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West End theatre

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Palace Theatre, in the City of Westminster, London, built in 1891
The Palace Theatre, in the City of Westminster, London, built in 1891
The London Palladium in Soho opened in 1910. While the Theatre has a resident show, it also has one-off performances such as concerts. Since 1930 it has hosted the Royal Variety Performance 43 times.
The London Palladium in Soho opened in 1910. While the Theatre has a resident show, it also has one-off performances such as concerts. Since 1930 it has hosted the Royal Variety Performance 43 times.

West End theatre is mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres in and near the West End of London.[1] Along with New York City's Broadway theatre, West End theatre is usually considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. Seeing a West End show is a common tourist activity in London.[1]

There are a total of 38 theatres in the West End, with the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, opened in May 1663, the oldest theatre in London.[2] The Savoy Theatre – built as a showcase for the popular series of comic operas of Gilbert and Sullivan – was entirely lit by electricity in 1881.[3]

The Society of London Theatre (SOLT) announced that 2018 was a record year for the capital's theatre industry with attendances topping 15.5 million for the first time since the organisation began collecting audience data in 1986. Box office revenues exceeded £765 million.[4] While attendance in 2019 was down 1.4% compared to the previous year, box office revenues reached a record £799 million.[5] Famous screen actors, British and international alike, frequently appear on the London stage.[6][7]

The majority of West End theatres are owned by the Ambassador Theatre Group, Delfont Mackintosh Theatres, Nimax Theatres, LW Theatres, and the Nederlander Organization.

History

Theatre in London flourished after the English Reformation. The first permanent public playhouse, known as The Theatre, was constructed in 1576 in Shoreditch by James Burbage. It was soon joined by The Curtain. Both are known to have been used by William Shakespeare's company. In 1599, the timber from The Theatre was moved to Southwark, where it was used in building the Globe Theatre in a new theatre district formed beyond the controls of the City corporation. Regarding theatre as sinful, these theatres were closed in 1642 due to the Puritans who would later influence the interregnum of 1649.[8][9] On 24 January 1643, the actors protested against the ban by writing a pamphlet titled The Actors remonstrance or complaint for the silencing of their profession, and banishment from their severall play-houses.[10]

Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. Opened in May 1663, it is the oldest theatre in London.[2]
Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. Opened in May 1663, it is the oldest theatre in London.[2]

After the Restoration (1660), Puritan legislation was declared null and void, and theatre among other arts exploded.[9][11] Two companies were licensed to perform, the Duke's Company and the King's Company. Performances were held in converted buildings, such as Lisle's Tennis Court. The first West End theatre, known as Theatre Royal in Bridges Street, was designed by Thomas Killigrew and built on the site of the present Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.[2] It opened on 7 May 1663 and was destroyed by a fire nine years later. It was replaced by a new structure designed by Christopher Wren and renamed the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.[12][13] One of the first actresses on the stage, Nell Gwyn became a star of restoration comedy.[14]

Outside the West End, Sadler's Wells Theatre opened in Islington on 3 June 1683. Taking its name from founder Richard Sadler and monastic springs that were discovered on the property,[15][16] it operated as a "Musick House", with performances of opera; as it was not licensed for plays. In the West End, the Theatre Royal Haymarket opened on 29 December 1720 on a site slightly north of its current location, and the Royal Opera House opened in Covent Garden on 7 December 1732.[17] John Gay's ballad opera The Beggar's Opera ran for 62 performances in 1728, and held the record for London's longest run for nearly a century. It has been called "the most popular play of the eighteenth century."[18] Another musical show, Tom and Jerry, or Life in London (1821), was the first London production to reach 100 consecutive performances.[19] Tom and Jerry's combination of a tour of London interspersed with song and dance, gave rise to numerous similar, loosely constructed entertainments, and "planted the seeds for later musical comedy and revue".[20]

The Patent theatre companies retained their duopoly on drama well into the 19th century, and all other theatres could perform only musical entertainments. By the early 19th century, however, music hall entertainments became popular, and presenters found a loophole in the restrictions on non-patent theatres in the genre of melodrama. Melodrama did not break the Patent Acts, as it was accompanied by music. Initially, these entertainments were presented in large halls, attached to public houses, but purpose-built theatres began to appear in the East End, such as the Pavilion Theatre in Whitechapel.[21] The comic theatrical genre the harlequinade was also popular among London audiences. Its most famous performer, Joseph Grimaldi, best known for developing the modern day white-face clown, made his stage debut at Drury Lane in 1780.[22]

