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List of urban areas by population

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of contiguous urban areas of the world ranked according to population. Figures have been taken from two sources: Demographia's "World Urban Areas" study,[1] and from citypopulation.de, created by Thomas Brinkhoff of the Institut für Angewandte Photogrammetrie und Geoinformatik.[2]

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Transcription

This is Wendover Productions. Sponsored by the Great Courses Plus. Here’s an interesting question: which city do you think is more dense—Paris, France or New York, United States? It probably seems obvious: New York, the land of skyscrapers, the Big Apple… right? Wrong. New York, in fact, has a population density of less than half that of Paris. Paris’s is 56,000 people per square mile (22,000 per square kilometer) while New York’s is only 27,000 people per square mile (10,500 per square kilometer.) To find a European city with a comparable population density to New York’s—the densest American city—you have to go all the way down to number six on the list: Lyon France (27,000 per sq/mile; 10,500 per sq/km.) New York of course has a super-dense urban core, but then around it is miles and miles of suburbia—just like almost every other American city. Paris, on the other hand, packs almost its entire population into a compact urban core. There’s also another interesting pattern that differs between the two continents: rich Americans live outside the city, rich Europeans live city center. Compare the income map of Paris to that of Philadelphia. Of course it’s not perfect, but you can definitely see a pattern. The most commonly cited reason for both these trends is the difference in age. Most European cities have existed for hundreds if not thousands of years, while all but a few American cities only gathered enough population to be called cities in the past one or two hundred years. What that means is that European cities existed when all but the super-rich had to commute to work by foot. In the middle ages, Paris had a population of two to three hundred thousand people, but you could walk from one side to the other in thirty minutes. It was incredibly densely populated. You just had to live within walking distance of work. Therefore, the rich paid more for the houses closest to the center of the city. This is a similar reason to why in historic European hotels, you’ll often see the nicest and largest rooms on the lower floors—the opposite of what you’d see today. Before elevators existed, the rich didn’t want to have to walk up as many flights of stairs. Walking distance was not only important to big cities. Small villages across Europe were almost always the same size because their population was dictated by the walkability of the surrounding fields. European farmers tended to live in small towns and walk to their fields during the day rather than the homesteading approach used in America. Therefore, villages would only be as large as the amount of people needed to work the fields within walking distance. American cities, on the other hand, began their period of rapid growth in a more modern era when decentralizing technologies were much more advanced. By the time North American cities grew larger than the distance people could reasonably walk, there was already the technological capability to create public transportation systems. The first major public transportation innovation was the steam train in the mid 19th century. This was a very expensive means of transport and was therefore only for the super rich. Interestingly, because steam trains take an enormous amount of time to reach speed, the towns that the rich commuted from, known as railroad suburbs, were generally not just at the nearest bit of countryside, but separated from the city by a few miles of countryside. The impact of railroad suburbs remains today. On the track of the old Philadelphia Main Line, there’s a stretch of super-rich communities with huge estates and country clubs from Ardmore to Malvern. The demographics just never changed from the time of the railroad suburb. A few decades later, streetcars emerged and quickly became an instrumental part of the American commute. Much like steam trains, streetcars also created new communities—this time with slightly less rich upper-middle class individuals. In Washington DC, the wealthy suburbs of Tenleytown, Chevy Chase, Bethesda, McLean, Rockville, and more all grew as a result of the streetcar. But once again, walking distance influenced geography. Streetcar commuters had to live within walking distance of a stop, so naturally there would be a radius of civilization about 20 or 30 minutes walking distance from a stop, then past that…nothing. That meant that between the lines, there was all this open space where nobody could commute from. Enter: the automobile. At first the car was only for upper class individuals especially with the distraction of the two World Wars and Great Depression, however, by the time young Americans returned from World War Two, there had been enough technological