25, 2022.
  23. ^ "City of Hawthorne FY2021 CAFR". p. 189. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
  24. ^ Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, p. 94, Cypress, CA 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.
  25. ^ "Mattel Toys to Move Its Headquarters to El Segundo Site". Los Angeles Times. September 20, 1989. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
  26. ^ Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, pp. 93–106, Cypress, CA, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.
  27. ^ Belfiore, Michael (January 20, 2012). "Inside SpaceX: We Visit the Company's California Headquarters". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
  28. ^ "City of hawthorne". HAWTHORNE CALIFORNIA. Retrieved February 23, 2023.
  29. ^ "City of Hawthorne". HAWTHORNE CALIFORNIA. Retrieved February 23, 2023.
  30. ^ City of Hawthorne CAFR Archived December 14, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2009-08-18.
  31. ^ City of Hawthorne City Directory. Retrieved 2009-08-18. Archived February 21, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ "Statewide Database". UC Regents. Archived from the original on February 1, 2015. Retrieved October 14, 2014.
  33. ^ "California's  43rd Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  34. ^ a b c d e f "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Los Angeles County, CA" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. p. 10 (PDF p. 11/19). Retrieved November 23, 2023. - This map overlays Hawthorne's city boundaries with the boundaries of various school districts.
  35. ^ "Zoning Map" (PDF). City of Hawthorne. Retrieved April 13, 2019. Compare this map to boundary maps issued by school districts.
  36. ^ "School Site Locator" (Archive). Lawndale Elementary School District. Retrieved on January 2, 2017.
  37. ^ "Elementary School & Middle School Boundaries as of September 2008." Lawndale Elementary School District. Retrieved on May 5, 2010.
  38. ^ "Boundary map" (PDF). Lennox School District. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
  39. ^ Archived October 21, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ Hawthorne Press Tribune. Herald Publications. Retrieved on 2013-08-18.
  41. ^ "Curtis Tucker Health Center." Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. Retrieved on March 18, 2010.
  42. ^ "Post Office Location – HAWTHORNE." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
  43. ^ a b "The History of Hawthorne". Broowaha. Retrieved June 25, 2010.
  44. ^ "City of Hawthorne, CA – Beach Boys". December 29, 2000. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved June 25, 2010.
  45. ^ Selvin, Joel (May 31, 2005). "For the Beach Boys, fun, fun, fun began in humble Hawthorne". SF Gate. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
  46. ^ "Parachutists Flock To Bridge For Day Of Legal Jumping". AP NEWS. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  47. ^ Statistics. "Curtis Conway – No. 81 – WR – Southern California – Profile". Archived from the original on December 3, 2008. Retrieved June 25, 2010.
  48. ^ "YouTube – Hawthorne vs. Leuzinger (11/4/1988)". Archived from the original on February 19, 2020. Retrieved June 25, 2010.
  49. ^ Jason Simmons News, Stats, Photos | Houston Texans Archived May 5, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2013-08-18.
  50. ^ "Fred Dryer". IMDb.
  51. ^ "Domo Genesis – The Vogue". Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  52. ^ Roberts, Randall (November 10, 2017). "Cuco rising: How a teen romantic from Hawthorne is becoming the buzz of the biz". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
  53. ^ "Dana Gioia inducted to Hawthorne Hall of Fame". USC Thornton School of Music. April 10, 2019. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  54. ^ "Ted Gioia bio". Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  55. ^ "Classmate Information". Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  56. ^ "Tracy Jones Minor Leagues Statistics & History". Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  57. ^ MTV, Kurupt.
  58. ^ "Scott Laidlaw Stats". Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  59. ^ "Michael Marsh". Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  60. ^ "MICHAEL A. McDERMOTT". HOUSE OF DELEGATES FORMER DELEGATES. Maryland State Archives. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
  61. ^ "Tour Location: 459 E Rhode Island Street, Hawthorne, California". The Movieland Directory. Archived from the original on June 21, 2009. Retrieved June 25, 2010.
  62. ^ "Marilyn Monroe: Encyclopedia II – Marilyn Monroe – Early life". Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved June 25, 2010.
  63. ^ "Welcome to the Official Chris Montez website". Archived from the original on February 5, 2008. Retrieved June 25, 2010.
  64. ^ Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, p. 93, Cypress, CA, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.
  65. ^ "Emitt Rhodes, a one-man 1970s cult band from Hawthorne, dies at 70". Los Angeles Times. July 21, 2020. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  66. ^ "Video". CNN. January 12, 1987. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
  67. ^ "Rapper Big Syke Dead at 48". December 6, 2016.
  68. ^ "City of Hawthorne, CA – Thorpe". December 29, 2000. Archived from the original on December 28, 2008. Retrieved June 25, 2010.
  69. ^ "City of Hawthorne, CA – Jim Thorpe". Archived from the original on May 2, 2011. Retrieved June 25, 2010.
  70. ^ Fox Sports. Retrieved on 2013-08-18.
  71. ^ "Russell Westbrook - 2006-07 Men's Basketball Roster - UCLA".
  72. ^ ""I Believe that Khelcey's Energy Is Inside Russell": The Legacy of Khelcey Barrs". Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  73. ^ "American Gyasi Zardes acquired by Colorado from Columbus". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved April 25, 2022.

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 27 November 2023, at 14:04
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.