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Crown (heraldry)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The coat of arms of Norway, with the royal crown displayed atop the escutcheon
The coat of arms of Norway, with the royal crown displayed atop the escutcheon

A crown is often an emblem of a sovereign state, usually a monarchy (see The Crown), but also used by some republics.

A specific type of crown is employed in heraldry under strict rules. Indeed, some monarchies never had a physical crown, just a heraldic representation, as in the constitutional kingdom of Belgium.

Crowns are also often used as symbols of religious status or veneration, by divinities (or their representation such as a statue) or by their representatives, e.g. the Black Crown of the Karmapa Lama, sometimes used a model for wider use by devotees.

A crown can be a charge in a coat of arms, or set atop the shield to signify the status of its owner, as with the coat of arms of Norway.

Physical and heraldic crowns

Sometimes, the crown commonly depicted and used in heraldry differs significantly from any specific physical crown that may be used by a monarchy.

As a display of rank

If the bearer of a coat of arms has the title of baron or higher (or hereditary knight in some countries), he or she may display a coronet of rank above the shield, usually below the helm in British heraldry, and often above the crest (if any) in Continental heraldry.

In this case, the appearance of the crown or coronet follows a strict set of rules. A royal coat of arms may display a royal crown, such as that of Norway. A princely coat of arms may display a princely crown, and so on.

Naval, civic, mural and similar crowns

A mural crown is commonly displayed on coats of arms of towns and some republics. Other republics may use a so-called people's crown or omit the use of a crown altogether. The heraldic forms of crowns are often inspired by the physical appearance of the respective country's actual royal or princely crowns.

Ships and other units of some navies have a naval crown, composed of the sails and sterns of ships, above the shield of their coats of arms. Squadrons of some air forces have an astral crown, composed of wings and stars. There is also the Eastern crown, made up of spikes, and when each spike is topped with a star, it becomes a celestial crown.[1]

Whereas most county councils in England use mural crowns, there is a special type of crown that was used by Scottish county councils. It was composed of spikes, was normally shown vert (green) and had golden wheat sheaves between the spikes.[2] Today, most of the Scottish unitary authorities still use this "wheat sheaf crown", but it is now the usual gold.

Commonwealth usage

The coat of arms of the Barons Hawke displays a baronial coronet
The coat of arms of the Barons Hawke displays a baronial coronet

In formal English, the word crown is reserved for the crown of a monarch, whereas the word coronet is used for all other crowns used by members of the British royal family and peers of the realm.

In the British peerage, the design of a coronet shows the rank of its owner, as in German, French and various other heraldic traditions. The coronet of a duke has eight strawberry leaves, that of a marquess has four strawberry leaves and four silver balls (known as "pearls", but not actually pearls), that of an earl has eight strawberry leaves and eight "pearls" raised on stalks, that of a viscount has sixteen "pearls", and that of a peerage baron or (in Scotland) lord of parliament has six "pearls". Between the 1930s and 2004, feudal barons in the baronage of Scotland were granted a chapeau or cap of maintenance as a rank insignia.[citation needed] This is placed between the shield and helmet in the same manner as a peer's coronet. Since a person entitled to heraldic headgear customarily displays it above the shield and below the helm and crest, this can provide a useful clue as to the owner of a given coat of arms.

Members of the British royal family have coronets on their coats of arms, and they may wear physical versions at coronations. They are according to regulations made by King Charles II in 1661, shortly after his return from exile in France (getting a taste for its lavish court style; Louis XIV started monumental work at Versailles that year) and Restoration, and they vary depending upon the holder's relationship to the monarch. Occasionally, additional royal warrants vary the designs for individuals.

In Canadian heraldry, special coronets are used to designate descent from United Empire Loyalists. A military coronet signifies ancestors who served in Loyalist regiments during the American Revolution, while a civil coronet is used by all others. The loyalist coronets are used only in heraldry, never worn.

[4]

Continental usages

Precisely because there are many traditions and more variation within some of these, there are a plethora of continental coronet types. Indeed, there are also some coronets for positions that do not exist, or do not entitle use of a coronet, in the Commonwealth tradition.

