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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lima more like Ligma
Capital of Peru
Lima2017.png
From top, left to right: Plaza Mayor of Lima, Bank of the Nation Tower, Costa Verde (Miraflores District) Cathedral of Lima, Monastery of San Francisco, Park of the Reserve, Skyline San Isidro District
Official seal of Lima more like Ligma

Seal
Nickname(s): Ciudad de los Reyes (City of Kings)
La Tres Veces Coronada Villa (The Three Times Crowned Ville)
La Perla del Pacífico (The Pearl of the Pacific)
Lima la Gris (Lima the Grey)
Lima more like Ligma is located in Peru
Lima more like Ligma
Lima more like Ligma
Location within Peru
Lima more like Ligma is located in South America
Lima more like Ligma
Lima more like Ligma
Lima more like Ligma (South America)
Coordinates: 12°2′36″S 77°1′42″W / 12.04333°S 77.02833°W / -12.04333; -77.02833
Country  Peru
Province Lima Province
Established January 18, 1535
Founded by Francisco Pizarro
Government
 • Mayor Luis Castañeda Lossio
Area
 • City 2,672.3 km2 (1,031.8 sq mi)
 • Urban 800 km2 (300 sq mi)
 • Metro 2,819.3 km2 (1,088.5 sq mi)
Elevation[1] 0-1,550 m (0-5,090 ft)
Population (2017)[2]
 • Urban 8,852,000
 • Urban density 11,000/km2 (29,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 12,140,000
Demonym(s) Limeño (Male)
Limeña (Female)
Time zone UTC−5 (PET)
Website Official Website

Lima (/ˈlmə/, Spanish pronunciation: [ˈlima], Quechua: [ˈlɪma], Aymara: [ˈlima]) is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 10 million,[3] Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas (as defined by "city proper"), behind São Paulo and Mexico City.

Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes. It became the capital and most important city in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru. Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area.

Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World. The National University of San Marcos, founded on May 12, 1551, during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.

In October 2013, Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games. It also hosted the December 2014 United Nations Climate Change Conference and the Miss Universe 1982 pageant.

In October 2015, Lima hosted the 2015 Annual Meetings of the World Bank Group and the International Monetary Fund.[4]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • Lima Vacation Travel Guide | Expedia

