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Climate of Malta

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Malta
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
99
 
 
16
10
 
 
60
 
 
16
9
 
 
44
 
 
17
11
 
 
21
 
 
20
12
 
 
16
 
 
24
16
 
 
4.6
 
 
29
19
 
 
0.3
 
 
32
22
 
 
13
 
 
32
23
 
 
59
 
 
29
21
 
 
83
 
 
25
18
 
 
92
 
 
21
15
 
 
109
 
 
17
12
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Meteo Climate (1981-2010 Data),[1]

Malta has a Mediterranean climate according to the Köppen climate classification (Csa),[2][3] with very mild winters and hot summers. Rain occurs mainly in winter, with summer being generally dry. According to the Troll-Paffen climate classification[4] and the Siegmund/Frankenberg climate classification,[5] Malta lies within the subtropical zone, being at 35ºN latitude.

Temperature

The average yearly temperature is around 23 °C (73 °F) during the day and 16 °C (61 °F) at night (one of the warmest temperature averages in Europe). In the coldest month – January – the typical maximum temperature ranges from 12 to 20 °C (54 to 68 °F) during the day and the minimum from 6 to 12 °C (43 to 54 °F) at night. In the warmest month – August – the typical maximum temperature ranges from 28 to 34 °C (82 to 93 °F) during the day and the minimum from 20 to 24 °C (68 to 75 °F) at night.

Generally, April starts with temperatures from 17–22 °C (63–72 °F) during the day and 10–14 °C (50–57 °F) at night. November has temperatures from 17–23 °C (63–73 °F) during the day and 11–18 °C (52–64 °F) at night. However even in the winter months of the year (December, January, February) temperatures sometimes reach 20 °C (68 °F), March is transitional, with warmer temperatures, daily maximums often exceed 20 °C (68 °F) and lows are already in the 2 digits (above 10 °C (50 °F)) since early March. With an average of 19.3 °C (67 °F), Malta has the warmest average temperature in Europe. Amongst all capitals in the continent of Europe, Valletta – the capital of Malta has the warmest winters, with average temperatures of around 16 °C (61 °F) during the day and 10 °C (50 °F) at night in the months of January and February. In March and December average temperatures are around 17 °C (63 °F) during the day and 11 °C (52 °F) at night.[6] In Malta large fluctuations in temperature are rare. Malta is one of only a handful of locations in Europe with a USDA hardiness zone of 11a, that is the average absolute minimum temperature recorded each year is between 4.4 to 7.2 °C (39.9 to 45.0 °F).

Daylight

Malta enjoys one of the most optimal arrangement of hours of daylight in Europe. Days in winter are not as short as in the northern part of the continent, the average hours of daylight in December, January and February is 10.3 hours[7] (for comparison: London[8] or Moscow[9] or Warsaw[10] - about 8 hours). The shortest day of the year - 21 December - sunrise is around 7:00 and sunset is around 17:00. The longest day of the year - 21 June - sunrise is around 5:30 and sunset is around 20:30.[11]

Average hours of daylight[6][12]
Hours Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Day 10 10.8 11.9 13 14 14.5 14.3 13.5 12.3 11.2 10.2 9.8
Twilight/Night 14 13.2 12.1 11 10 9.5 9.7 10.5 11.7 12.8 13.8 14.2

Sunshine

As one might expect from Malta's high daylight hours, Malta enjoys around 3,000 hours of sunshine per year (also one of the highest in Europe), from an average of above 5 hours of sunshine per day in December to an average of above 12 hours of sunshine per day in July.[13][7] Thus, Malta enjoys about twice the amount of sunshine as cities in the northern half of Europe.[citation needed] For comparison, London has 1,461 hours per year;[14] however, in winter Malta has much more sunshine. For comparison, London has 37 hours[14] while Malta has 161 hours of sunshine in December.[13]