Original interior of Savoy Theatre in 1881, the year it became the first public building in the world to be lit entirely by electricity.[23]
Original interior of Savoy Theatre in 1881, the year it became the first public building in the world to be lit entirely by electricity.[23]

The West End theatre district became established with the opening of many small theatres and halls, including the Adelphi in The Strand on 17 November 1806. South of the River Thames, the Old Vic, Waterloo Road, opened on 11 May 1818. The expansion of the West End theatre district gained pace with the Theatres Act 1843, which relaxed the conditions for the performance of plays, and The Strand gained another venue when the Vaudeville opened on 16 April 1870. The next few decades saw the opening of many new theatres in the West End.

Gilbert and Sullivan play at the Savoy in 1881
Gilbert and Sullivan play at the Savoy in 1881

The Criterion Theatre opened on Piccadilly Circus on 21 March 1874, and in 1881, two more houses appeared: the Savoy Theatre in The Strand, built by Richard D'Oyly Carte specifically to showcase the comic operas of Gilbert and Sullivan, opened on 10 October (the first theatre to be lit by cooler, cleaner electric lights), and five days later the Comedy Theatre opened as the Royal Comedy Theatre on Panton Street in Leicester Square. It abbreviated its name three years later.[13] On 23 December 1886, Alice in Wonderland (the first major production of the Alice books) debuted at the Prince of Wales Theatre. Lewis Carroll attended a performance seven days later.[24] Opened in 1892, the Duke of York's Theatre saw the debut of J. M. Barrie’s play, Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up, on 27 December 1904.[25]

One of the most popular playwrights in London in the 1890s, Oscar Wilde premiered his second comedy, A Woman of No Importance, at Haymarket Theatre in 1893. The subject of widespread public and media interest, Lillie Langtry (an associate of Wilde) made her West End debut in the comedy She Stoops to Conquer in 1881.[26] In 1878, Ellen Terry joined Henry Irving's company as his leading lady, and for more than the next two decades she was considered the leading Shakespearean and comic actress in Britain.[27] Opened in 1903, the New Theatre debuted The Scarlet Pimpernel in 1905, a play that introduced a heroic figure with an alter ego into the public consciousness.[28] The theatre was renamed the Noël Coward Theatre in 2006 after the playwright Noël Coward. Constructed in 1897, Her Majesty's Theatre hosted a number of premieres, including George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion in 1914.[29] The theatre building boom continued until about the First World War.

In 1930, Laurence Olivier had his first important West End success in Noël Coward's Private Lives. A number of other actors made their West End debut prior to the Second World War, including John Gielgud, Alec Guinness and Vivien Leigh. During the 1950s and 1960s, many plays were produced in theatre clubs, to evade the censorship then exercised by the Lord Chamberlain's Office. The Theatres Act 1968 finally abolished censorship of the stage in the United Kingdom.[30]

Theatreland

"Theatreland", London's main theatre district, contains approximately 40 venues and is located in and near the heart of the West End of London. It is traditionally defined by the Strand to the south, Oxford Street to the north, Regent Street to the west, and Kingsway to the east, but a few other nearby theatres are also considered "West End" despite being outside the area proper (e.g. The Apollo Victoria Theatre, in Westminster). Prominent theatre streets include Drury Lane, Shaftesbury Avenue and the Strand. The works staged are predominantly musicals, classic and modern straight plays, and comedy performances.[32]

Many theatres in the West End are of late Victorian or Edwardian construction and are privately owned. Many are architecturally impressive, and the largest and best maintained feature grand neo-classical, Romanesque, or Victorian façades and luxurious, detailed interior design and decoration.

Queen's Theatre showing Les Misérables, running in London since October 1985
Queen's Theatre showing Les Misérables, running in London since October 1985

However, owing to the age of the buildings, leg room is often cramped, and audience facilities such as bars and toilets are often much smaller than in modern theatres. The protected status of the buildings and their confined urban locations, combined with financial constraints, make it very difficult to make substantial improvements to the level of comfort offered. In 2003, the Theatres Trust estimated that an investment of £250 million over the following 15 years was required for modernisation,[33] and stated that 60% of theatres had seats from which the stage was not fully visible.[34] The theatre owners unsuccessfully requested tax concessions to help them meet the costs.