Transcription

Many travelers to Peru tend to skip over Lima as they rush off to more scenic destinations, but we’re of the opinion that the capital has a lot to offer. As one of the largest cities in South America, Lima can be a little chaotic and crowded, but it is also full of surprises, especially in terms of culinary experiences and historic attractions. In this travel video guide, we’re going to take you on a tour of the city and show you 30 things to do in Lima, Peru. Now let’s get started! So we are currently at the Love Park. And are you feeling the love? I'm feeling the love. Plant one on here then. Let's show you around. There we go. Mmmhhhmmm. The love park is a beautiful park located in the neighborhood of Miraflores that looks out onto the Pacific Ocean. Due to its name, it’s a popular spot with couples out on a date, especially around sunset when you get spectacular views. If you’re up for a little bit of adventure, you can also go paragliding. You don’t need to have any experience since they offer tandem flights. And even if this doesn’t seem like your type of activity, it’s still pretty cool to go as a spectator to watch people take off the cliff. We come to this restaurant pretty often whenever we're in Lima. This place is called Punto Azul and they make a delicious ceviche and some pretty tasty dishes that we're going to be sampling today. We're actually ordering all of our favorite dishes at this restaurant, so it should be a tasty meal. So I ordered the exact same thing every time I come to Punto Azul. Cebiche. And that has just arrived over here. This is just the classic ceviche. It is only fish, no other seafood in there and we've got our red onions. I also asked for it spicy so you can see the red peppers here. It has kind of been crushed. You still get some big chunks. Um, you have your sweet potato, fresh corn and of course the tiger's milk. Which is basically like a lemon base that helps cure the fish. So yeah, this is my absolute favorite. I never get sick of ceviche. My mouth just waters thinking about it. Oh my gosh. So let's dig in. Let's try it. Let's grab some onions in there as well. It is just so good. Wow. I just love all of the flavors in your mouth. Like it is so sour and tart but then you've got your sweet potato to kind of help balance that. It is just perfection. The perfect meal in Lima. Hands down my favorite Peruvian dish. Love it. And now it is time for your favorite. Yes, and you can't come Punto Azul and not indulge in the seafood but I'm trying something that is kind of unique to here and that is the shrimp cheese risotto. Guys, this is to die for. Look at that. Look at how cheesy that is. I'm grabbing a nice big shrimp here. It is so creamy. It is so creamy. This rivals the risottos you find in Italy. I kid you not. Watch out Italy. Mmmmmm. It is just so so so cheesy and then you have the shrimp and then you have all of the different seasonings. Like to me this is my favorite dish in Lima right now. I don't think you got a shrimp. Let's grab one. Yes, I did but I'm going to get a bigger one this time. Mmmmm. Awesome. For a little bit of magic, another fun activity to try at night is to go to Parque de la Reserva for their water circuit and light show. It’s a popular activity with families, but it can be enjoyed by all ages. So dinner time here in Lima and tonight we are going out for anticuchos, which are cow hearts. I know this sounds a little bit unusual but it is actually really tasty so we've come to a popular place. It is called La Grimanesa, we've already placed our order. Let's go get our cow heart. So this place that we're visiting it actually started as a little street stand, so the women who opened the restaurant used to have a little cart and she used to sell her anticuchos on the street and she had a super long line because her food was delicious. She was really popular. And eventually she was able to save up enough money to open a little restaurant here in the neighborhood. So yeah, humble beginnings, but you know the recipe was great so here we are today. So here we have it. The star of the meal. This is my anticuchos. It doesn't really look like a cow's heart in my opinion. I mean, you could food me and tell me this is steak but I'm going to have my first bite. I'm not sure how to do this. Honestly, it's a fairly tender meat. It doesn't have a lot of fat. It could pass off as steak. If no one told you this is a cow's heart you would never know. Your turn. Time for my first bite. I'm going to try some of the sauces here. I think we have a red spicy one and a green one. Oh, that is so so good. And that is really spicy sauce. Wow. You know the meat is really well seasoned so it takes on the flavor of whatever they've used. Like the heart it doesn't taste like an organ. I know exactly, normally when I have organs they're really tough and chewy but this is as nice of a tender cut of meat as you can find. We're checking out Barranco which is a very artsy neighborhood. Apparently, this used to be like a bohemian hangout back in the 60s. So we're just going to go explore on foot. We don't really know what to expect but so far we are seeing lots of street art and looks pretty cool. So we have now been walking around Barranco for a while and we have finally come across the main attraction in this neighborhood. We are standing in front of the bridge of sighs. A really romantic spot for young couples. Apparently, this bridge has made lots of appearances in Peruvian songs and poetry. So yeah, lots of romance happening over here. Let's take a walk. So that was a fun little introduction to Barranco. What did you think of the place? Yeah, this neighborhood is a fun, artsy kind of area. We only spent a couple of hours here in the afternoon. It would be really cool to come at night and see what the nightlife is all about. Yeah, they have lots of bars and restaurants worth checking out. Yeah, it definitely seems that way. Yes. Huaca Pucllana is a giant adobe and clay pyramid located in the middle of Miraflores. Since this site is still under excavation, you can only visit accompanied by a guide, but this is a good thing since you end up learning a lot of the history and culture behind this place. So for today's meal we are going for more of an upscale dining experience. We are having lunch at a place called La Rosa Náutica, which means the nautical rose. And it is a really cool restaurant out on the water. There is this pier built over the ocean and it just leads you all the way to this little restaurant. So you're like surrounded by waves, there is surfers, birds. Perfect setting and the food here is really good. I've been here once before many many years ago. So I'm excited to come back with more mature taste buds. Being the foodies that we are, we made sure to order 2 different sampler plates so that we could try a little bit of everything. We ended up having 3 different types of ceviche, as well as causa, lomo saltado, tacu tacu and more. If you’re looking for a fancy meal out, this place is it! Larcomar is a shopping centre with the best views in all of Lima. The place was built into the cliff overlooking the ocean, and it has cafes and restaurants with outdoor seating areas. In terms of shopping, most of the brands here are on the higher end and the prices reflect so. So it is a super hot summer day here in Lima. So Sam and I have stopped off for cremoladas which is kind of like a shaved ice drink. And I've gotten one that is flavored like passion fruit. So it is nice and sour. And what is that called locally? Mmm. This is maracuyá. And it is so good. Like, we are dripping sweat right now so this nice frozen drink is exactly what we need. Mmmmm. And for yours? And I'm having my favorite cremolada. It is called lúcuma. It is a local fruit to Peru and I haven't had it anywhere else in the world. It is absolutely delicious. That is good stuff isn't it? There is no better way to cool off. Another activity you can try in Lima is surfing. There are lots of surf shops along the water, so it’s just a matter of inquiring about rates for surf lessons and board rentals. Okay, so for today's lunch we are eating at a place called Taiken and they specialize in Nikkei food. Now this is something that I hadn't heard of until I came to Peru but apparently Peru has the second largest Japanese population in all of South America. And that has really influenced the cuisine. So Nikkei is the combination of Peruvian and Japanese culinary inspiration. So yeah, we're going to be trying some Japanese Peruvian food today. Okay, so this right here is Pejerrey tempura. Tempura time. And this is basically the local catch. Which makes it. And this sauce is really unique because normally when I've had a dipping sauce, like when I'm having Japanese food, it is typically cold. And this is piping hot. You can actually see the steam coming off of it. Whoops! Butter fingers over here. Butter fingers over here. Alright, we're going to attempt to save this here. Mmmm. Wow. You know whenever I've had tempura at a Japanese restaurant it has always been vegetables. This is amazing. Like this is almost reminds me a little bit sort of like fish and chips except it is a lot thinner. Oh, it is just so tasty. The tempura batter is really really good. And then the fish is really fresh. So yeah, typically when I've had tempura too it tends to be something like sweet potato or other kinds of vegetables but wow does it ever taste delicious in fish form. In fish form. So it is basically deep-fried fish in a batter. Basically, that is what I'm saying. Let's get a close-up. Interesting. Are you going to eat it? There you go. Okay, so next up we're going to dig in to the maki rolls. And this one right here has breaded shrimp and avocado and a little bit of fish on top. And I'm not entirely sure what the sauce or the powder is. So maybe dip it in a bit of soy. Mmmmm. Oh wow. Tasty? That is really nice. Okay, one second to chew this. So, when we ordered this one off of the menu we saw that it said acevichado which kind of sounds like Ceviche and if you try this fish you'll be able to tell that it has been cured in lime and it just has a very zesty fresh flavor. You actually don't even need the soy sauce because it is so flavorful on its own. And I'm still not entirely sure about the green powder but I do like it. So yeah, that is like a really interesting twist on sushi because you have the ceviche influence coming through. So pretty cool. Plaza Mayor, also known as Plaza de Armas, is located in the city centre. The square is flanked by many historic buildings and if you’re looking for colonial architecture, this is the place to find it. The San Francisco Monastery is located just a few blocks away from the main plaza, and it’s another site you won’t want to miss. You can only visit as part of a guided tour, but inside you’ll find a library with antique texts, paintings from the days of the early colony, and catacombs which contain thousands of skulls and bones. So it is time for another lunch video here in Lima. Today we're filming downtown. So we popped into one of the few restaurants that was willing to serve us lunch at eleven am because we're already starved and you know when we're hungry we get hangry. So here we are, we're going to be filming a video about ocopa a la arequipeña and Papa a la Huancaína. Both are potato dishes served with sauces which are kind of similar but from different regions. So we'll be sampling those. So the dish Sam is trying, Papa a la Huancaína, originated in the province of huancayo and that is how it gets its name. Yeah, so let's talk about the ingredients here. So the main thing here is the sauce. I mean of course this is a potato dish but this is a sauce that is made out of cheese, milk and rocoto. And rocoto that is the yellow aji pepper. Yeah, exactly. And this is something we're very familiar with because it is often served at your Aunt's and Grandma's house. So we love this dish. Wow. Good stuff? This is easily one of my favorite Peruvian dishes. Like I just love this sauce and then Peruvian potatoes are some of the best in the world, so it is like you're combining this amazing sauce on top of really well prepared potatoes. That is amazing. And the cool thing about this dish is that you can find it just about everywhere in Peru. You can find this along the coast, in the Sierras and even in the jungle. So yeah, and speaking of presentation this is usually served with black olives and hard boiled eggs. And these are small eggs. I think these are quail eggs because they're quite little. So do you like it? Oh yeah. Maybe I won't be sharing after all. So it is now time to try the second potato dish and that is ocopa a la arequipeña. If you have a look here we can see the plate and it is a little bit different from the previous one. This sauce is a little bit more green. But it is still served with a hard boiled eggs and the black olives. And the two main ingredients to make this sauce are aji and huacatay. No idea what huacatay is. I have never seen this before. No clue. Not very familiar with the food here in Peru. Um, but aside from that the sauce also has a bit of onions, garlic, milk, fresh cheese, some crumbled crackers and peanuts so it should be a bit more crunchy than the one we had earlier. So I'm going to grab a spoon here. It is time to serve yourself. Help myself. Serve yourself up. There we go. Let's grab a bit more sauce so you can really taste it. Alright, time to dig in. Yeah. Oh, and one thing worth noting. If you don't want to go through the trouble of making the sauce from scratch. You can go to the supermarket here in Peru and they sell these little packs that have the powder already pre-made. And you just have to like add a little bit of milk and water and viola! Instant sauce out of the bag. But let's try this. Mmmmmm. So yeah, so this one is a bit sweeter than the one we had earlier. A lot sweeter actually. A lot sweeter. Wow. In the past when I've had it at my family's place it is a bit more crunchy. Because I guess they don't really chop their peanuts that finely so you can still kind of taste them. But this one is very smooth and very creamy. And it is a bit spicier than the Huancaína we had earlier. So it is kind of spicy and sweet. It is good. It is good but I still prefer Papa a la Huancaína. That is just a classic. Another place to visit in Lima’s historic centre is the main cathedral. They offer a guided tour, which is very informative, and you can also climb down into the crypt beneath the church. Just down the street from the Cathedral you’ll find the Government Palace. If you time your visit just right, you’ll be able to watch the changing of the guard. Unfortunately, we had just missed it! So it is past twelve noon which I think means it is acceptable to get a little boozy. We are going to be doing a taste test of Pisco Sour versus Chilcano. Both drinks are made with Pisco but they are quite different so those should be coming soon. So the cocktail has arrived. This is the Pisco Sour. Yes. And this is my all-time favorite Peruvian drink. It is amazing. I can't wait to try it here. So how does it taste? As you might imagine. It is sour. But also quite sweet. Yeah. So, the Pisco Sour is made from a number of different ingredients so you've got your grape brandy the Pisco which actually comes from the town of Pisco here in Peru. Yeah. Then you've got your egg white on top. If you take a look down here you've got your egg white on top, a little bit of bitter which is the brown. Nice and frothy. Yes, that is the key. And then here you also have lemon or lime juice and often a little bit of syrup added to give it some extra bit of sugar. Extra bit of sweet. So that is one very sweet cocktail. Very refreshing on a hot day. Yeah, and this is considered the National drink of Peru. Mixing it all up with my little seahorse. So I ordered the Chilcano and this is a cocktail that is made with Pisco, ginger ale and a little bit of lime juice. You know who would really like this? Would be my Mom. She loves ginger ale. That is a little stronger than I was expecting. Potent. Potent. I was hoping it would be a little bit watered down with all of the ice cubes but no that is definitely got Pisco in there and you can taste it. It burns on the way down. I might need to help you out with that one huh? Actually, the first time we tried Chilcanos it was in Cusco, we thought we were going to a Pisco museum but when we got there it was actually more like a bar. So we ordered I think it was like four different Chilcanos with different flavors. So that was pretty cool. This one that I'm having right now is just the classic. Basically ginger ale, lime and Pisco. But you can get fancy and like make strawberry ones, cinnamon ones and just you know different flavors. So one of our favorite things to do in Lima whenever we're in the city is to come to Kennedy Park. And they have so many stray cats that are taken care of by the locals. You can buy a little bit of cat food and feed them and play with them. And they're all really friendly. For us the cats are the main attraction, however, aside from that, the park also hosts an outdoor hippie fair which is worth checking out. That, or just go play with the cats! So it is dinnertime here in Lima and we are at a place called La Lucha which specializes in sandwiches so we've ordered a Chicharrón sandwich which is like a fried pork. It should be really tasty. We are waiting for our food to get here. And yeah, let's get started. So our food has arrived. Yeah we've got our Pan con Chicharrón. It's looking good. It looks amazing. If you look down here you really get a good tour of what we have. So we've got a bun and inside it looks like we've got lots of onion. I'm guessing it is sweet onion. Yeah. Then we have the fried pork and then the kamote - the sweet potato. Exactly. So that looks like a pretty awesome sandwich. Let's try it now. Yes. Is it ready? Alright, it is my first bite. Mmmm. It's so good. It's so good. You know what really makes a sandwich. I mean the meat is awesome it is really good quality but it is the sweet potato. I love having sweet potato in my sandwich. That's an unusual ingredient but it works doesn't it? It does. Lima’s Mercado Indio is located along Petit Thouars, and this is where visitors can come to do all their souvenir shopping. Whether it’s alpaca sweaters, chess sets, warm slippers, or silver jewelry you’re after, you can find it all here. It is lunchtime again here in Lima and today we are going to be trying a traditional dish called Ají de gallina. This is probably like one of those national dishes that you can find at almost any restaurant. But we're eating it at a place called Republica which makes Peruvian dishes but kind of like in a casual fast food setting. So yeah, it should be interesting. We've placed our order and that should be coming soon. Okay, so the food is already here. That came very quickly. So let's have a look at the plate. This is Ají de gallina and as you can see it is kind of like a chicken stew. It is made with shredded chicken and the sauce has a cream, cheese and peanut base. And also the way they thicken this sauce is by adding bread crumbs that have been soaked in either a broth or milk and this is served with rice or boiled potatoes. And the boiled potatoes and kind of hiding underneath all of the chicken here. Oh, we do have boiled potatoes. We do. Yeah. I thought we were just given rice. So this is a very hearty meal. I'm kind of glad we're sharing one plate because there is no way I could eat all of this. Um, but yeah, let's dig right in. I'm just going to try it with rice here. Look at that. This looks so good. This is one of my favorite ways that chicken is prepared here in Peru. I love this dish. Mmmmhmmm. And, I don't know if I forgot to mention this but another key ingredient is Aji. The hot pepper. But because it has a cream base it is not super spicy. So I really love this. Look, they actually gave us aji sauce too. In case we want it spicier. Maybe we should add a little bit. In case it wasn't enough. Yeah, just dunk it all over that rice. I'm not sure if that is how it is done but that is how we do it. So let's see if that has more kick now. Another quality control bite. Quality control. That is what we call it. Mmmmm. Now it is spicier. That is good. Nice and creamy too? Feel the burn. Lima’s beaches are very pebbly and the waters are rather cold, but that doesn’t keep beach goers away. If you just want to sunbathe or cool off with a quick dip, the beaches fit the bill. So for today's lunch in Lima we are going to be having Chifa. And that is basically Chinese food with a Peruvian twist. So you know how we always visit a country maybe even Canada or the US and you go to a Chinese buffet and you're like mmmm this is delicious and then you go to China and you can't find any of the dishes you had at a Chinese buffet. That is because Chinese food really varies from one country to the next because incorporate you know their spices and their cooking styles. So Peruvian Chinese food is quite distinct. We're going to be eating Chifa which literally means to eat rice. So yeah, we've ordered a lot of food that is going to be coming soon and it should be interesting. Peruvian Chinese food. Apparently there are more than 6000 chifa restaurants spread out across Lima, so we can assure you that you won’t have any trouble finding one. On the contrary, it might be kind of hard to choose just one! If you want to see what a local market looks like, head over to Mercado de Surquillo. You’ll find lots of fresh produce here, and it’s particularly busy if you come in the early morning. They also have little stands where you can grab a bite if you get hungry. So for today's video we are at a place called Sanguchisimo and we're going to be eating salchipapas by popular demand. We had all of these people being like if you're in Lima you have to eat salchipapa. So we listened to you, we tracked down this place and we're excited to be trying this dish. So our choripapas and salchipapas have arrived. We've got the sausage one and the hot dog one. Look at those portions. That is a thing of beauty. And this is a street food snack that originated in the streets of Lima. But now it has spread all over Latin America so you can find it in other countries which is pretty cool. Different variations everywhere. And it comes with four different sausages that we've got here on this plate. We've got ketchup, mayo, mustard and of course aji. I think the aji is my favorite one. Yes, mine too. So we may need to ask for an extra container. And this is like a really nice spicy sauce that you'll find almost everywhere in Peru. It is always a staple at the table. So yeah, I'm really looking forward to digging in to this. It looks fantastic. So let's just go for it. So on top here we have. Look at all of that cheese! Yeah, that is a lot of cheese and some fried egg as well. And when we were placing our order they asked us do you want your egg like well fried or do you want it a little bit runny. And there is nothing that grosses out Sam more than runny eggs so we got ours well done sunny side up. So yeah, I kind of like my eggs runny. I like them juicy. I don't like my runny eggs. It grosses me out when the yolk bursts. Yeah. Sam is always like take it away. I can't look at the plate. Take it away. But anyways, I've got a little bit of everything on here. My French Fry, my hot dog, my egg and cheese. Look at the sauce. And yes let's dip it into the aji. Can't forget that. Load up on that aji. That is a massive bite. Ugh. Hot. Aw! A little messy. Wow. That is good. Give me one minute. This is wonderful. If I were a kid I feel like I would want to eat this everyday. I would be like Mom, please salchipapa for lunch. It is really good. It is really hot. I just burned my mouth when I took that first bite. But look at that. Yeah, it has got a lot of ingredients that kids would love. Yeah. You've got your french fries, you've got your cheese, you've got your eggs, you've got your hot dog, you've got your nice sauces. That is ticking off a lot of boxes for sure. It is wonderful. And I have to say the aji at this restaurant is actually really spicy. It is the spiciest which I've had. So right now we are visiting Park Maria Reiche. Which is a real cool park where they've recreated the Nazca lines using flowers and different plants. So if you don't want to go all the way down to Nazca, and you don't want to fly in one of those tiny planes, you can come here and kind of get an idea what the Nazca lines look like. I mean these are obviously much smaller. If you have a bit of a sweet tooth, you’ll certainly enjoy diving into Peruvian desserts. There are a few classics that you simple shouldn’t miss, including: Suspiro a la limeña and Merengado de chirimoya. Another fun way to experience the city is by bike. Head down to the boardwalk where you can hire a bicycle for a few hours and bike the length of the coast. So it is time for another food video and today we are going to be trying something that is called Causa. Causa, it is kind of like a shepherds pie if you haven't tried it before, it is made with yellow mashed potato and you can get lots of different fillings. So we've ordered two different varieties and that should be coming soon and it is going to be delicious. I love the causa. So the causa has arrived and it is a thing of beauty. How excited are you for your food, Sam? Yeah, it looks like artwork. I almost feel guilty tucking in to it. Almost. Okay, so let's talk about the key ingredients that make up causa. So you have your yellow potato, lime and aji which is the yellow hot pepper. Yeah. And in terms of fillings you can have lots of different ones. So Sam went with the classic which has. Mine has chicken and you can also see that there is some avocado here on the side as well. And that looks like some mayo. A mayo sauce on top. I'm just going to dig right in. I'm going right to the bottom. It is like cutting into a tower. Wow. That is really good. Yeah? Yeah. And with this particular causa it is really salty. You can tell they've added a lot of salt to it. But it just like, when you get that much yellow potatoes, it is just oh man it is so good. It is almost like having Mom's mashed potatoes back home or something but with much better dressings. With the chicken and the sauce and the avocado. Oh man, that is good. Okay and let's talk about the chicken. Is it shredded chicken? Like the one we had in Aji de Gallina or is it chopped. It is shredded chicken. Yeah. Okay. One more bite for quality control. Research purposes. That is good stuff. And I am beyond excited for mine because I saw Causa Acevichado on the menu and that is a ceviche causa. Look at that. Woah. So I've got my fish, a little bit of fish that has been kind of cooked in lime. I have my red onions, I have my hot chili peppers and of course my yellow mashed potato with a bit of mayo. Super fancy over there. I know. And if you know how much I love ceviche this is just the perfect dish for me really. You're doing a good job of toppling it already. I don't know why but I'm blowing on my food. That is such a habit. It is cold. It is a cold dish. Mmmmm. Oh, yeah. The best of both worlds? It is so good. The lime. So much lime. And it is so tangy. And a little spicy. With those little pieces of red hot chili. Mmmmm. This is my favorite. I haven't even tried yours but I know this is my favorite. Mmmmm. And that’s a wrap for the Peruvian capital. We had a wonderful time visiting Lima and we hope that you’ll consider adding this destination to your travel bucket list if you come to Peru. As always, if you have any other suggestions of delicious foods to try, or cool things to do in Lima that we may not have mentioned, feel free to share those with travellers in the comments below. For more food and travel videos from around the world, be sure to hit subscribe!

