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Maxine Waters
Waters in 2012
Ranking Member of the House Financial Services Committee
Assumed office
January 3, 2023
Preceded byPatrick McHenry
In office
January 3, 2013 – January 3, 2019
Preceded byBarney Frank
Succeeded byPatrick McHenry
Chair of the House Financial Services Committee
In office
January 3, 2019 – January 3, 2023
Preceded byJeb Hensarling
Succeeded byPatrick McHenry
Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus
In office
January 3, 1997 – January 3, 1999
Preceded byDonald M. Payne
Succeeded byJim Clyburn
Member of the
U.S. House of Representatives
from California
Assumed office
January 3, 1991
Preceded byAugustus Hawkins
Constituency29th district (1991–1993)
35th district (1993–2013)
43rd district (2013–present)
Member of the California State Assembly
from the 48th district
In office
December 6, 1976 – November 30, 1990
Preceded byLeon D. Ralph
Succeeded byMarguerite Archie-Hudson
Personal details
Maxine Moore Carr

(1938-08-15) August 15, 1938 (age 85)
St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Edward Waters
(m. 1956; div. 1972)
(m. 1977)
EducationCalifornia State University, Los Angeles (BA)
WebsiteHouse website

Maxine Moore Waters (née Carr; born August 15, 1938) is an American politician serving as the U.S. representative for California's 43rd congressional district since 1991. The district, numbered as the 29th district from 1991 to 1993 and as the 35th district from 1993 to 2013, includes much of southern Los Angeles, as well as portions of Gardena, Inglewood and Torrance.

A member of the Democratic Party, Waters is in her 17th House term. She is the most senior of the 13 black women serving in Congress, and chaired the Congressional Black Caucus from 1997 to 1999.[1] She is the second-most senior member of the California congressional delegation, after Nancy Pelosi. She chaired the House Financial Services Committee from 2019 to 2023 and has been the ranking member since 2023.[2]

Before becoming a U.S. representative, Waters served seven terms in the California State Assembly, to which she was first elected in 1976. As an assemblywoman, she advocated divestment from South Africa's apartheid regime. In Congress, she was an outspoken opponent of the Iraq War and has sharply criticized Presidents George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush, Barack Obama, and Donald Trump.[3][4]

Waters was included in Time magazine's 100 Most Influential People of 2018.[5]

Early life and education

Waters was born in 1938 in St. Louis, Missouri, the daughter of Remus Carr and Velma Lee (née Moore).[6][7] The fifth of 13 children, she was raised by her single mother after her father left the family when Maxine was two.[8] She graduated from Vashon High School in St. Louis before moving with her family to Los Angeles in 1961. She worked in a garment factory and as a telephone operator before being hired as an assistant teacher with the Head Start program in Watts in 1966.[8] Waters later enrolled at Los Angeles State College (now California State University, Los Angeles), where she received a bachelor's degree in sociology in 1971.[9]

Early political career

In 1973, Waters went to work as chief deputy to City Councilman David S. Cunningham, Jr. She was elected to the California State Assembly in 1976. In the Assembly, she worked for the divestment of state pension funds from any businesses active in South Africa, a country then operating under the policy of apartheid, and helped pass legislation within the guidelines of the divestment campaign's Sullivan Principles.[10] She ascended to the position of Democratic Caucus Chair for the Assembly.[11]

U.S. House of Representatives

Waters greeting President Bill Clinton in 1994
Waters watches as President Joe Biden signs the Methane, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and True Lender CRA Bills in 2021


Upon the retirement of Augustus F. Hawkins in 1990, Waters was elected to the United States House of Representatives for California's 29th congressional district with over 79% of the vote. She has been reelected consistently from this district, renumbered as the 35th district in 1992 and as the 43rd in 2012, with at least 70% of the vote.

Waters has represented large parts of south-central Los Angeles and the Los Angeles coastal communities of Westchester and Playa Del Rey, as well as the cities of Torrance, Gardena, Hawthorne, Inglewood and Lawndale.