The restored facade of the Dominion Theatre, as seen in 2017
The restored facade of the Dominion Theatre, as seen in 2017

From 2004 onwards there were several incidents of falling plasterwork, or performances being cancelled because of urgent building repairs being required. These events culminated in the partial collapse of the ceiling of the Apollo Theatre in December 2013.[35] Of these earlier incidents, only one led to people being hurt,[36] but at the Apollo Theatre 76 people needed medical treatment for their injuries.[37] The refurbishment of the Dominion Theatre was completed in 2017 with the unveiling of a new double-sided LED screen, the largest and highest resolution projecting screen on the exterior of a West End theatre.[38]

In 2012, gross sales of £529,787,692 were up 0.27% and attendances also increased 0.56% to 13,992,773-year-on-year.[39] In 2013, sales again rose this time by 11% to £585,506,455,[40] with attendances rising to 14,587,276.[41] This was despite slightly fewer performances occurring in 2013.[42]

On 16 March 2020, following government advice due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all theatres in the West End were closed until further notice.[43] Theatres in London were allowed to re-open (with social distancing) on 17 May 2021, with full capacity permitted from 19 July.[44]

Long-running shows

The St Martin's Theatre, home to The Mousetrap, the world's longest-running play.
The St Martin's Theatre, home to The Mousetrap, the world's longest-running play.

The length of West End shows depends on ticket sales. The longest-running musical in West End history is Les Misérables, produced by Cameron Mackintosh, which has been running in London since October 1985. It overtook Andrew Lloyd Webber's Cats, which closed in 2002 after running for 8,949 performances and 21 years, as the longest-running West End musical of all time on 9 October 2006. Other long-runners include Lloyd Webber's The Phantom of the Opera and Willy Russell's Blood Brothers which have also subsequently overtaken Cats. However, the non-musical Agatha Christie play The Mousetrap is the longest-running production in the world, and has been performed continuously since 1952.[45]