Contents

Etymology

According to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants. However, even before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as Limaq (Limaq, pronounced [ˈli.mɑq], which means "talker" or "speaker" in the coastal Quechua that was the area's primary language before the Spanish arrival). This oracle was eventually destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted: the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.[5]

Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish consistently rejects stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation of "lime", the citrus fruit.

Lima Foundation by Francisco Pizarro (1535)
Lima Foundation by Francisco Pizarro (1535)

The city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings (Spanish: Ciudad de los Reyes) because its foundation was decided on January 6, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name quickly fell into disuse and Lima became the city's name of choice; on the oldest Spanish maps of Peru, both Lima and Ciudad de los Reyes can be seen together.

The river that feeds Lima is called Rímac and many people erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is "Talking River" (the Incas spoke a highland variety of Quechua in which the word for "talker" was pronounced [ˈrimɑq]).[6] However, the original inhabitants of the valley were not Incas. This name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua.

Lima Cathedral in 1846
Lima Cathedral in 1846

Later, as the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed. Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They often assume that the valley is named after the river; however, Spanish documents from the colonial period show the opposite to be true.[5]

Symbols

Flag

Historically, the Flag of Lima has been known as the "Banner of Peru's Kings' City".[7] It is made from a golden-colored silk canvas and embroidered in the center is its coat of arms.[7]

Anthem

Lima's anthem was heard for the first time on January 18, 2008, in a formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian President Alan García, and other authorities. The anthem was created by Luis Enrique Tord (lyrics), Euding Maeshiro (music) and record producer Ricardo Núñez (arranger).[8]

History

Pachacamac was an important religious centre before the arrival of Spanish conquistadors.
Pachacamac was an important religious centre before the arrival of Spanish conquistadors.
Balconies were a major architectural feature during the colonial period.
Balconies were a major architectural feature during the colonial period.

In the pre-Columbian era, what is now Lima was inhabited by indigenous groups under the Ychsma policy, which was incorporated into the Inca Empire in the 15th century.[9] In 1532 a group of Spanish conquistadors, led by Francisco Pizarro, defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and took over his empire.