Waters at a 1998 House Committee on the Judiciary hearing during the Impeachment inquiry against Bill Clinton

On July 29, 1994, Waters came to public attention when she repeatedly interrupted a speech by Representative Peter King. The presiding officer, Carrie Meek, classed her behavior as "unruly and turbulent", and threatened to have the Sergeant at Arms present her with the Mace of the House of Representatives (the equivalent of a formal warning to desist). As of 2017, this is the most recent instance of the mace being employed for a disciplinary purpose. Waters was eventually suspended from the House for the rest of the day. The conflict with King stemmed from the previous day, when they had both been present at a House Banking Committee hearing on the Whitewater controversy. Waters felt King's questioning of Maggie Williams (Hillary Clinton's chief of staff) was too harsh, and they subsequently exchanged hostile words.[12][13][14]

Waters chaired the Congressional Black Caucus from 1997 to 1998. In 2005, she testified at the U.S. House Committee on Education and the Workforce hearings on "Enforcement of Federal Anti-Fraud Laws in For-Profit Education", highlighting the American College of Medical Technology as a "problem school" in her district.[15] In 2006, she was involved in the debate over King Drew Medical Center. She criticized media coverage of the hospital and asked the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to deny a waiver of the cross ownership ban, and hence license renewal for KTLA-TV, a station the Los Angeles Times owned. She said, "The Los Angeles Times has had an inordinate effect on public opinion and has used it to harm the local community in specific instances." She requested that the FCC force the paper to either sell its station or risk losing that station's broadcast rights.[16] According to Broadcasting & Cable, the challenges raised "the specter of costly legal battles to defend station holdings... At a minimum, defending against one would cost tens of thousands of dollars in lawyers' fees and probably delay license renewal about three months".[17] Waters's petition was unsuccessful.[18]

As a Democratic representative in Congress, Waters was a superdelegate to the 2008 Democratic National Convention. She endorsed Democratic U.S. Senator Hillary Clinton for the party's nomination in late January 2008, granting Clinton nationally recognized support that some suggested would "make big waves."[19][20][21] Waters later switched her endorsement to U.S. Senator Barack Obama when his lead in the pledged delegate count became insurmountable on the final day of primary voting.[22]

In 2009 Waters had a confrontation with Representative Dave Obey over an earmark in the United States House Committee on Appropriations. The funding request was for a public school employment training center in Los Angeles that was named after her.[23] In 2011, Waters voted against the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, related to a controversial provision that allows the government and the military to detain American citizens and others indefinitely without trial.[24]

Upon Barney Frank's retirement in 2012, Waters became the ranking member of the House Financial Services Committee.[25][26] On July 24, 2013, she voted in favor of Amendment 100 in H.R. 2397 Department of Defense Appropriations Act of 2014.[27] The amendment targeted domestic surveillance activities, specifically that of the National Security Agency, and would have limited the flexibility of the NSA's interpretation of the law to collect sweeping data on U.S. citizens.[28] Amendment 100 was rejected, 217–205.

On March 27, 2014, Waters introduced a discussion draft of the Housing Opportunities Move the Economy Forward Act of 2014 known as the Home Forward Act of 2014.[29] A key provision of the bill includes the collection of 10 basis points for "every dollar outstanding mortgages collateralizing covered securities", estimated at $5 billion a year. These funds would be directed to three funds that support affordable housing initiatives, with 75% going to the National Housing trust fund. The National Housing Trust Fund will then provide block grants to states to be used primarily to build, preserve, rehabilitate, and operate rental housing that is affordable to the lowest income households, and groups including seniors, disabled persons and low income workers. The National Housing Trust was enacted in 2008, but has yet to be funded.[30] In 2009, Waters co-sponsored Representative John Conyers's bill calling for reparations for slavery to be paid to black Americans.[31]

For her tenure as chair of the House Financial Services Committee in the 116th Congress, Waters earned an "A" grade from the nonpartisan Lugar Center's Congressional Oversight Hearing Index.[32]


After a 1996 San Jose Mercury News article alleged the complicity of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the Los Angeles crack epidemic of the 1980s, Waters called for an investigation. She asked whether "U.S.-government paid or organized operatives smuggled, transported and sold it to American citizens".[33] The United States Department of Justice announced it had failed to find any evidence to support the original story.[34] The Los Angeles Times also concluded after its own extensive investigation that the allegations were not supported by evidence.[35] The author of the original story, Gary Webb, was eventually transferred to a different beat and removed from investigative reporting, before his death in 2004.[36] Webb was found in his apartment with two bullet holes in his head. His death was declared a suicide. After these post-publication investigations, Waters read into the Congressional Record a memorandum of understanding in which former President Ronald Reagan's CIA director rejected any duty by the CIA to report illegal narcotics trafficking to the Department of Justice.[37][38]