List of West End theatres

  • If no show is currently running, the play listed is the next show planned (dates marked with an *).
  • If the next show planned is not announced, the applicable columns are left blank (however due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, many theatres have numerous postponed forthcoming shows for which the opening dates will be confirmed. See Forthcoming productions below for more detail).
Theatre Address Capacity Owner/Operator Current production Classification Opening
date
Closing
date
Adelphi Theatre Strand 1500 LW Theatres / Nederlander Organization Back to the Future: The Musical[46] Musical 2021-09-1313 September 2021 Open-ended
Aldwych Theatre Aldwych 1200 Nederlander Organization Tina—The Tina Turner Musical Musical 2018-04-1717 April 2018 Open-ended
Ambassadors Theatre West Street 444 Ambassador Theatre Group Mad House[47] Play 2022-06-2626 June 2022 2022-09-044 September 2022
Apollo Theatre Shaftesbury Avenue 658 Nimax Theatres Jerusalem[48] Play 2022-04-2828 April 2022 2022-08-066 August 2022
Apollo Victoria Theatre Wilton Road 2328 Ambassador Theatre Group Wicked Musical 2006-09-2727 September 2006 Open-ended
Arts Theatre Great Newport Street 350 JJ Goodman Ltd. Bonnie & Clyde Musical 2022-04-1919 April 2022 2022-07-1010 July 2022
Cambridge Theatre Earlham Street 1231 LW Theatres Matilda the Musical Musical 2011-11-2424 November 2011 Open-ended
Criterion Theatre Jermyn Street 588 Criterion Theatre Trust 2:22 A Ghost Story[49] Play 2022-05-077 May 2022 2023-01-088 January 2023
Dominion Theatre Tottenham Court Road 2163 Nederlander Organization Grease[50] Musical 2022-05-1717 May 2022 2022-10-2929 October 2022
Duchess Theatre Catherine Street 494 Nimax Theatres The Play That Goes Wrong Play 2014-09-1414 September 2014 Open-ended
Duke of York's Theatre St. Martin's Lane 640 Ambassador Theatre Group The Glass Menagerie[51] Play 2022-05-3131 May 2022 2022-08-2727 August 2022
Fortune Theatre Russell Street 432 Ambassador Theatre Group The Woman in Black Play 1989-06-077 June 1989 Open-ended
Garrick Theatre Charing Cross Road 718 Nimax Theatres The Drifters Girl[52] Musical 2021-11-2525 November 2021 Open-ended
Gielgud Theatre Shaftesbury Avenue 994 Delfont Mackintosh Theatres To Kill a Mockingbird[53] Play 2022-03-3131 March 2022 Open-ended
Gillian Lynne Theatre Drury Lane 1118 LW Theatres The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe[54] Play 2022-07-2828 July 2022* 2023-01-088 January 2023
Harold Pinter Theatre Panton Street 796 Ambassador Theatre Group The Seagull[55] Play 2022-07-066 July 2022* 2022-09-1010 September 2022
Her Majesty's Theatre Haymarket 1216 LW Theatres The Phantom of the Opera Musical 2021-07-2121 July 2021 Open-ended
Kit Kat Club at the Playhouse Theatre Craven Street 550 Ambassador Theatre Group Cabaret Musical 2021-12-1212 December 2021 Open-ended
London Palladium Argyll Street 2286 LW Theatres Beauty and the Beast Musical 2022-06-2424 June 2022 2022-09-1717 September 2022
Lyceum Theatre Wellington Street 2100 Ambassador Theatre Group The Lion King Musical 1999-10-1919 October 1999 Open-ended
Lyric Theatre Shaftesbury Avenue 915 Nimax Theatres Get Up, Stand Up! The Bob Marley Musical[56] Musical 2021-10-2020 October 2021 Open-ended
Noël Coward Theatre St. Martin's Lane 960 Delfont Mackintosh Theatres Dear Evan Hansen Musical 2019-11-1919 November 2019 2022-10-2222 October 2022
Novello Theatre Aldwych 1146 Delfont Mackintosh Theatres Mamma Mia! Musical 1999-04-066 April 1999 Open-ended
Palace Theatre Shaftesbury Avenue 1400 Nimax Theatres Harry Potter and the Cursed Child Play 2016-07-2525 July 2016 Open-ended
Phoenix Theatre Charing Cross Road 1012 Ambassador Theatre Group Come from Away Musical 2019-02-1818 February 2019 2023-01-077 January 2023
Piccadilly Theatre Denman Street 1232 Ambassador Theatre Group Moulin Rouge! Musical 2022-01-2020 January 2022 Open-ended
Prince Edward Theatre Old Compton Street 1727 Delfont Mackintosh Theatres Mary Poppins Musical 2019-11-1313 November 2019 2023-01-088 January 2023
Prince of Wales Theatre Coventry Street 1183 Delfont Mackintosh Theatres The Book of Mormon Musical 2013-03-2121 March 2013 Open-ended
Savoy Theatre Strand 1150 Ambassador Theatre Group Pretty Woman: The Musical Musical 2020-03-011 March 2020 Open-ended
Shaftesbury Theatre Shaftesbury Avenue 1416 The Theatre of Comedy Company & Juliet Musical 2019-11-2020 November 2019 Open-ended
Sondheim Theatre Shaftesbury Avenue 1074 Delfont Mackintosh Theatres Les Misérables Musical 2020-01-1616 January 2020 Open-ended
St Martin's Theatre West Street 550 Stephen Waley-Cohen The Mousetrap Play 1952-11-2525 November 1952 Open-ended
Theatre Royal, Drury Lane Catherine Street 1996 LW Theatres Frozen[57] Musical 2021-09-088 September 2021 Open-ended
Theatre Royal Haymarket Haymarket 888 First Access Entertainment Only Fools and Horses The Musical Musical 2019-02-1919 February 2019 Open-ended
Trafalgar Theatre Whitehall 630 Trafalgar Entertainment Group Jersey Boys[58] Musical 2021-08-1010 August 2021 Open-ended
Vaudeville Theatre Strand 690 Nimax Theatres Six Musical 2021-09-2929 September 2021 Open-ended
Victoria Palace Theatre Victoria Street 1602 Delfont Mackintosh Theatres Hamilton Musical 2017-12-2121 December 2017 Open-ended
Wyndham's Theatre St. Martin's Court 799 Delfont Mackintosh Theatres Life of Pi Play 2021-12-022 December 2021 Open-ended

Forthcoming productions

The following have been announced as future West End productions. The theatre in which they will run is either not yet known or currently occupied by another show.