Such a case in French heraldry of the Ancien Régime, where coronets of rank did not come into use before the 16th century, is the vidame, whose coronet (illustrated) is a metal circle mounted with three visible crosses. (No physical headgear of this type is known.)

Helmets are often substitutes for coronets, and some coronets are worn only on a helmet.

Andorra

Crown of Andorra (Heraldic).svg
Co-Princes

Bulgaria

Bulgarian Crown.svg
Tsar
Crown of Bulgarian Queen.svg
Tsaritsa
Crown of a Prince of Bulgaria.svg
Prince
Crown of a Princess of Bulgaria.svg
Older Princesses
Crown of a Younger Princess of Bulgaria.svg
Younger Princesses

France

Mural Crown of a French Capital.svg
Capital
Mural Crown of a French City.svg
Department Capital[b]
Mural Crown of a French Commune.svg
Commune[b]

Ancien Régime

Royal Crown of France.svg
King (after the 1500s)
Crown of the Dauphin of France (variant).svg
Heir to the throne (Dauphin)
Crown of a Royal Prince of the Blood of France (variant).svg
Children of the sovereign
(fils de France )
Crown of a Prince of the Blood of France (variant).svg
Prince of the Blood
Crown of a Duke of France.svg
Duke and Peer of France
Crown of a Duke of France (variant).svg
Duke
Crown of a Marquis of France.svg
Marquis and Peer of France
Crown of a Marquis of France (variant).svg
Marquis
Crown of a Count of France.svg
Count and Peer of France
Crown of a Count of France (variant).svg
Count
Old Crown of a Count (France & Belgium).svg
Count (older)
Crown of a Viscount of France (variant).svg
Viscount
Crown of a Vidame of France.svg
Vidame
Crown of a Baron of France.svg
Baron
Crown of a Chevalier of France.svg
Knight's crown
Torse of a Chevalier of France.svg
Knight's tortillon

Napoleonic Empire

Heraldic Crown of the First French Empire.svg
Emperor
(1st Empire)
Imperial Crown of Napoleon Bonaparte.png
Emperor
(2nd Empire)
Crown of a Napoleonic Prince Souverain.svg
Sovereign
Prince
Biret prince.png
Prince
Biret duc.png
Duke
Biret comte.png
Count
Biret baron.png
Baron
Biret Chevalier.png
Knight
Bonnet d`honneur.png
Bonnet
d'honneur

July Monarchy

Crown of Orléans.svg
King of the 
French

Georgia

Iberian-Georgian crown.png
Georgian Royal Crown, also known as the "Iberian Crown"

German-speaking countries

Holy Roman Empire

Heraldic Imperial Crown (Oldest design).svg
Older Imperial Crown
Heraldic Imperial Crown (Gules Mitre).svg
Newer Imperial Crown
Heraldic Royal Crown of the King of the Romans (c.1433-1486).svg
Oldest Crown of the King of the Romans
Heraldic Royal Crown of the King of the Romans (1486-c.1700).svg
Older Crown of the King of the Romans
Heraldic Royal Crown of the King of the Romans (18th Century).svg
Newer Crown of the King of the Romans
Crown of Saint Wenceslas.svg
Crown of the King of Bohemia
Archducal Coronet.svg
Archducal hat
Oldest Electoral hat.svg
Oldest Electoral hat
Older Electoral hat.svg
Older Electoral hat
Ducal Hat.svg
New Electoral hat & new Ducal hat
Ducal Hat of Styria.svg
Ducal hat of Styria
T09 Herzog.svg
Ducal crown
Princely Hat.svg
Princely hat
T12 Fürst.svg
Princely crown
T10 Landgraf.svg
Crown of a Landgrave
T11 Erbherzog.svg
Crown of an heir to a duchy
Rangkronen-Fig. 15.svg
Older crown of a Count
Rangkronen-Fig. 18.svg
Newer crown of a Count
Rangkronen-Fig. 50.svg
Older crown of a Baron/Freiherr
Rangkronen-Fig. 27.svg
Newer crown of a Baron/Freiherr
Rangkronen-Fig. 38.svg
Older Crown of Nobility
Rangkronen-Fig. 37.svg
Newer Crown of Nobility