Allegations of corruption

According to Chuck Neubauer and Ted Rohrlich writing in the Los Angeles Times in 2004, Waters's relatives had made more than $1 million (~$1.55 million in 2023) during the preceding eight years by doing business with companies, candidates and causes that Waters had helped. They claimed she and her husband helped a company get government bond business, and her daughter Karen Waters and son Edward Waters have profited from her connections. Waters replied, "They do their business and I do mine."[39] Liberal watchdog group Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington named Waters to its list of corrupt members of Congress in its 2005, 2006, 2009 and 2011 reports.[40][41] Citizens Against Government Waste named her the June 2009 Porker of the Month due to her intention to obtain an earmark for the Maxine Waters Employment Preparation Center.[42][43]

Waters came under investigation for ethics violations and was accused by a House panel of at least one ethics violation related to her efforts to help OneUnited Bank receive federal aid.[44] Waters's husband is a stockholder and former director of OneUnited Bank and the bank's executives were major contributors to her campaigns. In September 2008, Waters arranged meetings between U.S. Treasury Department officials and OneUnited Bank so that the bank could plead for federal cash. It had been heavily invested in Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, and its capital was "all but wiped out" after the U.S. government took it over. The bank received $12 million in Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) money.[45][46] The matter was investigated by the House Ethics Committee,[47][48] which charged Waters with violations of the House's ethics rules in 2010.[49][50][51][52] On September 21, 2012, the House Ethics Committee completed a report clearing Waters of all ethics charges after nearly three years of investigation.[53]

Objection to 2000 presidential election results

Waters and other House members objected to Florida's electoral votes, which George W. Bush narrowly won after a contentious recount. Because no senator joined her objection, the objection was dismissed by Vice President Al Gore, who was Bush's opponent in the 2000 presidential election.[54]

Objection to 2004 presidential election results

Waters was one of 31 House Democrats who voted to not count Ohio's electoral votes in the 2004 presidential election.[55] President George W. Bush won Ohio by 118,457 votes.[56]

Objection to 2016 presidential election results

Waters objected to Wyoming's electoral votes after the 2016 presidential election, a state Donald Trump won with 68.2% of the vote.[57] Because no senator joined her objection, the objection was dismissed by then-Vice President Joe Biden.[58]

"Reclaiming my time"

Waters speaking to the California Democratic Party State Convention in June 2019.

In July 2017, during a House Financial Services Committee meeting, Waters questioned United States Secretary of the Treasury Steven Mnuchin. At several points during the questioning, Waters used the phrase "reclaiming my time" when Mnuchin did not directly address the questions Waters had asked him. The video of the interaction between Waters and Mnuchin became popular on social media, and the phrase became attached to her criticisms of Trump.[59]

Louis Farrakhan

In early 2018, Waters was among the members of Congress the Republican Jewish Coalition called on to resign due to their connections with Nation of Islam leader and known anti-Semite[60] Louis Farrakhan, who had recently drawn criticism for antisemitic remarks.[61][62][63] The Pittsburgh Jewish Chronicle noted that Waters had "long embraced Farrakhan" and refused to denounce him, even as other members of the Congressional Black Caucus who secretly met with Farrakhan in 2005 eventually did.[64]


Rodney King verdict and Los Angeles riots

When south-central Los Angeles erupted in riots – in which 63 were killed – after the Rodney King verdict in 1992, Waters gained national attention when she led a chant of "No justice, no peace" at a rally amidst the riot.[65] She also "helped deliver relief supplies in Watts and demanded the resumption of vital services".[66][67] Waters described the riots as a rebellion, saying, "If you call it a riot it sounds like it was just a bunch of crazy people who went out and did bad things for no reason. I maintain it was somewhat understandable, if not acceptable."[68] In her view, the violence was "a spontaneous reaction to a lot of injustice." In regard to the looting of Korean-owned stores by local black residents, she said in an interview with KABC radio host Michael Jackson:

There were mothers who took this as an opportunity to take some milk, to take some bread, to take some shoes. Maybe they shouldn't have done it, but the atmosphere was such that they did it. They are not crooks.[69]

Sarah Huckabee Sanders

On June 23, 2018, after an incident in which White House Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders was denied service and asked to leave a restaurant, Waters urged attendees at a rally in Los Angeles to confront Trump administration officials, saying:

If you see anybody from [Trump's] cabinet in a restaurant, in a department store, at a gasoline station, you get out and you create a crowd, and you push back on them, and you tell them they're not welcome anymore, anywhere.[70][71]

Many on the Right saw this statement as an incitement of violence against officials from the Trump administration.