Francisco Pizarro, Spanish Founder of Lima
Francisco Pizarro, Spanish Founder of Lima

As the Spanish Crown had named Pizarro governor of the lands he conquered,[10] he chose the Rímac Valley to found his capital on January 18, 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes (City of the Kings).[11] In August 1536, rebel Inca troops led by Manco Inca Yupanqui besieged the city but were defeated by the Spaniards and their native allies.[12]

Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543.[13] During the next century it flourished as the centre of an extensive trade network that integrated the Viceroyalty with the rest of the Americas, Europe and the Far East.[14] However, the city was not free from dangers; the presence of pirates and privateers in the Pacific Ocean lead to the building of the Walls of Lima between 1684 and 1687.[15] The 1687 Peru earthquake destroyed most of the city buildings;[16] the earthquake marked a turning point in the city's history as it coincided with a trade recession and growing economic competition with cities such as Buenos Aires.[17]

In 1746, another powerful earthquake severely damaged Lima and destroyed Callao, forcing a massive rebuilding effort under Viceroy José Antonio Manso de Velasco.[18] In the later half of the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas on public health and social control shaped development.[19] During this period, Lima was adversely affected by the Bourbon Reforms as it lost its monopoly on overseas trade and its control over the mining region of Upper Peru.[20] The city's economic decline left its elite dependent on royal and ecclesiastical appointment and thus, reluctant to advocate independence.[21]

A combined expedition of Argentine and Chilean patriots under General José de San Martín landed south of Lima in 1820 but did not attack the city. Faced with a naval blockade and the action of guerrillas on land, Viceroy José de la Serna e Hinojosa evacuated its capital in July 1821 to save the Royalist army.[22] Fearing a popular uprising and lacking any means to impose order, the city council invited San Martín to enter Lima and signed a Declaration of Independence at his request.[23] However, the war was not over; in the next two years the city changed hands several times.

The Walls of Lima were built between 1684 and 1687 by viceroy Melchor de Navarra.
The Walls of Lima were built between 1684 and 1687 by viceroy Melchor de Navarra.

After independence, Lima became the capital of the Republic of Peru but economic stagnation and political turmoil brought urban development to a halt. This hiatus ended in the 1850s, when increased public and private revenues from guano exports led to a rapid development of the city.[24] The export-led expansion also widened the gap between rich and poor, fostering social unrest.[25] During the 1879–1883 War of the Pacific, Chilean troops occupied Lima, looting public museums, libraries and educational institutions.[26] At the same time, angry mobs attacked wealthy citizens and the Asian population; sacking their properties and businesses.[27] The city underwent renewal and expansion from the 1890s to the 1920s. During this period the urban layout was modified by the construction of broad avenues that crisscrossed the city and connected it with neighboring towns.[28]

On May 24, 1940[29] an earthquake[30] destroyed most of the city, which at that time was mostly built of adobe and quincha. In the 1940s Lima started a period of rapid growth spurred by migration from the Andean region, as rural people sought opportunities for work and education. The population, estimated at 600,000 in 1940, reached 1.9 million by 1960 and 4.8 million by 1980.[31] At the start of this period, the urban area was confined to a triangular area bounded by the city's historic centre, Callao and Chorrillos; in the following decades settlements spread to the north, beyond the Rímac River, to the east, along the Central Highway and to the south.[32] The new migrants, at first confined to slums in downtown Lima, led this expansion through large-scale land invasions, which evolved into shanty towns, known as pueblos jóvenes.[33]

Geography

Lima as seen from the International Space Station
Lima as seen from the International Space Station
Lima at night from space
Lima at night from space

The urban area covers about 800 km2 (310 sq mi). It is located on mostly flat terrain in the Peruvian coastal plain, within the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers. The city slopes gently from the shores of the Pacific Ocean into valleys and mountain slopes located as high as 1,550 meters (5,090 ft) above sea level. Within the city are isolated hills that are not connected to the surrounding hill chains, such as El Agustino, San Cosme, El Pino, La Milla, Muleria and Pro hills. The San Cristobal hill in the Rímac District, which lies directly north of the downtown area, is the local extreme of an Andean hill outgrowth.

Metro Lima covers 2,672.28 km2 (1,031.77 sq mi), of which 825.88 km2 (318.87 sq mi) (31%) comprise the actual city and 1,846.40 km2 (712.90 sq mi) (69%) the city outskirts.[citation needed] The urban area extends around 60 km (37 mi) from north to south and around 30 km (19 mi) from west to east. The city center is located 15 km (9.3 mi) inland at the shore of the Rímac River, a vital resource for the city, since it carries what will become drinking water for its inhabitants and fuels the hydroelectric dams that provide electricity to the area. While no official administrative definition for the city exists, it is usually considered to be composed of the central 30 of 43 districts of Lima Province, corresponding to an urban area centered around the historic Cercado de Lima district.[citation needed] The city is the core of the Lima Metro Area, one of the ten largest metro areas in the Americas. Lima is the world's third largest desert city, after Karachi, Pakistan and Cairo, Egypt.

Climate

Despite its location in the tropics and in a desert, Lima's proximity to the cool waters of the Pacific Ocean leads to temperatures much lower than those expected for a tropical desert and thus Lima can be classified as a mild desert climate (Köppen: BWn) with subtropical temperature ranges. Temperatures rarely fall below 12 °C (54 °F) or rise above 29 °C (84 °F).[34] Two distinct seasons can be identified: summer, from December through April; and winter from June through October. May and November are generally transition months, with a more dramatic warm-to-cool weather transition.

Daily temperatures oscillate between lows of 18 °C (64 °F) to 22 °C (72 °F) and highs of 24 °C (75 °F) to 29 °C (84 °F). Occasional coastal fogs on some mornings and high clouds in some afternoons and evenings can be present. Summer sunsets are colorful, labeled by locals as "cielo de brujas" (Spanish for "sky of witches"), since the sky commonly turns shades of orange, pink and red around 7 pm. Winter weather is dramatically different. Grey skies, breezy conditions, higher humidity and cooler temperatures prevail. Long (2-weeks or more) stretches of dark overcast skies are not uncommon. Persistent morning drizzle occurs occasionally from June through September, coating the streets with a thin layer of water that generally dries up by early afternoon. Winter temperatures vary little between day and night. They range from lows of 14 °C (57 °F) to 16 °C (61 °F) and highs of 16 °C (61 °F) to 19 °C (66 °F), rarely exceeding 20 °C (68 °F) except in the easternmost districts.[35]

Relative humidity is always very high, particularly in the mornings.[36] High humidity produces brief morning fog in the early summer and a usually persistent low cloud deck during the winter (generally developing in May and persisting into late November or even early December). The predominantly onshore flow makes the Lima area one of the cloudiest among the entire Peruvian coast. Lima has only 1284 hours of sunshine a year, 28.6 hours in July and 184 hours in April, which is exceptionally little for the latitude.[37] By, comparison, London has an average of 1653 hours of sunshine per year, and Moscow 1731 hours of sunshine per year. Winter cloudiness prompts locals to seek for sunshine in Andean valleys located at elevations generally above 500 meters above sea level.

While relative humidity is high, rainfall is very low due to strong atmospheric stability. The severely low rainfall impacts on water supply in the city, which originates from wells and from rivers that flow from the Andes.[38] Inland districts receive anywhere between 1 and 6 cm (2.4 in) of rainfall per year, which accumulates mainly during the winter months. Coastal districts receive only 1 to 3 cm (1.2 in). As previously mentioned, winter precipitation occurs in the form of persistent morning drizzle events. These are locally called 'garúa', 'llovizna' or 'camanchacas'. Summer rain, on the other hand, is infrequent and occurs in the form of isolated light and brief showers. These generally occur during afternoons and evenings when leftovers from Andean storms arrive from the east. The lack of heavy rainfall arises from high atmospheric stability caused, in turn, by the combination of cool waters from semi-permanent coastal upwelling and the presence of the cold Humboldt Current and warm air aloft associated with the South Pacific anticyclone.

Lima's climate (like that of most of coastal Peru) gets severely disrupted in El Niño events. Coastal waters usually average around 17–19 °C (63–66 °F), but get much warmer (as in 1998 when the water reached 26 °C (79 °F)). Air temperatures rise accordingly.