Liechtenstein

Princely Hat.svg
Prince of Liechtenstein

Austria

Mural crown (Bundesadler).svg
Mural crown of the coat of arms of Austria
Mural crown (Lower Austria).svg
Mural crown of the State of Lower Austria

Austrian Empire

Imperial Crown of Austria (Heraldry).svg
Crown of the Emperor of Austria
Crown of St. Wenceslas.svg
Crown of the King of Bohemia
Archducal Coronet.svg
Archducal hat
T08 Grossherzog.svg
Archducal crown
Ducal Hat of Styria.svg
Ducal hat of Styria
Ducal Hat.svg
Ducal hat
T09 Herzog.svg
Ducal crown
Princely Hat.svg
Princely hat
T12 Fürst.svg
Princely crown
Rangkronen-Fig. 18.svg
Crown of a Count
Rangkronen-Fig. 27.svg
Crown of a Baron/Freiherr
Rangkronen-Fig. 37.svg
Crown of Nobility

Germany

People's Crown (Germany).svg
Volkskrone (People's Crown)
Mural crown of the coat of arms of the Berlin boroughs.svg
Mural crown of the arms of the Berlin boroughs

German Empire

State Crown of the German Empire.svg
Crown of the German Emperor
Crown of the German Empress.svg
Crown of the German Empress
Crown of the German Crown Prince.svg
Crown of the German Crown Prince
Crown of Wilhelm II of Germany.svg
Crown of the King of Prussia
Bavarian Royal Crown.svg
Crown of the King of Bavaria
Crown of Württemberg.svg
Crown of the King of Württemberg

Greece

Crown of the Kingdom of Greece.svg
Crown of the King of the Hellenes
Royal Crown of Denmark.svg
The Crown as it appears on the Royal Coat of Arms of Greece

Hungary

Crown of Saint Stephen.svg
Holy Crown of Hungary

Croatia

Crown of Zvonimir (Croatia).svg
Crown of Zvonimir

Italy

Crown of Italian Province.svg
Province
Mural Crown of Italian City.svg
City
Mural Crown of Italian Comune.svg
Municipality

Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)

Crown of Savoy.svg
King (crown of Savoy)
Crown of the crownprince of iItaly (1890).svg
Heir to the throne (Prince of Piedmont)
Crown of the royal princes of iItaly (1890).svg
Royal prince[c]
Crown of the princes of the Blood of iItaly (1890).svg
Prince of the blood
Crown of italian duke (corona normale).svg
Duke
Crown of italian marquess (corona normale).svg
Marquess
Crown of italian count (corona normale).svg
Count
Crown of italian viscount (corona normale).svg
Viscount
Crown of italian baron (corona normale).svg
Baron
Crown of italian Nobile (corona normale).svg
Noble
Crown of italian cavaliere ereditario (corona normale).svg
Hereditary Knight
Crown of italian patrician (corona normale).svg
Patrician
Crown of Italian Province (Variant).svg
Province
Mural Crown of Italian City.svg
City
Mural Crown of Italian Comune.svg
Municipality

Kingdoms of Naples, Sicily, Two Sicilies

Heraldic Royal Crown of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.svg
King of Naples
Heraldic Crown of Heir to the Throne of the Two Sicilies.svg
Heir to the throne (Duke of Calabria)
Heraldic Coronet of Princes and Princesses of the Two Sicilies.svg
Prince and princess

Grand Duchy of Tuscany

Crown of Medici Grand Dukes of Tuscany.png
Medici Grand Dukes of Tuscany

Other Italian states before 1861

Ströhl-Regentenkronen-Fig. 38.png
Crown of San Marino
Crown of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy.svg
Crown of Napoleonic Italy
Iron crown of Lombardia (historic depiction).svg
Iron Crown of Lombardy
Tiara3.png
Papal Tiara
Doza.png
Doge of Venice
Doge's Crown.svg
Doge of Genoa