In response, House Democratic leader Nancy Pelosi posted comments on Twitter reported to be a condemnation of Waters's remarks: "Trump's daily lack of civility has provoked responses that are predictable but unacceptable."[72]

Derek Chauvin trial

Waters at the Daunte Wright protests in 2021

Comments by Waters on April 17, 2021, while attending protests over the killing of Daunte Wright in Brooklyn Center, Minnesota, drew controversy.[73] Responding to questions outside the Brooklyn Center police department[74] – a heavily fortified area that for days had been the site of violent clashes between law enforcement and demonstrators attempting to overrun it[75][76] – Waters commented on the protests and the looming jury verdict in the trial of Derek Chauvin, a former Minneapolis police officer who at the time was charged with murdering George Floyd.[77] Before closing arguments in the trial, Waters said, "I hope we get a verdict that says guilty, guilty, guilty. And if we don't, we cannot go away", and when asked, "What happens if we do not get what you just told? What should the people do? What should protesters do?", Waters responded:

We've got to stay on the street. And we've got to get more active, we've got to get more confrontational, we've got to make sure that they know that we mean business.[73][78]

In response to a question from a reporter about the curfew in effect in Brooklyn Center, which loomed shortly,[79] Waters said, "I don't think anything about curfew ... I don't know what 'curfew' means. Curfew means that 'I want to you all to stop talking, I want you to stop meeting, I want you to stop gathering.' I don't agree with that."[80][81]

The protests outside the Brooklyn Center police station remained peaceful through the night. The crowd grew raucous when the curfew went into effect but shrank shortly after as protesters left on their own and no arrests were reported.[79][82]

The judge in Chauvin's trial said on April 19, 2021, that Waters's comments were "abhorrent" and that it was "disrespectful to the rule of law and to the judicial branch" for elected officials to comment in advance of the verdict. The judge refused the defense's request for a mistrial, saying that the jury "have been told not to watch the news. I trust they are following those instructions", but also that "Congresswoman Waters may have given you something on appeal that may result in this whole trial being overturned".[83][84]

After Waters's comments, Republican minority leader Kevin McCarthy said, "Waters is inciting violence in Minneapolis just as she has incited it in the past. If Speaker Pelosi doesn't act against this dangerous rhetoric, I will bring action this week".[81][85][86][87] On April 19, 2021, McCarthy introduced a resolution in the House to censure Waters, calling her comments "dangerous". The following day, the House voted to block McCarthy's resolution, narrowly defeating it along party lines, 216–210.[88]

Waters later said that her remarks in Brooklyn Center were taken out of context and that she believed in nonviolent actions. In an interview, she said, "I talk about confronting the justice system, confronting the policing that's going on, I'm talking about speaking up. I'm talking about legislation. I'm talking about elected officials doing what needs to be done to control their budgets and to pass legislation."[89]

Bombing attempt

Packages that contained pipe bombs were sent to two of Waters's offices on October 24, 2018. They were intercepted and investigated by the FBI. No one was injured. Similar packages were sent to several other Democratic leaders and to CNN.[90][91] In 2019, Cesar Sayoc pleaded guilty to mailing the bombs and was sentenced to 20 years in prison.[92][93]

Committee assignments

For the 118th Congress:[94]

  • Committee on Financial Services (Ranking Member)
    • As Ranking Member of the committee, Rep. Waters is entitled to sit as an ex officio member in any subcommittee meeting, per the committee rules.

Caucus memberships

Political positions


Waters has a 100% rating from NARAL Pro-Choice America and an F rating from the Susan B. Anthony List based on her abortion-related voting record.[96][97] She opposed the overturning of Roe v. Wade.[98]

Barack Obama

In August 2011, Waters criticized President Barack Obama, saying he was insufficiently supportive of the black community. She referred to African Americans' high unemployment rate (around 15.9% at the time).[99] At a Congressional Black Caucus town-hall meeting on jobs in Detroit, Waters said that African American members of Congress were reluctant to criticize or place public pressure on Obama because "y'all love the President".[100]

In October 2011, Waters had a public dispute with Obama, arguing that he paid more attention to swing voters in the Iowa caucuses than to equal numbers of (geographically dispersed) black voters. In response, Obama said that it was time to "stop complaining, stop grumbling, stop crying" and get back to working with him.[4][101][102]