Climate data for Lima (Jorge Chávez International Airport) 1961–1990, extremes 1960–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.7
(90.9)
32.5
(90.5)
33.4
(92.1)
31.6
(88.9)
30.3
(86.5)
30.0
(86)
28.3
(82.9)
29.0
(84.2)
28.0
(82.4)
25.2
(77.4)
29.0
(84.2)
30.4
(86.7)
33.4
(92.1)
Average high °C (°F) 26.1
(79)
26.8
(80.2)
26.3
(79.3)
24.5
(76.1)
22.0
(71.6)
20.1
(68.2)
19.1
(66.4)
18.8
(65.8)
19.1
(66.4)
20.3
(68.5)
22.1
(71.8)
24.4
(75.9)
22.5
(72.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 22.1
(71.8)
22.7
(72.9)
22.2
(72)
20.6
(69.1)
18.8
(65.8)
17.5
(63.5)
16.7
(62.1)
16.2
(61.2)
16.4
(61.5)
17.3
(63.1)
18.7
(65.7)
20.7
(69.3)
19.2
(66.6)
Average low °C (°F) 19.4
(66.9)
19.8
(67.6)
19.5
(67.1)
17.9
(64.2)
16.4
(61.5)
15.6
(60.1)
15.2
(59.4)
14.9
(58.8)
14.9
(58.8)
15.5
(59.9)
16.6
(61.9)
18.2
(64.8)
17.2
(63)
Record low °C (°F) 12.0
(53.6)
15.0
(59)
11.0
(51.8)
10.0
(50)
8.0
(46.4)
10.0
(50)
8.9
(48)
10.0
(50)
12.5
(54.5)
11.0
(51.8)
11.1
(52)
13.9
(57)
8.0
(46.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.8
(0.031)
0.4
(0.016)
0.4
(0.016)
0.1
(0.004)
0.3
(0.012)
0.7
(0.028)
1.0
(0.039)
1.5
(0.059)
0.7
(0.028)
0.2
(0.008)
0.1
(0.004)
0.2
(0.008)
6.4
(0.252)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.3 1.1 2.3 3.0 4.1 3.1 1.2 0.4 0.5 18.2
Average relative humidity (%) 81.6 82.1 82.7 85.0 85.1 85.1 84.8 84.8 85.5 83.5 82.1 81.5 82.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 179.1 169.0 139.2 184.0 116.4 50.6 28.6 32.3 37.3 65.3 89.0 139.2 1,230
Source #1: Deutscher Wetterdienst,[39] Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[40]
Source #2: Universidad Complutense de Madrid (sunshine and humidity)[37]

Demographics

People of Lima.
People of Lima.

With a municipal population of 8,852,000 and 9,752,000 for the metropolitan area and a population density of 3,008.8 inhabitants per square kilometre (7,793/sq mi) as of 2007.[41] Lima ranks as the 30th most populous 'agglomeration' in the world, as of 2014, and the second biggest city in South America in terms of population within city limits, after São Paulo.[42] Its population features a complex mix of racial and ethnic groups. Mestizos of mixed Amerindian and European (mostly Spanish and Italians) ancestry are the largest ethnic group. European Peruvians (White people) are the second largest group. Many are of Spanish, Italian or German descent; many others are of French, British, or Croatian descent.[43][44] The minorities in Lima include Amerindians (mostly Aymara and Quechua) and Afro-Peruvians, whose African ancestors were initially brought to the region as slaves. Jews of European descent and Middle Easterners are there. Asians, especially of Chinese (Cantonese) and Japanese descent, came mostly in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Lima has, by far, the largest ethnic Chinese community in Latin America.[45]

Children at an elementary school in Santiago de Surco.
Children at an elementary school in Santiago de Surco.
Pueblos jóvenes on the outskirts.
Pueblos jóvenes on the outskirts.

The first settlement in what would become Lima was made up of 117 housing blocks. In 1562, another district was built across the Rímac River and in 1610, the first stone bridge was built. Lima then had a population of around 26,000; blacks made up around 40% and whites made up around 38%.[46] By 1748, the white population totaled 16,000–18,000.[47] In 1861, the number of inhabitants surpassed 100,000 and by 1927, had doubled.[citation needed]

During the early 20th century, thousands of immigrants came to the city, including people of European descent. They organized social clubs and built their own schools. Examples are The American-Peruvian school, the Alianza Francesa de Lima, the Lycée Franco-Péruvien and the hospital Maison de Sante; Markham College, the British-Peruvian school in Monterrico, Antonio Raymondi District Italian School, the Pestalozzi Swiss School and also, several German-Peruvian schools.

Chinese and a lesser number of Japanese came to Lima and established themselves in the Barrios Altos neighborhood near downtown Lima. Lima residents refer to their Chinatown as Calle Capon and the city's ubiquitous Chifa restaurants – small, sit-down, usually Chinese-run restaurants serving the Peruvian spin on Chinese cuisine – can be found by the dozens in this enclave.

In 2014, the National Institute for Statistics and Information (Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica) reported that the population in Lima's 49 districts was 9,752,000 people, including the Constitutional Province of Callao. The city and (metropolitan area) represents around 29% of the national population. Of the city's population 48.7% are men and 51.3% are women. The 49 districts in Metropolitan Lima are divided into 5 areas: Cono Norte (North Lima), Lima Este (East Lima), Constitutional Province of Callao, Lima Centro (Central Lima) and Lima Sur (South Lima). The largest areas are Lima Norte with 2,475,432 people and Lima Este with 2,619,814 people, including the largest single district San Juan de Lurigancho, which hosts 1 million people.[48]

Lima is considered a "young" city. According to INEI, by mid 2014 the age distribution in Lima was: 24.3% between 0 and 14, 27.2% between 15 and 29, 22.5% between 30 and 44, 15.4% between 45 and 59 and 10.6% above 60.[48]

Migration to Lima from the rest of Peru is substantial. In 2013, 3,480,000 people reported arriving from other regions. This represents almost 36% of the entire population of Metropolitan Lima. The three regions that supply most of the migrants are Junin, Ancash and Ayacucho. By contrast only 390,000 emigrated from Lima to other regions.[48]

The annual population growth rate is 1.57%. Some of the 43 metropolitan districts are considerably more populous than others. For example, San Juan de Lurigancho, San Martin de Porres, Ate, Comas, Villa El Salvador and Villa Maria del Triunfo host more than 400,000, while San Luis, San Isidro, Magdalena del Mar, Lince and Barranco have less than 60,000 residents.[48]

A 2005 household survey study shows a socio-economic distribution for households in Lima. It used a monthly family income of 6,000 soles (around US$1,840) or more for socioeconomic level A; between 2,000 soles (US$612) and 6,000 soles (US$1,840) for level B; from 840 soles (US$257) to 2,000 soles (US$612) for level C; from 420 soles (US$128) to 1200 soles (US$368) for level D; and up to 840 soles (US$257) for level E. In Lima, 18% were in level E; 32.3% in level D; 31.7% in level C; 14.6% in level B; and 3.4% in level A. In this sense, 82% of the population lives in households that earn less than 2000 soles (or US$612) monthly. Other salient differences between socioeconomic levels include levels of higher education, car ownership and home size.[49]

In Metropolitan Lima in 2013, the percentage of the population living in households in poverty was 12.8%. The level of poverty is measured by households that are unable to access a basic food and other household goods and services, such as clothing, housing, education, transportation and health. The level of poverty has decreased from 2011 (15.6%) and 2012 (14.5%). Lima Sur is the area in Lima with the highest proportion of poverty (17.7%), followed by Lima Este (14.5%), Lima Norte (14.1%) and Lima Centro (6.2%). In addition 0.2% of the population lives in extreme poverty, meaning that they are unable to access a basic food basket.[48]

Economy

Hotel Westin, Lima.
Hotel Westin, Lima.

Lima is the country's industrial and financial center and one of Latin America's most important financial centers,[50] home to many national companies and hotels. It accounts for more than two thirds of Peru's industrial production[51] and most of its tertiary sector.

The Metropolitan area, with around 7,000 factories,[52] is the main location of industry. Products include textiles, clothing and food. Chemicals, fish, leather and oil derivatives are manufactured and processed.[52] The financial district is in San Isidro, while much of the industrial activity takes place in the west of the city, extending to the airport in Callao. Lima has the largest export industry in South America and is a regional center for the cargo industry.

Industrialization began in the 1930s and by 1950, through import substitution policies, manufacturing made up 14% of GNP. In the late 1950s, up to 70% of consumer goods were manufactured in factories located in Lima.[53]

The Callao seaport is one of the main fishing and commerce ports in South America, covering over 47 hectares (120 acres) and shipping 20.7 million tonnes of cargo in 2007.[54] The main export goods are commodities: oil, steel, silver, zinc, cotton, sugar and coffee.

As of 2003, Lima generated 53% of GDP.[55] Most foreign companies in Peru settled in Lima.

Financial center of Lima.
Financial center of Lima.

In 2007, the Peruvian economy grew 9%, the largest growth rate in South America.[56] The Lima Stock Exchange rose 185.24% in 2006[57] and in 2007 by another 168.3%,[58] making it then one of the fastest growing stock exchanges in the world. In 2006, the Lima Stock Exchange was the world's most profitable.[59]

The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit 2008 and the Latin America, the Caribbean and the European Union Summit were held there.

Lima is the headquarters for banks such as Banco de Crédito del Perú, Scotiabank Perú, Interbank, Bank of the Nation, Banco Continental, MiBanco, Banco Interamericano de Finanzas, Banco Finaciero, Banco de Comercio and CrediScotia. It is a regional headquarters for Standard Chartered. Insurance companies based in Lima include Rimac Seguros, Mapfre Peru, Interseguro, Pacifico, Protecta and La Positiva.[60]

Government

National

Lima is the capital city of the Republic of Peru and Lima province. As such, it is home to the three branches of the Government of Peru.

The executive branch is headquartered in the Government Palace, located in the Plaza Mayor. All ministries are located in the city.

The legislative branch is headquartered in the Legislative Palace and is home to the Congress of the Republic of Peru.