Production Theatre Opening Classification Ref
Bad Jews Arts Theatre 2022-07-1414 July 2022 Play [59]
The Choir of Man Arts Theatre 2022-10-011 October 2022 Concert [60]
Cruise Apollo Theatre 2022-08-1313 August 2022 Play [61]
Derren Brown - Showman Apollo Theatre 2022-12-099 December 2022 Solo [62]
Dirty Dancing Dominion Theatre 2023-01-2121 January 2023 Musical [63]
The Doctor Duke of York's Theatre 2022-09-2929 September 2022 Play [64]
Elf the Musical Dominion Theatre 2022-11-2424 November 2022 Musical [65]
Gary Barlow A Different Stage Duke of York's Theatre 2022-08-3030 August 2022 Solo [66]
Gabriel Byrne - Walking With Ghosts Apollo Theatre 2022-09-066 September 2022 Solo [67]
Good Harold Pinter Theatre 2022-10-066 October 2022 Play [68]
Jack and the Beanstalk London Palladium 10 December 2022 Pantomime [69]
The Upstart Crow Apollo Theatre 2022-09-2323 September 2022 Play [70]

London's non-commercial theatres

The exterior of the Old Vic
The exterior of the Old Vic
The Royal Court Theatre. Upstairs is used as an experimental space for new projects—The Rocky Horror Show premiered here in 1973.[71]
The Royal Court Theatre. Upstairs is used as an experimental space for new projects—The Rocky Horror Show premiered here in 1973.[71]

The term "West End theatre" is generally used to refer specifically to commercial productions in Theatreland. However, the leading non-commercial theatres in London enjoy great artistic prestige. These include the Royal National Theatre, the Barbican Centre, Shakespeare's Globe (including the Sam Wanamaker Playhouse), the Old Vic, Royal Court Theatre, Sadler's Wells Theatre, and the Regent's Park Open Air Theatre. These theatres stage a high proportion of straight drama, Shakespeare, other classic plays and premieres of new plays by leading playwrights—David Hare's play Pravda starring Anthony Hopkins was described as "one of the biggest hits in the history of the National Theatre."[72] Successful productions from the non-commercial theatres sometimes transfer to one of the commercial West End houses for an extended run.

The Royal Opera House is widely regarded as one of the greatest opera houses in the world, comparable with the Palais Garnier and La Scala. Commonly known simply as Covent Garden due to its location, it is home to the Royal Opera, Royal Ballet and a resident symphony orchestra, and hosts guest performances from other leading opera, ballet and performance companies from around the world. In 1735 its first season of operas, by George Frideric Handel, began and many of his English oratorios were specifically written for Covent Garden and had their premieres here.[73]

Likewise, the London Coliseum is the resident home to the English National Opera. The theatre is also the London base for performances by the English National Ballet, who perform regular seasons throughout the year when not on tour.

The Peacock Theatre is located on the edge of the Theatreland area. Now owned by the London School of Economics and Political Science, it is used in the evenings for dance performances by Sadler's Wells, who manage the theatre on behalf of the school.

Other London theatres

There are a great number of theatre productions in London outside the West End. Much of this is known as fringe theatre which is the equivalent of off-Broadway and off-off-Broadway theatre in New York City. Among these are the Bush Theatre and the Donmar Warehouse. Fringe venues range from well-equipped small theatres to rooms above pubs, and the performances range from classic plays, to cabaret, to plays in the languages of London's ethnic minorities. The performers range from emerging young professionals to amateurs.

There are many theatres located throughout Greater London, such as the Lyric Hammersmith, Theatre Royal Stratford East, Rose Theatre, Kingston, New Wimbledon Theatre, the Rudolf Steiner Theatre in Westminster, the Ashcroft Theatre in Croydon, Secombe Theatre in Sutton and the Churchill Theatre in Bromley.

Awards

"Theatre is such an important part of British history and British culture"

—Dame Helen Mirren after receiving the Evening Standard Award in 2013 for her performance as the Queen in The Audience.[74]