advances to make the automobile affordable for the middle class. Over 50% of households had cars by 1950. At the same time, the government was offering loans to returning veterans which significantly increased the number of americans who could afford to buy homes. Instead of buying a small central city home, this generation opted to use their new cars to commute from cheaper, nicer, and larger suburban homes. The idea was that the working parents would go downtown each day while the rest of the family would stay to enjoy the suburb. It was the perfect deal. So that whole history was absolutely true, but it doesn’t entirely explain why European cities didn't experience suburbanization as well. In Germany, for example, many, if not most, cities were bombed to rubble during World War Two. They had the opportunity to rebuild in any way they wanted, but then chose to keep their compact design. Today, the average metropolitan population density in Germany is four times higher than the US’s. At the same time, other cities across Europe that survived the war experienced enormous population influxes and still maintained their mammoth population densities. Perhaps the least commonly cited reason for suburbanization in the US is crime. It’s a bit of an ugly period in American history that we sometimes forget, but crime levels were absolutely insane in the 70’s, 80’s, and 90’s. There are a ton of different theories for why this was—perhaps the most interesting being the that the rise in gasoline emitted lead caused lower IQ’s and higher aggressively. New York had an astronomical 2,245 murders in 1990. London didn’t even have that many in the entire 90’s decade. Violent crime rates are still consistently 10 or more times higher in the US. In 1992, a poll was conducted asking departing New Yorkers why they were moving to the suburbs, and the most commonly cited reason was crime at 47%. Cost and quality of living were way down at lower than 10% each. Crime rates are significantly lower in suburbs as they are typically havens for higher-income individuals. Europeans don’t have to worry as much about inter-city crime so they’re much more willing to live downtown. Land for suburban housing is also readily available in the US because farmers have always been quick to sell their relatively unprofitable land to developers. By contrast, In France, for example, agricultural subsidies are 12 times higher per acre of land than the US. That’s a big reason why large European cities are still closely surrounded by small farms. In many European cities, you can literally take the city bus to farms. Lastly, all sorts of energy are cheaper in the US. A gallon of gas costs as much as $7 in some parts of Europe compared to the US average of $2.20. It’s significantly more expensive to commute by car in Europe so there’s more motivation to live closer to work where either the drive is shorter or you can take public transportation. Also, big suburban homes aren’t as attractive in Europe because electricity and heating costs are higher. Suburban life really didn’t live up to expectations. Americans now spend an average of 4.25 hours per week sitting in cars, buses, or trains traveling to and from work. That’s 2.5% of their entire lives. It’s also been scientifically proven that commuting from the suburbs is linked to higher blood pressure, lower frustration tolerance, and higher rates of anxiety. Also, the suburbs are no longer the countryside havens that they once were. They’re just a continuation of the urban sprawl. Rich Americans are therefore beginning to return to the city. With lower crime rates, higher fuel costs, and an overall shift in attitude, urban cores are having a second renaissance. So that’s why we live where we do. It’s a complicated, controversial, and surprisingly political history. I hope you enjoyed this Wendover Production video. I first need to thank my amazing sponsor—the Great Courses Plus. The Great Courses Plus is a subscription on-demand video learning service where you can watch unlimited top-notch courses from Ivy League Professors, National Geographic Scientists, Culinary Institute of America Chefs, and hundreds more highly qualified individuals. If you enjoyed this video, I highly recommend the course on Cultural and Human Geography. It’s a super-interesting topic, and this course absolutely does it justice. You can watch this or any other of the hundreds of courses for free when you sign up for a 30-day free trial using the link www.thegreatcoursesplus.com/wendover or the link is also in the description. I also recently started a Patreon which you can go to by clicking here. There are a bunch of great rewards like early access to videos, stickers, t-shirts, and best of all, every dollar contributed over there goes right back into the channel. Aside from that, please follow me on Twitter @WendoverPro, watch my last video on the story behind the 787 and a380 planes, check out my fan-moderated subreddit at www.Reddit.com/WendoverProductions, and most of all, subscribe to this channel. Thanks again for watching, and I’ll see you in two weeks for another Wendover Productions video.