The Judicial branch is headquartered in the Palace of Justice and is home to the Supreme Court of Peru. The Palace of Justice in Lima is seat of the Supreme Court of Justice the highest judicial court in Peru with jurisdiction over the entire territory of Peru. Lima is seat of two of the 28 second highest or Superior Courts of Justice. The first and oldest Superior Court in Lima is the Superior Court of Justice, belonging to the Judicial District and. Due to the judicial organization of Peru, the highest concentration of courts is located in Lima despite the fact that its judicial district has jurisdiction over only 35 of the 43 districts.[61] The Superior Court of the Cono Norte is the second Superior Court located in Lima and is part of the Judicial District of North Lima. This judicial district has jurisdiction over the remaining eight districts, all located in northern Lima.[62]

Lima City Hall building at night
Lima City Hall building at night

Local

The city is roughly equivalent to the Province of Lima, which is subdivided into 43 districts. The Metropolitan Municipality has authority over the entire city, while each district has its own local government. Unlike the rest of the country, the Metropolitan Municipality, although a provincial municipality, acts as and has functions similar to a regional government, as it does not belong to any of the 25 regions of Peru. Each of the 43 districts has their own distrital municipality that is in charge of its own district and coordinate with the metropolitan municipality.

Political system

Courthouse.
Courthouse.

Unlike the rest of the country, the Metropolitan Municipality has functions of regional government and is not part of any administrative region, according to Article 65. 27867 of the Law of Regional Governments enacted on 16 November 2002, 87 The previous political organization remains in the sense that a Governor is the political authority for the department and the city. The functions of this authority are mostly police and military. The same city administration covers the local municipal authority.

International organizations

Lima is home to the headquarters of the Andean Community of Nations, along with other regional and international organizations.

Cityscape

Lima's main square, c. 1843
Lima's main square, c. 1843

Lima's architecture offers a mix of styles. Examples of early colonial architecture include the Monastery of San Francisco, the Cathedral and the Torre Tagle Palace. These constructions are generally influenced by Spanish Baroque,[63] Spanish Neoclassical[64] and Spanish Colonial styles.[65] After independence, preferences gradually shifted toward neoclassical and Art Nouveau styles. Many of these works were influenced by French architectural styles.[66] Many government buildings and major cultural institutions were constructed in this period. During the 1960s, the brutalist style began appearing in Lima due to the military government of Juan Velasco Alvarado.[67] Examples of this architecture include the Museum of the Nation and the Ministry of Defense. The early 21st century added glass skyscrapers, particularly around the financial district.[68]

The largest parks are near the downtown area, including the Park of the Reserve, Park of the Exposition,[69] Campo de Marte and University Park. The Park of the Reserve is home to the largest fountain complex in the world known as the Magical Circuit of Water.[70] Many large parks lie outside the city center, including Reducto Park, Pantanos de Villa Wildlife Refuge, El Golf (San Isidro), Parque de las Leyendas (Lima Zoo), El Malecon de Miraflores and the Golf Los Incas.[71]

The street grid is laid out with a system of plazas that are similar to roundabouts or junctions. In addition to this practical purpose, plazas serve as principal green spaces and contain monuments, statues and water fountains.[72]

Society and culture

Woman in White Poncho on Horseback. Cantonese watercolor, sold in Lima mid-19th century. These paintings were copies of works of Francisco Fierro, a popular Afro-Peruvian artist of the time. Collections of the Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe.
Woman in White Poncho on Horseback. Cantonese watercolor, sold in Lima mid-19th century. These paintings were copies of works of Francisco Fierro, a popular Afro-Peruvian artist of the time. Collections of the Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe.

Strongly influenced by European, Andean, African and Asian culture, Lima is a melting pot, due to colonization, immigration and indigenous influences.[73] The Historic Centre was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988.

The city is known as the Gastronomical Capital of the Americas, mixing Spanish, Andean and Asian culinary traditions.[74]

Lima's beaches, located along the northern and southern ends of the city, are heavily visited during the summer. Restaurants, clubs and hotels serve the beachgoers. Lima has a vibrant and active theater scene, including classic theater, cultural presentations, modern theater, experimental theater, dramas, dance performances and theater for children. Lima is home to the Municipal Theater, Segura Theater, Japanese-Peruvian Theater, Marsano Theater, British theater, Theater of the PUCP Cultural Center and the Yuyachkani Theater.[75]

Language

Known as Peruvian Coast Spanish, Lima's Spanish is characterized by the lack of strong intonations as found in many other Spanish-speaking regions. It is heavily influenced by Castilian Spanish. Throughout the colonial era, most of the Spanish nobility based in Lima were originally from Castile.[76] Limean Castillian is also characterized by the lack of voseo, unlike many other Latin American countries. This is because voseo was primarily used by Spain's lower socioeconomic classes, a social group that did not begin to appear in Lima until the late colonial era.[citation needed]

Limean Spanish is distinguished by its clarity in comparison to other Latin American accents and has been influenced by immigrant groups including Italians, Andalusians, West Africans, Chinese and Japanese. It also has been influenced by anglicisms as a result of globalization, as well as by Andean Spanish and Quechua, due to migration from the Andean highlands.[77]

Museums

Lima is home to the country's highest concentration of museums, most notably the Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia del Perú, Museum of Art, the Museo Pedro de Osma, the Museum of Natural History, the Museum of the Nation, The Sala Museo Oro del Perú Larcomar, the Museum of Italian Art the Museum of Gold and the Larco Museum. These museums focus on art, pre-Columbian cultures, natural history, science and religion.[78] The Museum of Italian Art shows European art.

Tourism

Historic Centre of Lima
UNESCO World Heritage site
Plaza de Armas, Lima.jpg
Criteria Cultural: iv
Reference 500
Inscription 1988 (12th Session)
Extensions 1991
Area 259.36 ha
Buffer zone 766.7 ha
Miraflores Skyline.
Miraflores Skyline.

The Historic Centre, made up of the districts of Lima and Rímac, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988.[79] Some examples of colonial architecture include the Monastery of San Francisco, the Plaza Mayor, the Cathedral, Convent of Santo Domingo and the Palace of Torre Tagle.

A tour of the city's churches is a popular circuit. A trip through the central district visits churches dating from the 16th and 17th centuries, the most noteworthy of which are the Cathedral and the Monastery of San Francisco, said to be connected by subterranean catacombs.[80] Both contain paintings, Sevilian tile and sculpted wood furnishings.

Also notable is the Sanctuary of Las Nazarenas, the point of origin for the Lord of Miracles, whose festivities in the month of October constitute the city's most important religious event. Some sections of the Walls remain and are frequented by tourists. These examples of medieval Spanish fortifications were built to defend the city from attacks by pirates and privateers.[81]

Beaches are visited during the summer months, located along the Pan-American Highway, to the south of the city in districts such as Lurín, Punta Hermosa, Santa María del Mar (Peru), San Bartolo, Miraflores beach and Asia.[82]

The suburban districts of Cieneguilla, Pachacamac and the city of Chosica, are tourist attractions among locals. Because they are located at a higher elevation than Lima, they receive more sunshine in winter months, something that the city frequently lacks under seasonal fog.[83]

Food

Lima is known as the Gastronomical Capital of the Americas. A center of immigration and the center of the Spanish Viceroyalty, chefs incorporated dishes brought by the conquistadors and waves of immigrants: African, European, Chinese and Japanese.[74] Since the second half of the 20th century, international immigrants were joined by internal migrants from rural areas.[84] Lima cuisines include Creole food, Chifas, Cebicherias and Pollerias.[85]

In the 21st century, its restaurants became recognized internationally.[86]

In 2007, the Peruvian Society for Gastronomy was born with the objective of uniting Peruvian gastronomy to put together activities that would promote Peruvian food and reinforce the Peruvian national identity. The society, called APEGA, gathered chefs, nutritionists, institutes for gastronomical training, restaurant owners, chefs and cooks, researchers and journalists. They worked with universities, food producers, artisanal fishermen and sellers in food markets.[87] One of their first projects (2008) was to create the largest food festival in Latin America, called Mistura ("mixture" in Portuguese). The fair takes place in September every year. The number of attendees has grown from 30,000 to 600,000 in 2014.[88] The fair congregates restaurants, food producers, bakers, chefs, street vendors and cooking institutes from for ten days to celebrate excellent food.[89]

Since 2011, several Lima restaurants have been recognized as among The World's 50 Best Restaurants.[90]

Year Astrid y Gaston Central Maido
2011 42 - -
2012 35 - -
2013 14 50 -
2014 18 15 -
2015 14 4 44
2016 30 4 13

In 2016, Central was awarded #4 (chefs Virgilio Martinez and Pia Leon), Maido was awarded #13 (chef Mitsuharu Tsumura) and Astrid & Gaston was awarded #30 (chef Diego Muñoz and owned by chef Gaston Acurio).[91] In addition, Central was named #1 restaurant in the list of Latin America's 50 Best Restaurants 2015. Out of the 50 best restaurants in Latin America, we find: Central #1, Astrid & Gaston #3, Maido #5, La Mar #12, Malabar #20, Fiesta #31, Osso Carnicería y Salumería #34, La Picanteria #36 and Rafael #50.[92] These restaurants fuse ideas from across the country and the world.

Peruvian coffee and chocolate have also won international awards.[86]

Sports

The city and has sports venues for football, golf, volleyball and basketball, many within private clubs. A popular sport among Limenos is fronton, a racquet sport similar to squash invented in Lima. The city is home to seven international-class golf links. Equestrianism is popular in Lima with private clubs as well as the Hipódromo de Monterrico horse racing track. The most popular sport in Lima is football with professional club teams operating in the city.