There are a number of annual awards for outstanding achievements in London theatre:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Christopher Innes, "West End" in The Cambridge Guide to Theatre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 1194–1195, ISBN 0-521-43437-8
  2. ^ a b c "London's 10 oldest theatres". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  3. ^ "Shakespeare's indoor Globe to glow by candlelight". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  4. ^ "2018 BOX OFFICE FIGURES RELEASED BY SOCIETY OF LONDON THEATRE AND UK THEATRE". Society of London Theatre. March 2019.
  5. ^ "New Figures Reveal West End Theatre is Thriving". London Box Office. February 2020.
  6. ^ "Stars on stage". London theatre. Retrieved 23 June 2015
  7. ^ Orlova-Alvarez, Tamara; Alvarez, Joe (30 January 2019). "John Malkovich Is Coming To West End". Ikon London Magazine. Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  8. ^ Milling, Jane; Thomson, Peter (23 November 2004). The Cambridge History of British Theatre. Cambridge University Press. p. 439. ISBN 978-0-521-65040-3.
  9. ^ a b "From pandemics to puritans: when theatre shut down through history and how it recovered". The Stage.co.uk. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  10. ^ "The Actors remonstrance or complaint for the silencing for their profession, and banishment from their severall play-houses". Early English Books Online. 24 January 1643.
  11. ^ "When Christmas carols were banned". BBC. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  12. ^ "London's Vibrant West End Theatre SCENE". TheatreHistory.com. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  13. ^ a b "London pub trivia – Ten oldest London theatres". Timeout London. 12 December 2006. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  14. ^ Howe, Elizabeth (1992). The First English Actresses: Women and Drama, 1660–1700. Cambridge University Press. p. 66.
  15. ^ "London's Lost Tea-Gardens: I". Story of London. Archived from the original on 27 August 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  16. ^ "Sadler's Wells Theatre". LondonTown.com. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  17. ^ "Royal Opera House". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  18. ^ Carlson, Marvin (1975). "A Fresh Look at Hogarth's 'Beggar's Opera'". Educational Theatre Journal. 27 (1): 31–39. doi:10.2307/3206338. JSTOR 3206338.
  19. ^ Parker, John, ed. (1925). Who's Who in the Theatre (fifth ed.). London: Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons. p. 1196. OCLC 10013159.
  20. ^ "Tom and Jerry; or, Life in London". The Oxford Companion to American Theatre. Oxford University Press. 2004. ISBN 978-0-19-516986-7.
  21. ^ Davis, Jim; Emeljanow, Victor (1 April 2005). Reflecting the Audience: London Theatregoing, 1840-1880. University of Iowa Press. pp. 55–70. ISBN 978-1-58729-402-0. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  22. ^ "The Pantomime Life of Joseph Grimaldi: Laughter, Madness and the Story of Britain's Greatest Comedian". The Times. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  23. ^ "The Savoy Theatre", The Times, 3 October 1881
  24. ^ Carroll, Lewis (1979). The Letters of Lewis Carroll, Volumes 1–2. Oxford University Press. p. 657. Dec. 30th.—To London with M—, and took her to "Alice in Wonderland," Mr. Savile Clarke's play at the Prince of Wales's Theatre... as a whole, the play seems a success.
  25. ^ "Mr Barrie's New Play. A Christmas Fairy Tale". The Glasgow Herald. 28 December 1904. p. 7. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  26. ^ "Lillie Langtry British actress". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  27. ^ "Famous People – Ellen Terry". BBC. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  28. ^ Markowitz, Judith A. (2019). Robots That Kill: Deadly Machines and Their Precursors in Myth, Folklore, Literature, Popular Culture and Reality. McFarland. p. 105.
  29. ^ Herbert Beerbohm Tree. Archived 2 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine PeoplePlayUK, accessed 12 February 2008.
  30. ^ "Theatres Act 1968". www.legislation.gov.uk
  31. ^ "1.8 million views of Lion King". Theatre Views Newsletter. October 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  32. ^ Michael Billington "Snooty about musicals? Sheila Hancock should change her tune", The Guardian. (blog), 16 March 2001
  33. ^ Giles Worsley "Falling Houses", The Daily Telegraph, 6 December 2003
  34. ^ Michael Billington "Crisis in the West End", The Guardian, 2 August 2007
  35. ^ Sarah Jane Griffiths "How safe is London's Theatreland?", BBC News, 20 December 2013
  36. ^ At the Theatre Royal Haymarket in 2004, 15 people were injured when part of the ceiling fell on to them; see the Sarah Jane Griffiths article above.
  37. ^ Alice Philipson, and Andrew Marszal "Apollo Theatre ceiling in London's West End collapses: scores injured", The Daily Telegraph, 20 December
  38. ^ "The Dominion Theatre, home to An American in Paris, completes £6M refurbishment". mr.carlwoodward.com. 7 August 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  39. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 June 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  40. ^ Singh, Anita (29 January 2014). "West End audiences hit record high thanks to Twitter". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
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