Waters opposes mandatory minimum sentences.[103]

Donald Trump

Waters has called Trump "a bully, an egotistical maniac, a liar and someone who did not need to be president"[41] and "the most deplorable person I've ever met in my life".[104] In a 2017 appearance on MSNBC's All In with Chris Hayes, she said Trump's advisors who have ties to Russia or have oil and gas interests there are "a bunch of scumbags".[105]

Waters began to call for the impeachment of Trump shortly after he took office. In February 2017, she said that Trump was "leading himself" to possible impeachment because of his conflicts of interest and that he was creating "chaos and division".[106] In September 2017, while giving a eulogy at Dick Gregory's funeral, she said that she was "cleaning out the White House" and that "when I get through with Donald Trump, he's going to wish he had been impeached."[107] In October 2017, she said the U.S. Congress had enough evidence against Trump to "be moving on impeachment", in reference to Russian collusion allegations during the 2016 presidential election, and that Trump "has openly obstructed justice in front of our face".[108]

Linking Trump to the violence that erupted at a white nationalist protest rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, on August 12, 2017, Waters said that the White House "is now the White Supremacists' House".[109][110] After Trump's 2018 State of the Union address, she released a video response addressing what most members of the Congressional Black Caucus viewed as his racist viewpoint and actions, saying, "He claims that he's bringing people together but make no mistake, he is a dangerous, unprincipled, divisive, and shameful racist."[111] Trump later replied by calling her a "low-IQ individual".[112]

On April 24, 2018, while attending the Time 100 Gala, Waters urged Trump to resign from office, "So that I won't have to keep up this fight of your having to be impeached because I don't think you deserve to be there. Just get out."[113]

On December 18, 2019, Waters voted for both articles of impeachment against Trump.[114] Moments before voting for the second impeachment of Donald Trump, she called him "the worst president in the history of the United States.″[115]



On June 18, 2019, Waters asked Facebook to halt its plan for the development and launching of Libra, a new cryptocurrency, citing a list of recent scandals. She said: "The cryptocurrency market currently lacks a clear regulatory framework to provide strong protections for investors, consumers and the economy. Regulators should see this as a wake-up call to get serious about the privacy and national security concerns, cybersecurity risks, and trading risks that are posed by cryptocurrencies".[116]

Foreign affairs

In August 2008, Waters introduced HR 6796, the Stop Very Unscrupulous Loan Transfers from Underprivileged countries from Rich Exploitive Funds Act (Stop VULTURE Funds Act). It would limit the ability of investors in sovereign debt to use U.S. courts to enforce those instruments against a defaulting country. The bill died in committee.[117]


Waters has visited Cuba a number of times, praising[when?] Fidel Castro's moves towards democracy.[clarification needed] She also criticized previous U.S. efforts to overthrow him and demanded an end to the U.S. trade embargo.[118] In 1998, Waters wrote Castro a letter calling the 1960s and 1970s "a sad and shameful chapter of our history" and thanking him for helping those who needed to "flee political persecution".[119]

In 1998, Waters wrote Castro an open letter asking him not to extradite convicted terrorist Assata Shakur from Cuba, where she had sought asylum. Waters argued that much of the Black community regarded her conviction as false.[120][121][122] She had earlier supported a Republican bill to extradite Shakur, who was referred to by her former name, Joanne Chesimard. In 1999, Waters called on President Bill Clinton to return six-year-old Elián González to his father in Cuba; the boy had survived a boat journey from Cuba, during which his mother had drowned, and was taken in by U.S. relatives.[119]


Waters opposed the 2004 coup d'état in Haiti and criticized U.S. involvement.[123] After the coup, she, TransAfrica Forum founder Randall Robinson, and Jamaican member of parliament Sharon Hay-Webster led a delegation to meet with Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide and bring him to Jamaica, where he remained until May.[124][125][126]

Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

On October 1, 2020, Waters co-signed a letter to Secretary of State Mike Pompeo that condemned Azerbaijan's offensive operations against the Armenian-populated enclave Nagorno-Karabakh, denounced Turkey's role in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, and called for an immediate ceasefire.[127]

George H. W. Bush

In July 1992, Waters called President George H. W. Bush "a racist" who "polarized the races in this country". Previously, she had suggested that Bush had used race to advance his policies.[128]