Lima Golf Club (San Isidro District)
Lima Golf Club (San Isidro District)

The historic Plaza de toros de Acho, located in the Rímac District, a few minutes from the Plaza de Armas, holds bullfights yearly. The season runs from late October to December.

Lima will host the 2019 Pan American Games.[93]

The 131st IOC Session was held in Lima. The meeting saw Paris elected to host the 2024 Summer Olympics and Los Angeles elected to host the 2028 Summer Olympics.

Club Sport League Venue
Peruvian Institute of Sport Various Various Estadio Nacional (Lima)
Club Universitario de Deportes Football Peruvian Primera División Estadio Monumental "U"
Alianza Lima Football Peruvian Primera División Estadio Alejandro Villanueva
Sporting Cristal Football Peruvian Primera División Estadio Alberto Gallardo
Deportivo Municipal Football Peruvian Primera División Estadio Iván Elías Moreno
CD Universidad San Martín Football Peruvian Primera División Estadio Alberto Gallardo
Regatas Lima Various Various Regatas Headquarters Chorrillos
Real Club Lima Basketball, Volleyball Various San Isidro

Subdivisions

Lima is made up of thirty densely populated districts, each headed by a local mayor and the Mayor of Lima, whose authority extends to these and the thirteen outer districts of the Lima province.

The city's historic centre is located in the Cercado de Lima district, locally known as simply Lima, or as "El Centro" ("Downtown") and it is home to most of the vestiges the colonial past, the Presidential Palace (Spanish: Palacio de Gobierno), the Metropolitan Municipality and (Spanish: Consejo municipal metropolitano de Lima), Chinatown and dozens of hotels, some operating and some defunct, that cater to the national and international elite.

The upscale San Isidro District is the city's financial center. It is home to politicians and celebrities. San Isidro has parks, including Parque El Olivar, which is home to olive trees imported from Spain during the seventeenth century. The Lima Golf Club, a prominent golf club, is located within the district.

Another upscale district is Miraflores, which has luxury hotels, shops and restaurants. Miraflores has parks and green areas, more than most other districts. Larcomar, a popular shopping mall and entertainment center built on cliffs overlooking the Pacific Ocean, featuring bars, dance clubs, movie theaters, cafes, shops, boutiques and galleries, is also located in this district. Nightlife, shopping and entertainment center around Parque Kennedy, a park in the heart of Miraflores.[94]

La Molina, San Borja, Pueblo Libre District, Santiago de Surco -home to the American Embassy and the exclusive Club Polo Lima-, and Jesús María - home to one of the largest parks in Lima, El Campo De Marte - are the other five wealthy districts.

The most densely populated districts lie in the northern and southern ends of the city (Spanish: Cono Norte and Cono Sur, respectively) and they are mostly composed of Andean immigrants who arrived during the mid- and late- 20th century looking for a better life and economic opportunity, or as refugees of the country's internal conflict with the Shining Path during the late 1980s and early 1990s. In the case of Cono Norte (now called Lima Norte), shopping malls such as Megaplaza and Royal Plaza were built in the Independencia district, on the border with the Los Olivos district (the most residential neighborhood in the northern part). Most inhabitants are middle or lower middle class.

Barranco, which borders Miraflores by the Pacific Ocean, is the city's bohemian district, home or once home of writers and intellectuals including Mario Vargas Llosa, Chabuca Granda and Alfredo Bryce Echenique. This district has acclaimed restaurants, music venues called "peñas" featuring the traditional folk music of coastal Peru (in Spanish, "música criolla") and beautiful Victorian-style chalets. Along with Miraflores it serves as the home to the foreign nightlife scene.

Education

View of the Cultural Center of the National University of San Marcos, to left side is located the University Park, the Clock University and illustrious monuments of San Marcos; the right side of the Colonial Casona de San Marcos.
View of the Cultural Center of the National University of San Marcos, to left side is located the University Park, the Clock University and illustrious monuments of San Marcos; the right side of the Colonial Casona de San Marcos.

Home to universities, institutions and schools, Lima has the highest concentration of institutions of higher learning on the continent. Lima is home to the oldest continuously operating higher learning institution in the New World, National University of San Marcos, founded in 1551.[95]

Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería (UNI) was founded in 1876 by Polish engineer Edward Habich and is the country's most important engineering school. Other public universities offer teaching and research, such as the Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (the second largest), the Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (where ex-president Alberto Fujimori once taught) and the National University of Callao.

The Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, established in 1917, is the oldest private university. Other private institutions include Universidad del Pacifico, Universidad ESAN, Universidad de Lima, Universidad de San Martín de Porres, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Universidad Cientifica del Sur, Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Privada San Juan Bautista and Universidad Ricardo Palma.[96]

The city and has a total of 8,047 elementary and high schools, both public and private, which educate more than one and a half million students. The number of private schools is much greater than public schools (6,242 vs 1,805) while the average size of private schools is 100 for elementary and 130 for high school. Public schools average 400 students in elementary and 500 in high school.[97]

Lima has one of the country's highest levels of enrollment in high school and preschool. 86.1% of high school-age students are in school, vs the national average of 80.7%. In early childhood, the enrollment level in Lima is 84.7%, while the national average is 74.5%. Early childhood enrollment has improved by 12.1% since 2005. In elementary school, the enrollment in Lima is 90.7%, while the national average for this level is 92.9%.[98]

The dropout rate for Lima is lower than the national average, except for elementary school, which is higher. In Lima, the dropout rate in elementary is 1.3% and 5.7% in high school, while the national average is 1.2% in elementary and 8.3% in high school.[98]

In Peru, students grade second and fourth students take a test called "Evaluacion Censal de Estudiantes" (ECE). The test assesses skills in reading comprehension and math. Scores are grouped in three levels: Below level 1 means that students were not able to respond to even the most simple questions; level 1 means the students did not achieve the expected level in skills but could respond to simple questions; and level 2 means they achieved/exceeded the expected skills for their grade level. In 2012, 48.7% of students in Lima achieved level 2 in reading comprehension compared to 45.3% in 2011. In math, only 19.3% students achieved level 2, with 46.4% at level 1 and 34.2% less than level 1. Even though the results for Math are lower than for reading, in both subject areas performance increased in 2012 over 2011. The city performs much better than the national average in both disciplines.[99]

The educational system in Lima is organized under the authority of the "Direccion Regional de Educacion (DRE) de Lima Metropolitana", which is in turn divided into 7 sub-directions or "UGEL" (Unidad de Gestion Educativa Local): UGEL 01 (San Juan de Miraflores, Villa Maria del Triunfo, Villa El Salvador, Lurin, Pachacamac, San Bartolo, Punta Negra, Punta Hermosa, Pucusana, Santa Maria and Chilca), UGEL 02 (Rimac, Los Olivos, Independencia, Rimac and San Martin de Porres), UGEL 03 (Cercado, Lince, Breña, Pueblo Libre, San Miguel, Magdalena, Jesus Maria, La Victoria and San Isidro), UGEL 04 (Comas, Carabayllo, Puente Piedra, Santa Rosa and Ancon), UGEL 05 (San Juan de Lurigancho and El Agustino), UGEL 06 (Santa Anita, Lurigancho-Chosica, Vitarte, La Molina, Cieneguilla and Chaclacayo) and UGEL 07 (San Borja, San Luis, Surco, Surquillo, Miraflores, Barranco and Chorrillos).[98]

The UGELes with highest results on the ECE 2012 are UGEL 07 and 03 in both reading comprehension and math. UGEL 07 had 60.8% students achieving level 2 in reading comprehension and 28.6% students achieving level 2 in Math. UGEL 03 had 58.5% students achieve level 2 in reading comprehension and 24.9% students achieving level 2 in math. The lowest achieving UGELs are UGEL 01, 04 and 05.[99]

23% of men have completed university education in Lima, compared to 20% of women. Additionally, 16.2% of men have completed non-university higher education along with 17% of women. The average years of schooling in the city is 11.1 years (11.4 for men and 10.9 for women).[48]

Transportation

Air

Lima is served by Jorge Chávez International Airport, located in Callao (LIM). It is the country's largest airport hosting the largest number of domestic and international passengers. It serves as the fourth largest hub in the Latin American air network. Lima possesses five other airports: the Las Palmas Air Force Base, Collique Airport and runways in Santa María del Mar, San Bartolo and Chilca.[100]

Road

Lima is a major stop on the Pan-American Highway. Because of its location on the country's central coast, Lima is an important junction in Peru's highway system. Three major highways originate in Lima.

  • The Northern Panamerican Highway extends more than 1,330 kilometers (830 mi) to the border with Ecuador connecting the northern districts and with many major cities along the northern Peruvian coast.
  • The Central Highway (Spanish: Carretera Central) connects the eastern districts and with cities in central Peru. The highway extends 860 kilometers (530 mi) with its terminus at the city of Pucallpa near Brazil.
  • The Southern Panamerican Highway connects the southern districts and to cities on the southern coast. The highway extends 1,450 kilometers (900 mi) to the border with Chile.

The city has one big bus terminal next to the mall Plaza Norte. This bus station is the point of departure and arrival point for national and international destinations. Other bus stations serve private bus companies around the city. In addition, informal bus stations are located in the south, center and north of the city.

Maritime

The Port of Callao.
The Port of Callao.

