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Climate change in Russia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Climate change in Russia describes the global warming related issues in Russia. This includes climate politics, and the influence of global warming in Russia. In September 2019, Russia announced that it will implement the 2015 Paris Agreement to fight climate change.[1]

Agreements

Kyoto protocol

When Russia underlined[clarification needed] the Kyoto protocol it came in force on 16 February 2010. Russia ratified the agreement three months earlier.[2] This agreement did not cause emission cuts for Russia due to an earlier drop in emissions compared to year 1990 for other reasons, mainly a significant drop in economic growth.

G8

Six G8 countries would have been ready for the agreement to "at least halve global CO
2
emissions by 2050" in 2007. Russia and the United States did not agree.[3]

Effects of climate change on Russia

IPCC

According to IPCC (2007), climate change affected temperature increase which is greater at higher northern latitudes in many ways. For example, agricultural and forestry management at Northern Hemisphere higher latitudes, such as earlier spring planting of crops, higher frequency of wildfires, alterations in disturbance of forests due to pests, increased health risks due to heat-waves, changes in infectious diseases and allergenic pollen and changes to human activities in the Arctic, e.g. hunting and travel over snow and ice. From 1900 to 2005, precipitation increased in northern Europe and northern and central Asia. Recently these have resulted in fairly significant increases in GDP. Changes may affect inland flash floods, more frequent coastal flooding and increased erosion, reduced snow cover and species losses.[4]

Permafrost

Permafrost thawing may be a serious cause for concern. It is believed that carbon storage in permafrost globally is approximately 1600 gigatons; equivalent to twice the atmospheric pool. Protecting peatlands from drainage and clearance slows down the rate of greenhouse gases and gives benefits for biodiversity.[5] Permafrost is soil that has been frozen for two or more years. In most Arctic areas it is from a few to several hundred metres thick. Thawing of permafrost soils releases methane. Methane has 25 times the warming potential of carbon dioxide. Recent methane emissions of the world’s soils were estimated between 150 and 250 million metric tons (2008)[6] Estimated annual net methane emission rates at the end of the 20th century for the northern region was 51 million metric tons. Net methane emissions from permafrost regions north included 64% from Russia, 11% from Canada and 7% from Alaska (2004). The business-as-usual scenarios estimate the Arctic methane emissions from permafrost thawing and rising temperatures to range from 54 to 105 million metric tons of methane per year (2006).[6]

Wildfires

According to IPCC, higher temperatures may increase the frequency of wildfires.[4] In Russia, this includes the risk of peatland fires. Peat fire emissions may be more harmful to human health than forest fires. Scientists alarmed by the peat fires in Indonesia in 2004 concluded that "burning peat could be a major contributor to the as yet unexplained accelerating build-up of CO
2
in the atmosphere since 1998." In October 2004 in Borneo, regionally the atmosphere was covered in thick smoke, visibility was 100 metres, schools shut and flights were cancelled.[7] According to Wetlands International the wildfires in Moscow July 2010 were mainly 80–90% from dewatered peatlands. According to UN dewatered bogs cause 6% of human global warming emissions.[8] Moscow air was filled with peat fire emissions in July 2010 and regionally visibility was below 300 metres.[9]

Greenhouse gas emissions

Energy from fossil fuels

Most emissions are from the energy sector burning fossil fuels.

Deforestation

Russian challenges for forests include control of illegal logging,[10] corruption, forest fires and land use.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Russia gives definitive approval to Paris climate accord". Reuters. 23 September 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  2. ^ Tim Flannary, Ilmastonmuuttajat, Otava 2006 page 230 (The Weather Makers, The History and Future of Climate Change 2005)
  3. ^ UNEP Year Book2008, An Overview of Our Changing Environment Archived 1 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, United Nations Environment Programme 2008 pages 2
  4. ^ a b IPCC Working group III fourth assessment report, Summary for Policymakers 2007[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ The Natural Fix?: The Role of Ecosystems in Climate Mitigation UNEP 2009 page. 20, 55
  6. ^ a b Year Book2008, An Overview of Our Changing Environment Archived 1 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, United Nations Environment Programme 2008 pages 38–41
  7. ^ Massive peat burn is speeding climate change, New Scientist 6 November 2004, Fred Pearce
  8. ^ turvesuot liekeissä talveen asti yle 12.8.2010
  9. ^ Venäjän metsäpalot tukaloittavat moskovalaisten elämää yle 26 July 2010
  10. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Russia's forests threatened by illegal logging | DW | 25.03.2019". DW.COM. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
This page was last edited on 29 October 2019, at 19:48
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