Tea Party movement

Waters has been very critical of the Tea Party movement. On August 20, 2011, at a town hall discussing some of the displeasure that Obama's supporters felt about the Congressional Black Caucus not supporting him, Waters said, "This is a tough game. You can't be intimidated. You can't be frightened. And as far as I'm concerned, the 'tea party' can go straight to Hell ... and I intend to help them get there."[129][130]


Iraq War

Waters voted against the Iraq War Resolution, the 2002 resolution that funded and granted Congressional approval to possible military action against the regime of Saddam Hussein.[131] She has remained a consistent critic of the subsequent war and has supported immediate troop withdrawal from Iraq. Waters asserted in 2007 that President George W. Bush was trying to "set [Congress] up" by continually requesting funds for an "occupation" that was "draining" the country of capital, soldier's lives, and other resources. In particular, she argued that the economic resources being "wasted" in Iraq were those that might provide universal health care or fully fund Bush's "No Child Left Behind" education bill. Additionally, Waters, representing a congressional district whose median income falls far below the national average, argued that patriotism alone had not been the sole driving force for those U.S. service personnel serving in Iraq. Rather, "many of them needed jobs, they needed resources, they needed money, so they're there".[132] In a subsequent floor speech, she said that Congress, lacking the votes to override the "inevitable Bush veto on any Iraq-related legislation," needed to "better [challenge] the administration's false rhetoric about the Iraq war" and "educate our constituents [about] the connection between the problems in Pakistan, Turkey, and Iran with the problems we have created in Iraq".[133] A few months before these speeches, Waters cosponsored the House resolution to impeach Vice President Dick Cheney for making allegedly "false statements" about the war.[134]

Personal life

Waters's second husband, Sid Williams, played professional football in the NFL[135] and is a former U.S. Ambassador to the Bahamas under the Clinton Administration.[136] They live in Los Angeles's Windsor Square neighborhood.[137]

In May 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, Waters confirmed her sister, Velma Moody, had died of the virus aged 86.[138]

Other achievements

Electoral history

California State Assembly

1976 California State Assembly 48th district election[140]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters 38,133 80.6
Republican Johnnie G. Neely 9,188 19.4
Total votes 47,321 100
Democratic hold
1978 California State Assembly 48th district election[141]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 30,449 80.8
Republican Timothy F. Faulkner 7,247 19.2
Total votes 37,696 100
Democratic hold
1980 California State Assembly 48th district election[142]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 39,660 82.9
Republican Yva Hallburn 8,194 17.1
Total votes 47,854 100
Democratic hold
1982 California State Assembly 48th district election[143]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 54,209 100
Total votes 54,209 100
Democratic hold
1984 California State Assembly 48th district election[144]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 59,507 85.8
Republican Donald "Don" Weiss 9,884 14.2
Total votes 69,391 100
Democratic hold
1986 California State Assembly 48th district election[145]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 42,706 84.5
Republican Ezola Foster 6,450 12.8
Libertarian José "Joe" Castañeda 1,360 2.7
Total votes 50,516 100
Democratic hold
1988 California State Assembly 48th district election[146]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 49,946 100
Total votes 49,946 100
Democratic hold