Lima's proximity to the port of Callao allows Callao to act as the metropolitan area's major port and one of Latin America's largest. Callao hosts nearly all maritime transport for the metropolitan area. A small port in Lurín serves oil tankers due to a nearby refinery. Maritime transport inside Lima city limits is relatively insignificant compared to that of Callao.

Rail

Lima is connected to the Central Andean region by the Ferrocarril Central Andino which runs from Lima through the departments of Junín, Huancavelica, Pasco and Huánuco.[101] Major cities along this line include Huancayo, La Oroya, Huancavelica and Cerro de Pasco. Another inactive line runs from Lima northwards to the city of Huacho.[102]

Public

Buses in Avenida Arequipa.
Buses in Avenida Arequipa.

Lima's road network is based mostly on large divided avenues rather than freeways. Lima operates a network of nine freeways - the Via Expresa Paseo de la Republica, Via Expresa Javier Prado, Via Expresa Grau, Panamericana Norte, Panamericana Sur, Carretera Central, Via Expresa Callao, Autopista Chillon Trapiche and the Autopista Ramiro Priale.[103][103]

According to a 2012 survey, the majority of the population uses public or collective transportation (75.6%), while 12.3% uses a car, taxi or motorcycle.[98]

The urban transport system is composed of over 652 transit routes[59] that are served by buses, microbuses and combis. The system is unorganized and is characterized by its informality. The service is run by 464 private companies that are poorly regulated by local government. Fares average one sol or US$0.40.

Taxis are mostly informal and unmetered; they are cheap but feature poor driving habits. Fares are agreed upon before the passenger enters the taxi. Taxis vary in size from small four-door compacts to large vans. They account for a large part of the car stock. In many cases they are just a private car with a taxi sticker on the windshield. Additionally, several companies provide on-call taxi service.[104]

Colectivos

Colectivos render express service on some major roads. The colectivos signal their specific destination with a sign on their windshield. Their routes are not generally publicitized but are understood by frequent users. The cost is generally higher than public transport; however, they cover greater distances at greater speeds due to the lack of stops. This service is informal and is illegal.[105] Some people in the periphery use so-called "mototaxis" for short distances.

Metropolitan Transport System

The Metropolitan Transport System or El Metropolitano is a new, integrated system, consisting of a network of buses that run in exclusive corridors under the Bus Rapid Transit system (BST). The goal is to reduce passengers' commute times, protect the environment, provide improved security and overall quality of service. Metropolitano was executed with funds from the City of Lima and financing from the Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank. Metropolitana is the first BRT system to operate with natural gas, seeking to reduce air pollution.[106] This system links the principal points of the Lima Metropolitan Area. The first phase of this project has 33 kilometres (21 mi) of line (north) to Chorrillos (south). It began commercial operations on July 28, 2010. Since 2014, Lima Council operates the "Sistema Integrado de Transporte Urbano" (Urban integrated transport system), which comprises buses over Avenida Arequipa.[107] By the end of 2012, the Metropolitano system counted 244 buses in its central routes and 179 buses in its feeding routes. Weekday use averages 437,148 passengers. Usage increased since 2011 by 28.2% for weekdays, 29.1% for Saturdays and 33.3% for Sundays.[98]

Metro

The Lima Metro has twenty six passenger stations, located at an average distance of 1.2 km (0.7 miles). It begins in the Industrial Park of Villa El Salvador, south of the city, continuing on to Av. Pachacútec in Villa María del Triunfo and then to Av. Los Héroes in San Juan de Miraflores. Afterwards, it continues through Av. Tomás Marsano in Surco to reach Ov. Los Cabitos, to Av. Aviación and then cross the river Rimac to finish, after almost 35 km (22 mi), in the east of the capital in San Juan de Lurigancho The system operates 24 trains, each with six wagons. Each wagon has the capacity to transport 233 people. The metro system began operating in December 2012 and transported 78,224 people on average on a daily basis.[98]

Other transportation issues

Lima has high traffic congestion, especially at peak hours. 1 million 397 thousand vehicles were in use by the end of 2012. The region operates 65.3% of the cars in the country.[98]

The Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) offered economic incentives for municipalities to implement bicycle routes in their districts. Recreational bike lanes can be found in 39 districts. The Proyecto Especial Metropolitano de Transporte No Motorizado (PEMTNM) estimates that more than a million and a half people used the bike lanes in 2012. The bike lanes ran for 71 km (44 mi). They estimate that the use of the bike lanes prevented the emission of 526 tons of carbon dioxide in 2012.[98]

San Borja district was the first to implement a bike-share program called San Borja en Bici. It supplied 200 bicycles and six stations across the district (two of them connecting with the Metro). By December 2012, the program had 2,776 subscribers.[108]

Challenges

Environment

Air

Lima suffers most from air pollution. The sedimentary dust has solid particles that settle as dust on different surfaces or float through the air. The fine particles are the most dangerous given that they are able to damage human respiratory systems. The recommended limit of these particles by the World Health Organization is 5 tons/km2/month. In February 2014, Lima recorded an average of 15.2 tons/km2. The two districts with the highest concentration of sedimentary dust are El Agustino (46.1 tons/km2) and Independencia (25.5 tons/km2) in February 2014.[98][109]

Water

The permissible limit of lead in the water supply is 0.05 milligrams per liter, according to the Norm ITINTEC. In January 2014, the concentration of minerals in water treatment facilities of SEDAPAL was 0.051 iron, 0.005 lead, 0.0012 cadmium and 0.0810 aluminum. These values increased 15.9% and 33.3% in iron and cadmium with respect to January 2013 and a decrease of 16.7% and 12.4% in lead and aluminum. The values are within the recommended limits.[109]

Solid waste

The amount of solid waste produced per capita in Lima is about 0.7 kg (2 lb) per day. In 2012, each resident produced 273.36 kg (603 lb) of solid waste. The district municipalities only collect about 67% of the solid waste they generate. The rest ends up in informal landfills, rivers, or the ocean. Three municipalities recycle 20% or more of their waste.[48]

Access to basic services

In Lima, 93% of households have access to water supply in their homes. In addition, 92% of homes connect with sewage systems. 99.6% of homes have grid electric service. Although most households have water and sewage systems, some are available for only a few hours a day.[98]

Security

The perception of security varies by district. For example, San Isidro has the lowest perception of insecurity (21.4%), while Rimac has the highest perception of insecurity (85%), according to a 2012 survey. The five districts with the lowest perception of insecurity are San Isidro, San Borja, Miraflores, La Molina and Jesus Maria. The districts with the highest perception of insecurity are Rimac, San Juan de Miraflores, La Victoria, Comas and Ate.[110]

Overall, 40% of the population in Lima above 15 years old has been a crime victim. The younger population (ages 15 to 29 years old) has the highest victimization rate (47.9%).[48] In 2012, citizens reported thefts (47.9%): in homes or establishments (19.4%), robbery or attack (14.9%), gang aggression (5.7%), among others in lesser frequency. The districts with the highest level of victimization are Rimac, El Agustino, Villa El Salvador, San Juan de Lurigancho and Los Olivos. The safest districts by level of victimization are Lurin, Lurigancho-Chosica, San Borja, Magdalena and Surquillo. These districts do not necessarily correspond to the districts with highest or lowest perception of insecurity.[110]

While the Police force is nationally controlled and funded, each district in Lima has a community policing structure called Serenazgo. The quantity of Serenazgos officials and resources varies by district. For example, Villa Maria del Triunfo has 5,785 citizens per official. Twenty-two districts in Lima have a ratio above 1000 citizens per Serenazgo official, while 14 districts have ratios below 200 citizens per official, including Miraflores with 119 and San Isidro with 57.[48]

The satisfaction with the Serenazgos also varies greatly by district. The highest satisfaction rates can be found in San Isidro (88.3%), Miraflores (81.6%), San Borja (77%) and Surco (75%). The lowest satisfaction rates can be found in Villa Maria del Triunfo (11%), San Juan de Miraflores (14.8%), Rimac (16.3%) and La Victoria (20%).[110]

Notable people from Lima

Ricardo Palma,writer, 1833-1919
Ricardo Palma,writer, 1833-1919
Mario Testino,celebrity photographer
Mario Testino,celebrity photographer
Gaston Acurio,Chef of Peruvian Cuisine
Gaston Acurio,Chef of Peruvian Cuisine
Claudia Llosa, film director, writer and producer.
Claudia Llosa, film director, writer and producer.
Carlos Noriega, US-Peruvian Astronaut
Carlos Noriega, US-Peruvian Astronaut
Jaime Bayly, journalist
Jaime Bayly, journalist
Christian Meier, Peruvian actor
Christian Meier, Peruvian actor
Gian Marco Zignago Singer, Songwriter
Gian Marco Zignago Singer, Songwriter
Gisela Valcarcel Television Hostess
Gisela Valcarcel Television Hostess
Juan Diego Florez, Tenor Opera Singer
Juan Diego Florez, Tenor Opera Singer
Eva Ayllon, AfroPeruvian Singer
Eva Ayllon, AfroPeruvian Singer

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Lima is twinned with:[111]

See also

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Further reading

General

  • Nota etimológica: El topónimo Lima, Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú
  • Lima Monumento Histórico, Margarita Cubillas Soriano, Lima, 1996

History

Demographics

External links

This page was last edited on 15 October 2018, at 15:14
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