Contents

Definitions and issues

Demographia defines an urban area (urbanized area agglomeration or urban centre) as a continuously built up land mass of urban development that is within a labor market (i.e. metropolitan area or metropolitan region), without regard for administrative boundaries (i.e. municipality, city or commune). Except in Australia, the authorities use a minimum urban density definition of 400 persons per square kilometer (or the nearly identical 1,000 per square mile in the United States). Demographia uses maps and satellite photographs to estimate continuous urbanization. Demographia also uses small area population data, where available, to match population estimates to urbanized land area. National census authority data are presented in Australia, Canada, France, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Census of India urban agglomerations are not used in some cases because the geographical size of constituent units (municipalities) often includes large rural (non-urban) areas.

Sources for population estimates and land area definitions are coded by letter in the Table below, respectively.

A: National census authority data agglomeration data (land area or population).
B: Demographia land area estimate based upon map or satellite photograph analysis.
C: Demographia population estimate from lower order jurisdictions, including reduction for rural areas.
D: Population estimate based upon the United Nations agglomeration estimate.
E: Demographia population estimate from national census authority data.
F: Other Demographia population estimate, such as from unofficial local reports.
L: Demographia population estimate from local authority data.
N: Combined urban area using national census authority data.
W: Population estimate based upon the World Bank Urban Area 2015 estimate.

The estimates are quite different from the list of World's largest urban agglomerations produced by the United Nations that reports inconsistently on urban geographic, despite its reference to agglomerations. This is evident, for example, in Manila, Kuala Lumpur, Jakarta, Seoul and Moscow, where the UN data are for political jurisdictions, rather than urban areas. In other cases, the UN data is for metropolitan area, which are larger than urban areas (such as in Brazil). Finally, the United Nations data is incomplete, excluding some significant urban areas (such as EssenDüsseldorf in Germany).[citation needed]

Urban areas are confined to a single nation, unless there is freedom of movement (including labor) between the adjacent nations. Currently, this condition is met only between some continental nations of the European Union and Switzerland (e.g. LilleKortrijk in both France and Belgium, AachenVaals in both Germany and Netherlands, SaarbrückenForbach in both Germany and France, GenevaAnnemasse in both Switzerland and France, and BaselLörrachSaint-Louis in Switzerland, Germany and France). Thus, Detroit–Windsor in both the United States and Canada, and San Diego–Tijuana in both the United States and Mexico are not treated as single urban areas. Moreover, ShenzhenHong Kong is treated as separate urban areas, principally because labor movement between the two is limited, with the former within China and the latter a special administrative region of China.[citation needed]

According to the report, there are 875 identified urban areas in the world with 500,000 or more population as of 2013. Demographia released along with the report include a disclaimer that this list of data is compiled on best available information, the vary nature of which is changing rapidly and quality is improving as it becomes available, yet still remains highly variable between nations, and hefty revisions are not unforeseen for the future. Appropriate caution is therefore advised.

224 urban areas with population of over two million
224 urban areas with population of over two million

Urban areas (Top 100)