U.S. House of Representatives

1990 California U.S. House of Representatives 29th district election[147][148]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters 36,182 88.5
Democratic Lionel Allen 2,666 6.5
Democratic Twain Wilson 1,115 2.7
Democratic Ted Andromidas 930 2.3
Total votes 40,893 100
General election
Democratic Maxine Waters 51,350 79.4
Republican Bill DeWitt 12,054 18.6
Peace and Freedom Waheed R. Boctor 1,268 2.0
Total votes 64,672 100
Democratic hold
1992 California U.S. House of Representatives 35th district election[149][150]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 51,534 89.2
Democratic Roger A. Young 6,252 10.8
Total votes 57,786 100
General election
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 102,941 82.5
Republican Nate Truman 17,417 14.0
Peace and Freedom Alice Mae Miles 2,797 2.2
Libertarian Carin Rogers 1,618 1.3
Total votes 124,773 100
Democratic gain from Republican
1994 California U.S. House of Representatives 29th district election[151][152]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 65,688 78.1
Republican Nate Truman 18,390 21.9
American Independent Gordan Mego (write-in) 3 nil
Total votes 84,081 100
Democratic hold
1996 California U.S. House of Representatives 29th district election[153]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 92,762 85.5
Republican Eric Carlson 13,116 12.1
American Independent Gordan Mego 2,610 2.4
Total votes 108,398 100
Democratic hold
1998 California U.S. House of Representatives 29th district election[154]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 78,732 89.3
American Independent Gordan Mego 9,413 10.7
Total votes 88,145 100
Democratic hold
2000 California U.S. House of Representatives 29th district election[155]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 100,569 86.5
Republican Carl McGill 12,582 10.8
American Independent Gordan Mego 1,911 1.6
Natural Law Rick Dunstan 1,153 1.0
Total votes 116,215 100
Democratic hold
2002 California U.S. House of Representatives 29th district election[156]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 72,401 77.5
Republican Ross Moen 18,094 19.4
American Independent Gordan Mego 2,912 3.1
Total votes 93,407 100
Democratic hold
2004 California U.S. House of Representatives 29th district election[157]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 125,949 80.5
Republican Ross Moen 23,591 15.1
American Independent Gordan Mego 3,440 2.2
Libertarian Charles Tate 3,427 2.2
Total votes 156,407 100
Democratic hold
2006 California U.S. House of Representatives 29th district election[158][159]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 31,010 86.1
Democratic Carl McGill 5,000 13.9
Total votes 36,010 100
General election
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 82,498 83.8
American Independent Gordan Mego 8,343 8.5
Libertarian Paul Ireland 7,665 7.8
Total votes 98,506 100
Democratic hold
2008 California U.S. House of Representatives 29th district election[160][161]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 36,685 100
Total votes 36,685 100
General election
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 150,778 82.6
Republican Theodore Hayes, Jr. 24,169 13.2
Libertarian Herbert G. Peters 7,632 4.2
Total votes 182,579 100
Democratic hold
2010 California U.S. House of Representatives 29th district election[162][163]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 32,946 100
Total votes 32,946 100
General election
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 98,131 79.3
Republican K. Bruce Brown 25,561 20.7
independent (politician) Suleiman Charles Edmondson (write-in) 2 nil
Total votes 123,694 100
Democratic hold
2012 California U.S. House of Representatives 29th district election[164][165]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 36,062 65.4
Democratic Bob Flores 19,061 34.5
Total votes 55,123 100
General election
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 143,123 71.2
Democratic Bob Flores 57,771 28.8
Total votes 200,894 100
Democratic hold
2014 California U.S. House of Representatives 29th district election[166][167]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 33,746 67.2
Republican John Wood, Jr. 16,440 32.8
American Independent Brandon M. Cook (write-in) 12 nil
Total votes 50,198 100
General election
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 69,681 71.0
Republican John Wood, Jr. 28,521 29.0
Total votes 99,202 100
Democratic hold
2016 California U.S. House of Representatives 29th district election[168][169]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 92,909 76.1
Republican Omar Navarro 29,152 23.9
Total votes 122,061 100
General election
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 167,017 76.1
Republican Omar Navarro 52,499 23.9
Total votes 219,516 100
Democratic hold
2018 California U.S. House of Representatives 29th district election[170][171]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 63,908 72.4
Republican Omar Navarro 12,522 14.1
Republican Frank T. DeMartini 6,156 7.0
Republican Edwin P. Duterte 3,673 4.3
Green Miguel Angel Zuniga 2,074 2.4
Total votes 88,333 100
General election
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 152,272 77.7
Republican Omar Navarro 43,780 22.3
Total votes 196,052 100
Democratic hold
2020 California U.S. House of Representatives 29th district election[172][173]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 100,468 78.1
Republican Joe Edward Collins III 14,189 11.0
Republican Omar Navarro 13,939 10.8
Total votes 128,596 100
General election
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 199,210 71.7
Republican Joe Edward Collins III 78,688 28.3
Total votes 277,898 100
Democratic hold
2022 California U.S. House of Representatives 43rd district election
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 55,889 74.3
Republican Omar Navarro 8,927 11.9
Republican Allison Pratt 5,489 7.3
Democratic Jean Monestime 4,952 6.6
Total votes 75,257 100.0
General election
Democratic Maxine Waters (incumbent) 95,462 77.3
Republican Omar Navarro 27,985 22.7
Total votes 123,447 100.0
Democratic hold