Climate data for Malta
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean monthly sunshine hours 169.3 178.1 227.2 253.8 309.7 336.9 376.7 352.2 270.0 223.8 195.0 161.2 3,054
Mean daily sunshine hours 5.46 6.36 7.33 8.46 9.99 11.23 12.15 11.36 9.00 7.22 6.50 5.20 8.4
Percent possible sunshine 58 62 64 67 72 81 87 88 77 65 62 55 70
Source: MaltaWeather (Mean daily and monthly sunshine hours),[13] climatemps.com (Percent possible sunshine)[15]

Sea temperature

Average annual temperature of sea is 20 °C (68 °F) (the highest annual sea temperature in Europe), from 15–16 °C (59–61 °F) in the period from January to April to 26 °C (79 °F) in August. In the 6 months from June to November, the average sea temperature exceeds 20 °C (68 °F). In May and December - the transition months - the average is around 18 °C (64 °F).

In the second half of April, which is the beginning of the summer/holiday season the average sea temperature is 17 °C (63 °F). The highest sea temperature is 27 °C (81 °F) in the middle-3rd week of August. In late August and early September the temperature drops to 26 °C (79 °F), and in the second half of September it drops to 25 °C (77 °F). Around mid-October it drops to 24 °C (75 °F), and during the last week of October it drops to 23 °C (73 °F). By early November the temperature drops to 22 °C (72 °F) (data of 2010).[6][16]

Average sea temperature according to MaltaWeather.com[13]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
15.4 °C (59.7 °F) 14.9 °C (58.8 °F) 15.0 °C (59.0 °F) 15.9 °C (60.6 °F) 17.5 °C (63.5 °F) 21.1 °C (70.0 °F) 24.1 °C (75.4 °F) 25.8 °C (78.4 °F) 25.2 °C (77.4 °F) 23.2 °C (73.8 °F) 20.6 °C (69.1 °F) 17.4 °C (63.3 °F) 20 °C (68 °F)
Average sea temperature according to seatemperature.org[17]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
16.1 °C (61.0 °F) 15.4 °C (59.7 °F) 15.4 °C (59.7 °F) 16.3 °C (61.3 °F) 18.7 °C (65.7 °F) 22.6 °C (72.7 °F) 25.5 °C (77.9 °F) 26.1 °C (79.0 °F) 25.5 °C (77.9 °F) 23.4 °C (74.1 °F) 21.2 °C (70.2 °F) 18.1 °C (64.6 °F) 20 °C (68 °F)
Average sea temperature according to weather2travel.com[18]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
16 °C (61 °F) 16 °C (61 °F) 16 °C (61 °F) 16 °C (61 °F) 18 °C (64 °F) 21 °C (70 °F) 24 °C (75 °F) 26 °C (79 °F) 25 °C (77 °F) 23 °C (73 °F) 21 °C (70 °F) 18 °C (64 °F) 20 °C (68 °F)

Precipitation

Water supply poses a problem on Malta, as the summer is both rainless and the time of greatest water use, and the winter rainfall often falls as heavy showers running off to the sea rather than soaking into the ground. Malta depends on underground reserves of fresh water, drawn through a system of water tunnels called the Ta' Kandja galleries, which average about 97 m below surface and extend like the spokes of a wheel. In the galleries in Malta's porous limestone, fresh water lies in a lens upon brine. More than half the potable water of Malta is produced by desalination, which creates further issues of fossil fuel use and pollution.[19]

Malta has an average of 90 precipitation days a year, and experiences from a few to a dozen rainy days per month (≥ 1 mm), ranging from 0.5 of a day in July to around 15 in December. The average annual precipitation is around 600 mm, ranging from ≈0.3 mm in July to ≈110 mm in December.[13]

Climate data for Malta (Balzan in the central part of the island)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average precipitation mm (inches) 94.7
(3.73)
63.4
(2.50)
37.0
(1.46)
26.3
(1.04)
9.2
(0.36)
5.4
(0.21)
0.2
(0.01)
6.0
(0.24)
67.4
(2.65)
77.2
(3.04)
108.6
(4.28)
107.7
(4.24)
603.1
(23.74)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 15 12 9 6 3 1 0 1 5 9 13 16 90
Source: MaltaWeather.com[13]