Urban area Demographia[1] citypopulation.de[2]
2017
Rank
2013
Rank[3]
City Country Population Area
(km2)[1]
Density
(/km2)[1]
Sources of
Pop. / Area[1]
Rank Population Remarks
1 1 TokyoYokohama[4]  Japan 38,050,000 8,547 4,500 C / B 2 39,800,000 incl. Chiba, Kawasaki, Maebashi, Sagamihara, Saitama, Utsunomiya, Yokohama
2 2 Jakarta (Greater Jakarta)[5]  Indonesia 32,275,000 3,302 9,800 C / B 4 28,900,000 Locally known as Jabodetabek, incl. Bekasi, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, South Tangerang
3 4 Delhi (CNCR)[6]  India 27,280,000 2,202 12,400 A / B 5 27,200,000 incl. Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Gurgaon, Noida
4 6 Manila (Greater Manila Area)[7]  Philippines 24,650,000 1,787 13,600 C / B 8 24,100,000 incl. Caloocan, Quezon City
5 3 Seoul-Incheon (Seoul National Capital Area)[8]  South Korea 24,210,000 2,745 8,800 C / B 7 24,800,000 incl. Bucheon, Goyang, Incheon, Seongnam, Suwon
6 5 Shanghai[9]  China 24,115,000 4,015 6,000 L / B 3 31,100,000 incl. Suzhou
7 13 Mumbai[10]  India 23,265,000 881 26,400 C / B 9 23,600,000 incl. Mumbai, Navi Mumbai, Bhiwandi-Nizampur Municipal Corporation, Kalyan-Dombivali, Thane, Ulhasnagar, Vasai-Virar
8 8 New York City[11]  United States 21,575,000 11,875 1,700 N / A 11 22,200,000 incl. Bridgeport, Newark, New Haven
9 11 Beijing[12]  China 21,250,000 4,144 5,100 L / B 13 20,700,000
10 9 São Paulo[13]  Brazil 21,100,000 3,043 6,900 C / B 12 22,100,000 incl. Guarulhos, São Bernardo do Campo, Santo André, Osasco
11 10 Mexico City (Valley of Mexico)[14]  Mexico 20,565,000 2,370 8,700 C / B 10 22,300,000 incl. Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl, Ecatepec, Naucalpan
12 12 GuangzhouFoshan (Guangfo)[15]  China 19,965,000 3,820 5,200 L / B 1 48,600,000 Northern Pearl River Delta; incl. Dongguan, Foshan, Jiangmen, Shenzhen, Zhongshan; excluding Hong Kong SAR
13 21 Dhaka[16]  Bangladesh 17,425,000 368 47,400 C / B 14 17,900,000
14 14 OsakaKobeKyoto (Keihanshin)[17]  Japan 17,165,000 3,238 5,300 C / B 15 17,800,000 incl. Himeji, Kōbe, Kyōto, Sakai
15 15 Moscow[18]  Russia 16,855,000 5,698 3,000 C / B 19 17,100,000
16 16 Greater Cairo  Egypt 16,545,000 1,917 8,600 C / B 19 17,100,000 incl. Al-Jizah, Hulwan, Shubra al-Khaymah
17 20 Bangkok  Thailand 15,975,000 3,043 5,200 C / B 18 17,400,000
18 17 Los Angeles[19]  United States 15,620,000 6,299 2,300 N / A 16 17,700,000 incl. Anaheim, Riverside
19 22 Buenos Aires[20]  Argentina 15,520,000 3,212 4,800 C / B 22 16,000,000 incl. San Justo, La Plata
20 19 Kolkata  India 15,095,000 1,347 11,200 A / B 21 16,200,000 incl. Haora
21 23 Istanbul  Turkey 13,995,000 1,360 10,300 C / B 23 14,600,000
22 22 Tehran[21]  Iran 13,945,000 1,748 8,000 C / B 25 14,000,000 incl. Karaj
23 15 Lagos  Nigeria 13,910,000 1,502 9,300 W / B 17 17,600,000
24 32 Tianjin[22]  China 13,655,000 2,771 4,900 L / B 28 11,800,000
25 7 Karachi[23]  Pakistan 13,255,000 1,036 12,800 C / B 6 25,100,000 Based on population estimates before completion of 2017 Census.
26 24 Shenzhen[15]  China 12,905,000 1,748 7,400 L / B (included in Guangzhou above)
27 31 Kinshasa[24]  Democratic Republic of the Congo 12,350,000 583 21,200 C / B 30 10,900,000
28 26 Rio de Janeiro  Brazil 11,990,000 1,917 6,300 C / B 27 12,700,000 incl. Nova Iguaçu, São Gonçalo
29 39 Chengdu  China 11,430,000 1,761 6,500 L / B 38 9,750,000 incl. Shuangliu
30 30 Lima  Peru 11,355,000 894 12,700 C / B 35 10,100,000 incl. Callao
31 42 Lahore  Pakistan 11,070,000 896 12,400 C / B 32 10,500,000
32 27 Paris  France 10,980,000 2,845 3,700 A / A 29 11,300,000
33 33 Bangalore  India 10,920,000 1,166 9,400 A / B 31 10,800,000
34 37 Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)  Vietnam 10,690,000 1,580 6,800 C / B 44 8,300,000 incl. Biên Hòa
35 29 London[25]  United Kingdom 10,585,000 1,738 5,600 A / A 24 14,500,000