Low Countries

Netherlands

Rangkroon keizer.svg
Holy Roman Emperor
Rangkroon Koning.svg
King
Rangkroon Koning.svg
Prince
(Members of the Royal House,
children of the Monarch)
Rangkroon Kleinkinderen van Koning.svg
Prince
(Members of the Royal House,
grandchildren of the Monarch)
Rangkroon Prins.svg
Prince
(nobility, for titles granted after 1815)
Rangkroon Hertog.svg
Duke
Rangkroon Markies.svg
Marquess
Rangkroon Graaf.svg
Count
Antieke Gravenkroon.svg
Count
(alternative style)
Rangkroon Burggraaf.svg
Viscount
Rangkroon Baron.svg
Baron
Rangkroon Ridder.svg
Hereditary Knight
(Erfridder)
Rangkroon Ridder.svg
Jonkheer

Belgium

The older crowns are often still seen in the heraldry of older families.

Royal Crown of Belgium (Heraldic).svg
King
Princely Crown of Belgium (Heraldic).svg
Prince of the Royal house
Crown of a Prince (Netherlands and Belgium).svg
Prince
(nobility, for titles granted after 1815)
Princely Hat.svg
Prince
(nobility, for titles granted during the Ancien Régime)
Rangkronen-Fig. 04.png
Duke
Rangkronen-Fig. 15.png
Marquess
Crown of a Count of France (variant).svg
Count
Old Crown of a Count (France & Belgium).svg
Count (older)
Crown of a Count of the Low Countries (Ancien Regime).svg
Count (oldest)
Rangkronen-Fig. 25.png
Viscount
Crown of a Baron (Low Countries, Holy Roman Empire, Russia).svg
Baron
Old Crown of a Baron of the Low Countries.svg
Baron (older)
Rangkronen-Fig. 34.png
Hereditary Knight
(Chevalier/Erfridder)

Luxembourg

Crown of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg.svg
Grand Duke

Monaco

Crown of Monaco (Heraldic).svg
Prince

Poland and Lithuania

Crown of Bolesław I the Brave
King
Knize.png
Grand Duke
Princely Hat
Prince
Rangkronen-Fig. 38
Nobleman

Portuguese-speaking countries

Portugal

Portuguese Mural Crown - Capital.svg
Capital (Lisbon)
Mural Crown of City - Portugal.svg
City
Mural Crown of Town - Portugal.svg
Town
Mural Crown of Civil Parish - Portugal.svg
Civil Parish
Mural Crown of Administrative Regions of Portugal.svg
Administrative Region
(1930-1999)

Kingdom of Portugal (until 1910)

Heraldic Royal Crown of Portugal - Eight Arches.svg
King
Crown of the Heir Apparent of the Kingdom of Portugal.svg
Heir to the throne (Prince Royal)
Crown of the Prince of Beira.svg
Prince of Beira
Coronet of an Infante - Kingdom of Portugal.svg
Infante
Coronet of a Duke - Kingdom of Portugal.svg
Duke
Coronet of a Marquess - Kingdom of Portugal.svg
Marquess
Coronet of Count - Portugal.svg
Count
Coronet of a Viscount - Kingdom of Portugal.svg
Viscount
Coronet of Baron - Portugal.svg
Baron
Coronet of Knight - Portugal.svg
Knight / Fidalgo

Brazil

Brasilian Mural Crown - Capital.svg
Brasilian Mural Crown - City.svg
Brasilian Mural Crown - Town.svg
Brasilian Mural Crown - Village.svg
Capital of State of the Federation[b] City[b] Town[b] Village[b]

Empire of Brazil

Imperial Crown Brazil.svg
Emperor
Coronet of the Imperial Prince of Brazil.svg
Heir to the throne (Prince Imperial)
Coronet of a Prince of Brazil.svg
Prince
Coronet of a Duke of Brazil.svg
Duke
Coronet of a Marquess of Brazil.svg
Marquess
Coronet of a Count of Brazil.svg
Count
Coronet of a Viscount of Brazil.svg
Viscount
Coronet of a Baron of Brazil.svg
Baron

Romania

Romanian Mural Crown - Capital.svg
Romanian Mural Crown - City.svg
Romanian Mural Crown - Town.svg
Romanian Mural Crown - Village.svg
Capital City Town Village