Humidity

The annual average relative humidity is high, averaging 76%, ranging from 69% in July (morning: 78% evening: 53%) to 79% in December (morning: 83% evening: 73%).[21]

Climate data for Luqa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average relative humidity (%) 79 79 79 77 74 71 69 73 77 78 77 79 76
Source: NOAA[22]

Records

Despite the relative stasis of the Maltese climate, historical records present some variations. In the capital city of Valletta, meteorological officials of the time recorded a temperature of 1.2 °C (34.2 °F) on 19 February 1895, which remains a record for the city.[23]

Regarding the island as a whole, a temperature of −1.7 °C (28.9 °F) was recorded on 1 February 1962, at Ta' Qali airfield, in the centre of the island, which was accompanied by frozen precipitation (hail), though this temperature is not recognised by the Malta Met Office as it was not an official recording station and didn't use worldwide meteorological standard instruments.[23]

Snow is a very rare phenomenon, there was a snowfall reported in January 1858, March 1877 (light snow without accumulation), February 1895 (snow without accumulation), January 1905 (flurries without accumulation), March 1949 (snow recorded in the interior of the island),[24] and 31 January 1962,[23] On 31 December 2014 snow was reported at various locations.[25] though the Met Office later confirmed this was actually Graupel or soft hail. It is thought that many historical reports of "snowfall" were likely also Graupel. That Winter went on to be one of the coldest and stormiest ever experienced in the Maltese Islands.[26][27]

The lowest temperature ever recorded at Luqa International Airport was in January 1981, with 1.4 °C (34.5 °F), and the highest temperature was 43.8 °C (110.8 °F)[28] recorded in August 1999.

Climate data for Malta
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.2
(72.0)
26.7
(80.1)
33.5
(92.3)
30.7
(87.3)
35.3
(95.5)
40.1
(104.2)
42.7
(108.9)
43.8
(110.8)
37.4
(99.3)
34.5
(94.1)
28.2
(82.8)
24.3
(75.7)
43.8
(110.8)
Record low °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
1.7
(35.1)
2.2
(36.0)
4.4
(39.9)
8.0
(46.4)
12.6
(54.7)
15.5
(59.9)
15.9
(60.6)
13.2
(55.8)
8.0
(46.4)
5.0
(41.0)
3.6
(38.5)
1.4
(34.5)
Source: Malta Airport Meteorological Office (extremes 1947−2010)[28]
Climate data for Malta (Balzan in the central part of the island. 1985-2017)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.2
(72.0)
24.1
(75.4)
33.5
(92.3)
31.7
(89.1)
37.3
(99.1)
40.1
(104.2)
43.1
(109.6)
43.0
(109.4)
39.2
(102.6)
33.5
(92.3)
28.9
(84.0)
24.9
(76.8)
43.1
(109.6)
Record low °C (°F) 3.9
(39.0)
2.6
(36.7)
4.8
(40.6)
6.5
(43.7)
10.5
(50.9)
14.7
(58.5)
17.4
(63.3)
18.0
(64.4)
15.4
(59.7)
11.3
(52.3)
5.7
(42.3)
3.6
(38.5)
2.6
(36.7)
Source: MaltaWeather.com[13]