See also


  1. ^ "Membership". Congressional Black Caucus. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
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  3. ^ Gstalter, Morgan (May 29, 2019). "Maxine Waters: Trump should resign and 'free us' from impeachment proceedings". The Hill. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  4. ^ a b Williams, Joseph Williams (October 20, 2011), " Obama learns perils of roiling Waters", Politico, October 20, 2011.
  5. ^ "Maxine Waters: The World's 100 Most Influential People". Time. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  6. ^ "Next up for House Ethics trial: St. Louis native Maxine Waters". stltoday. November 19, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2011.
  7. ^ "Waters, Maxine". Contemporary Black Biography. 2008. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
  8. ^ a b Brownstein, Ronald (March 5, 1989). "The Two Worlds of Maxine Waters". Los Angeles Times Magazine. Retrieved December 18, 2014.
  9. ^ "Public Affairs Office – Who's Who of Cal State L.A. Alumni". Cal State LA. October 22, 2013.
  10. ^ French, Howard W. (February 9, 1987). "Slash Ties, Apartheid Foes Urge". The New York Times. p. D1. Retrieved March 13, 2009. Maxine Waters, a member of the California Assembly who helped frame her state's pension fund divestment bill, has promised to work overtime to insure that our legislation reflects these guidelines and continues to target any and all U.S. companies that are doing business in or with South Africa.
  11. ^ "About Congresswoman Maxine Waters: Representing the 35th District of California". Archived from the original on March 1, 2009. Retrieved March 13, 2009. During 14 years in the California State Assembly, she rose to the powerful position of Democratic Caucus Chair. She was responsible for some of the boldest legislation California has ever seen: the largest divestment of state pension funds from South Africa; landmark affirmative action legislation; the nation's first statewide Child Abuse Prevention Training Program; the prohibition of police strip searches for nonviolent misdemeanors; and the introduction of the nation's first plant closure law.
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  18. ^ "Station Search Details". Federal Communications Commission. Archived from the original on April 7, 2022. Retrieved March 13, 2009. Call Sign: KTLA... Channel: 5... Lic Expir: 12/01/2014
  19. ^ "The endorsements that would make huge waves". The Hill. December 6, 2007. Archived from the original on December 8, 2007. Retrieved March 13, 2009. Rep. Maxine Waters (D-Calif.). The outspoken anti-war liberal, who campaigned for Ned Lamont (D) over U.S. Senator Joe Lieberman (I) from Connecticut last year, has not picked a favorite.
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  39. ^ Chuck Neubauer and Ted Rohrlich Capitalizing on a Politician's Clout; The husband, daughter and son of Rep. Maxine Waters have business links to people the influential lawmaker has aided Archived September 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine; The Los Angeles Times. December 19, 2004. Retrieved August 18, 2010.
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  42. ^ "Rep. Maxine Waters is CAGW's June Porker of the Month". Citizens Against Government Waste. April 2009. Archived from the original on June 23, 2009. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
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  45. ^ Schmidt, Susan (March 12, 2009). "Waters Helped Bank Whose Stock She Once Owned". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 13, 2009. Ms. Waters, who represents inner-city Los Angeles, hasn't made a secret of her family's financial interest in OneUnited. Referring to her family's investment, she said in 2007 during a congressional hearing that for African-Americans, "the test of your commitment to economic expansion and development and support for business is whether or not you put your money where your mouth is."
  46. ^ Lipton, Eric; Rutenberg, Jim; Walsh, Barclay (March 12, 2009). "Congresswoman, Tied to Bank, Helped Seek Funds". The New York Times. Retrieved March 13, 2009. Top federal regulators say they were taken aback when they learned that a California congresswoman who helped set up a meeting with bankers last year had family financial ties to a bank whose chief executive asked them for up to $50 million in special bailout funds.
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  100. ^ Camia, Catalina (August 18, 2011), "Waters: Black lawmakers hesitant to criticize Obama", USA Today.
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  104. ^ Max Greenwood, Maxine Waters: Trump is the most deplorable person I’ve ever met, The Hill (August 4, 2017).
  105. ^ "Rep. Maxine Waters: Trump advisors with Russia ties are ..." MSNBC. February 21, 2017.
  106. ^ Diaz, Daniella (February 6, 2017). "Waters: Trump 'leading himself' to impeachment". CNN.
  107. ^ "Maxine Waters Turns Comedian Dick Gregory's Eulogy into Anti-Trump Speech". September 20, 2017.
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External links

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 29th congressional district

Succeeded by
Preceded by Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 35th congressional district

Succeeded by
Preceded by Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus
Succeeded by
Preceded by Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 43rd congressional district

Preceded by Chair of the House Financial Services Committee
Succeeded by
U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by United States representatives by seniority
Succeeded by
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