Kingdom of Romania

Steel Crown of Romania.svg
King (The Steel Crown of Romania)

Russia

Heraldic Imperial Crown of Russia.svg
Emperor
Finnish grand ducal crown.svg
Crown of the Grand Duchy of Finland
Monomakh hat.svg
Monomakh's Cap
Russian Princely hat.svg
Prince
Crown of a Count of France (variant).svg
Count
Rangkronen-Fig. 27.svg
Baron
Rangkronen-Fig. 30.svg
Baron (alternative style)
Rangkronen-Fig. 38.svg
Crown of Nobility

Nordic countries

Denmark

Royal Crown of Denmark.svg
King
Crown of the Crown Prince of Denmark.svg
Crown Prince
Crown of a Prince of Denmark.svg
Prince (royal family)
T02 Danish Duke.svg
Duke
T03 Danish Marquis.svg
Marquess
T04 Danish Count.svg
Count
T05 Danish Baron.svg
Baron
T06 Danish Nobility.svg
Crown of Nobility

Finland

During the Swedish reign, Swedish coronets were used. Crowns were used in the coats of arms of the historical provinces of Finland. For Finland Proper, Satakunta, Tavastia and Karelia, it was a ducal coronet, for others, a comital coronet. In 1917 with independence, the coat of arms of Finland was introduced with a Grand Ducal coronet, but it was soon removed, in 1920. Today, some cities use coronets, e.g. Pori has a mural crown and Vaasa a Crown of Nobility.

Satakunta.vaakuna.svg
Ducal coronet
Satakunta
Savo.vaakuna.svg
Comital coronet
Savo

Norway

Corona Norvegica.svg

Heraldic crown of the King
Crown of the King of Norway.svg

Physical crown of the King
Crown of the Queen of Norway.svg

Physical crown of the Queen
Crown of the Crown Prince of Norway.svg
Crown Prince
Crown of Princes and of Princesses of Norway.svg
Prince or Princess
T02 Danish Duke.svg
Duke
T03 Danish Marquis.svg
Marquess
T04 Danish Count.svg
Count
T05 Danish Baron.svg
Baron
T06 Danish Nobility.svg
Crown of Nobility

Sweden

Svenska kunglig krona (korrekt).svg
King
Heraldique Suede Couronne Prince Héritier.svg
Crown Prince
Heraldique Suede Couronne Prince.svg
Duke
Grevlig rangkrona.svg
Count
Friherrlig rangkrona.svg
Baron
Obetitlad adel.svg
Crown of Nobility

Serbia

Serbian medieval crown.svg
King (medieval)
Crown of Serbia.svg
King (after 1903)

Spanish-speaking countries

Spain

Heraldic Royal Crown of Spain.svg
King (National arms design)
Heraldic Royal Crown of Spain (Version of the Royal Arms).svg
King (Monarch's arms design)
Royal Crown for the Aragonese Terriories.svg
King (Aragon, Catalonia, Balearics, Valencia)
Heraldic Crown of the Prince of Asturias.svg
Heir to the throne (Prince of Asturias)
Heraldic Crown of the Spanish Heir Apparent as Prince of Girona.svg
Heir to the throne (Prince of Girona) (Aragon, Catalonia, Balearics, Valencia)
Heraldic Crown of Spanish Infantes.svg
Infante
Crown of Spanish Infantes for the Aragonese Terriories.svg
Infante (Aragon, Catalonia, Balearics, Valencia)
Heraldic Crown of Spanish Grandee.svg
Grandee of Spain
Heraldic Crown of Spanish Dukes (Variant 1).svg
Duke
Heraldic Crown of Spanish Marqueses (Variant 1).svg
Marquess
Heraldic Crown of Spanish Count.svg
Count
Heraldic Crown of the Spanish Viscounts.svg
Viscount
Heraldic Crown of Spanish Barons.svg
Baron
Heraldic Crown of Spanish Lords.svg
Señor/Don (Lord)
Heraldic Crown of Hispanic Hidalgos.svg
Hidalgo (Nobleman)
Torse of a Chevalier of France.svg
Knight's burelete