Climate data

Climate data for Malta (Luqa in the south-east part of main island, 1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 15.6
(60.1)
15.6
(60.1)
17.3
(63.1)
19.8
(67.6)
24.1
(75.4)
28.6
(83.5)
31.5
(88.7)
31.8
(89.2)
28.5
(83.3)
25.0
(77.0)
20.7
(69.3)
17.1
(62.8)
23.0
(73.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.8
(55.0)
12.5
(54.5)
13.9
(57.0)
16.1
(61.0)
19.8
(67.6)
23.9
(75.0)
26.6
(79.9)
27.2
(81.0)
24.7
(76.5)
21.5
(70.7)
17.7
(63.9)
14.4
(57.9)
19.3
(66.7)
Average low °C (°F) 9.9
(49.8)
9.4
(48.9)
10.6
(51.1)
12.4
(54.3)
15.5
(59.9)
19.1
(66.4)
21.7
(71.1)
22.6
(72.7)
20.8
(69.4)
18.1
(64.6)
14.6
(58.3)
11.6
(52.9)
15.5
(59.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 98.5
(3.88)
60.1
(2.37)
44.2
(1.74)
20.7
(0.81)
16.0
(0.63)
4.6
(0.18)
0.3
(0.01)
12.8
(0.50)
58.6
(2.31)
82.9
(3.26)
92.3
(3.63)
109.2
(4.30)
595.8
(23.46)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10 7 5 4 1 1 0 1 4 6 9 10 58
Mean monthly sunshine hours 169.3 178.1 227.2 253.8 309.7 336.9 376.7 352.2 270.0 223.8 195.0 161.2 3,053.9
Source: Meteo Climate (1981-2010 Data),[29] MaltaWeather.com (Sun Data)[13]

References

  1. ^ "Luqa Weather Averages 1981-2010". Meteo-climat-bzh.dyndns.org. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  2. ^ "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  3. ^ [1] Archived 31 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Tiscali Webspace". Web.tiscali.it. Archived from the original on 4 October 2012. Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  5. ^ PH Heidelberg. "Klimakarte der Erde: Pädagogische Hochschule Heidelberg". Ph-heidelberg.de. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  6. ^ a b c [2] Archived 6 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ a b "Climate Data for Luqa". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  8. ^ "London Climate and Weather Averages, UK". Weather2travel.com. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  9. ^ "Moscow Climate and Weather Averages, Russia (Europe)". Weather2travel.com. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  10. ^ "Warsaw Climate and Weather Averages, Poland". Weather2travel.com. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  11. ^ "City weather: The weather for Maltese Islands, Malta". Weathercast.co.uk. 30 January 2007. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 May 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Malta's Climate". Maltaweather.com. Archived from the original on 6 August 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  14. ^ a b "Met Office: Climate averages 1971-2000". Met Office. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  15. ^ "Sunshine & Daylight Hours in Luqa, Malta Sunlight, Cloud & Day length". Malta.climatemps.com. Archived from the original on 1 May 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  16. ^ "Valletta Climate Guide". Weather2travel.com. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
  17. ^ Copyright Global Sea Temperatures - A-Connect Ltd. "Birżebbuġa Sea Temperature December Average, Malta Water Temperatures". 35.82583;14.52694: Seatemperature.org. Retrieved 1 June 2015.CS1 maint: location (link)
  18. ^ "Malta Climate and Weather Averages". Weather2travel.com. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  19. ^ McGrath, Matt (4 April 2007). "Science/Nature | Briny future for vulnerable Malta". News.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  20. ^ a b "World Weather Information Service - Luqa, Malta". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
  21. ^ "Valletta, Malta Travel Weather Averages". Weatherbase.com. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  22. ^ "Monthly Averages for Luqa, Malta (1961–1990)". NOAA. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  23. ^ a b c Dr. Charles Mifsud (1985). The Climate of the Maltese Islands. Mireva Publication.
  24. ^ Picture by Davix Axisa, Snow in Sliema 1949
  25. ^ "Updated - 'Snowflakes' reported in several parts of Malta - Met Office 'monitoring' situation". Timesofmalta.com. 31 December 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  26. ^ "Last Maltese winter one of the stormiest in 20 years | Malta Weather - Malta Airport Met Office". Weather.maltairport.com. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  27. ^ "December brought snow pellets and record low temperatures". MaltaToday.com.mt. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  28. ^ a b c Galdies, Charles (2011). "The Climate of Malta: statistics, trends, and analysis 1951-2010". National Statistics Office. pp. 6–7. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
  29. ^ "Luqa Weather Averages 1981-2010". Meteo-climat-bzh.dyndns.org. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 12:29
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