Mexico

Crown of Mexico (I).svg
Emperor (1st Empire)
Crown of Mexico (II).svg
Emperor (2nd Empire)
Prince Crown 1.svg
Prince (1st Empire and 2nd Empire)

Chile

Chilean Mural Crown (Commune).svg
Municipal Mural Crown

Non-European usages

Bahrain

Royal Crown of Bahrain (Heraldic).svg
King

Bhutan

Raven Crown.svg
'Raven Crown' of the Kingdom of Bhutan

Cambodia

Royal Crown of Cambodia (heraldry).svg
Crown of the Kingdom of Cambodia

Central African Empire

Imperial Crown of Bokassa I.svg
Emperor



Egypt before 1953

Crown of the Khedive of Egypt.svg
Khedive (-1914) and Sultan (1914-22)
Heraldic Royal Crown of Egypt.svg
King (1922-53)

Jordan

Royal Crown of Jordan.svg
Crown of Jordan

Morocco

Crown of Morocco 1.svg
Heraldic Crown of Morocco

Oman

Crown of Oman.svg
Crown of Oman

Saudi Arabia

Royal Crown of Saudi Arabia.svg
Heraldic Crown of Saudi Arabia

Siam and Thailand

Great Crown of Victory (heraldry).svg
Great Crown of Victory of the Kings of Siam and Thailand
Phra Kiao Colored.svg
Phra Kiao (princely coronet, also the emblem of King Chulalongkorn)

Tonga

Royal Crown of Tonga.svg
Crown of Tonga

Other examples

Imperial Crown of Ethiopia.svg
Imperial Crown of Ethiopia
Crown of Tahiti.svg
Royal Crown of Tahiti
Royal Crown of Hawaii.svg
Royal Crown of Hawaii
Crown of Hawaii (Heraldic).svg
Royal Crown of Hawaii
Kiani Crown of Imperial Iran (heraldry).svg
Crown of the Shah of Persia
Pahlavi Crown of Imperial Iran (heraldry).svg
Crown of the Shah of Iran
Congo crown.svg

[5]

Catholic Church

Multinational

Astral Crown.svg
Astral crown
Heraldic vallary crown.svg
Camp crown
Celestial Crown.svg
Celestial crown
Heraldic eastern crown.svg
Eastern crown
UK Mural Crown (Common).svg
Mural crown
Corona Navalis.svg
Naval crown

As a charge

In heraldry, a charge is an image occupying the field of a coat of arms. Many coats of arms incorporate crowns as charges. One notable example of this lies in the Three Crowns of the arms of Sweden.

Additionally, many animal charges (frequently lions and eagles) and sometimes human heads also appear crowned. Animal charges gorged (collared) of an open coronet also occur, though far less frequently.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Currently, besides the grandchildren of the present Queen Elizabeth II, the current Duke of Gloucester and Duke of Kent, along with Princess Alexandra, are granted the privilege to use the crown of a Sovereign's Grandchild as they are the grandchildren of a former sovereign, George V.
  2. ^ a b c d e f This standard has many exceptions.
  3. ^ The dukes of Genoa were granted the privilege to use the crown of a royal prince though they were only princes of the blood

References

  1. ^ Mackinnon of Dunakin, Charles (1968). The Observer's Book of Heraldry. Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd. p. 73.
  2. ^ Moncreiffe, Iain; Pottinger, Don (1953). Simple Heraldry Cheerfully Illustrated. Thomas Nelson and Sons. p. 58.
  3. ^ Cox, Noel The Coronets of Members of the Royal Family and of the Peerage. Archived 2018-01-04 at the Wayback Machine Originally published in (1999) 22 The Double Tressure, the Journal of The Heraldry Society of Scotland 8-13. Acceded 8 April 2017
  4. ^ Boutell, Charles (1914). Fox-Davies, A.C. (ed.). Handbook to English Heraldry, The (11th ed.). London: Reeves & Turner. pp. 104–156.
  5. ^ Ströhl, Hugo Gerard (1899). Heraldischer Atlas. Stuttgart.


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