36 35 Chennai  India 10,555,000 1,049 10,100 A / B 34 10,300,000
37 28 Nagoya (Chūkyō)[26]  Japan 10,105,000 3,885 2,600 C / B 32 10,500,000
38 36 Bogotá  Colombia 9,965,000 562 17,700 C / B 39 9,500,000
39 41 Hyderabad  India 9,595,000 1,230 7,800 A / B 40 9,200,000
40 34 Chicago[27]  United States 9,160,000 6,856 1,300 N / A 37 9,800,000
41 43 JohannesburgEast Rand[28]  South Africa 9,115,000 2,590 3,500 C / B 26 13,100,000 incl. East Rand, Evaton, Pretoria, Soshanguve, Soweto, Vereeniging, West Rand
42 48 Chongqing[29]  China 8,875,000 6,000 1,479 L / B 54 7,200,000
43 40 Taipei-Taoyuan[30]  Taiwan 8,605,000 1,140 7,600 C / B 41 9,050,000 incl. Taoyuan, New Taipei City (Xinbei)
44 38 Dongguan[15]  China 8,340,000 1,619 5,200 L / B (Included in Guangzhou)
45 169 Hanoi  Vietnam 8,140,000 868 9,400 C / B 139 3,450,000
46 60 Shenyang[31]  China 8,095,000 1,502 5,400 C / B 47 7,800,000 incl. Fushun
47 44 Wuhan  China 7,980,000 1,528 5,200 L / B 46 8,100,000
48 47 Ahmedabad  India 7,880,000 350 22,500 A / B 49 7,650,000
49 529 Onitsha  Nigeria 7,850,000 1,965 4,000 W / B 495 1,100,000
50 49 Kuala Lumpur (Klang Valley)[32]  Malaysia 7,820,000 2,163 3,600 C / B 62 6,800,000 incl. Klang
51 64 Luanda  Angola 7,560,000 894 7,700 C / B 51 7,450,000
52 46 Hong Kong[15]  China 7,380,000 285 25,900 C / B 53 7,300,000 incl. Kowloon, Victoria; excluding New Kowloon
53 83 Boston[33]  United States 7,315,000 9,189 800 N / A 50 7,550,000 incl. Providence
54 51 Baghdad  Iraq 7,135,000 673 10,600 D / B 58 7,000,000
55 50 Hangzhou[9]  China 7,100,000 1,269 6,000 L / B 42 8,450,000 incl. Shaoxing
56 89 ZhengzhouXingyang  China 7,005,000 1,295 4,400 L / B 89 4,800,000
57 57 Quanzhou[34]  China 6,720,000 1,645 4,300 L / B (Included in Xiamen)
58 45 EssenDüsseldorf (Ruhr Area)[35]  Germany 6,665,000 2,655 2,500 C / B 72 5,700,000
59 52 TorontoHamilton (Golden Horseshoe)  Canada 6,635,000 2,287 2,900 N / A 54 7,200,000 incl. Hamilton
60 55 DallasFort Worth[36]  United States 6,600,000 5,175 1,100 N / A 63 6,750,000 incl. Fort Worth
61 56 San Francisco Bay Area  United States 6,540,000 2,797 2,100 N / A 48 7,700,000 incl. Concord, Oakland, San Jose, Santa Rosa
62 59 Nanjing[9]  China 6,525,000 1,489 4,400 L / B 57 7,050,000
63 54 Madrid  Spain 6,385,000 1,360 4,700 C / B 65 6,250,000
64 53 Santiago[37]  Chile 6,350,000 1,140 5,600 C / B 56 7,150,000
65 63 Houston[38]  United States 6,285,000 4,841 1,100 N / A 64 6,350,000
66 69 Riyadh  Saudi Arabia 6,220,000 1,658 3,800 C / B 60 6,900,000
67 73 Surat  India 6,200,000 233 26,600 A / B 70 5,900,000
68 58 Miami[39]  United States 6,195,000 3,209 1,700 A / A 67 6,200,000 incl. Fort Lauderdale, West Palm Beach
69 86 Suzhou[9]  China 6,175,000 1,360 4,500 C / B (Included in Shanghai)
70 67 Pune  India 6,110,000 583 10,500 A / B 65 6,250,000 incl. Pimpri-Chinchwad
71 74 Bandung  Indonesia 5,945,000 557 10,700 C / B 68 6,050,000
72 66 Singapore[40]  Singapore 5,930,000 518 11,400 A / B 59 6,950,000 incl. Johor Bahru (Malaysia)
72 85 QingdaoJimo  China 5,930,000 1,632 3,600 L / B 71 5,850,000
74 65 Xi'anXianyang[41]  China 5,905,000 1,088 5,400 L / B 61 6,850,000 incl. Xianyang
75 84 Nairobi  Kenya 5,765,000 829 7,000 C / B 78 5,350,000
76 62 Philadelphia[11]  United States 5,575,000 5,131 1,100 A / A 52 7,350,000 incl. Allentown, Trenton
77 77 Yangon (Rangoon)  Myanmar 5,550,000 596 9,300 C / B 80 5,250,000
78 70 Khartoum  Sudan 5,490,000 971 5,700 C / B 72 5,700,000
79 245 Fuzhou  China 5,400,000 1,243 4,300 L / B 118 4,025,000
80 75 Atlanta[42]  United States 5,325,000 7,296 600 N / A 75 5,600,000
81 68 Milan[43]  Italy 5,290,000 1,891 2,800 C / B 84 5,150,000
82 72 Washington, D.C.[44]  United States 5,180,000 3,424 1,300 A / A 43 8,400,000 incl. Baltimore
83 71 Saint Petersburg[45]  Russia 5,175,000 1,347 3,800 C / B 77 5,500,000
84 79 Abidjan  Ivory Coast 5,145,000 376 13,700 W / B 82 5,200,000
85 82 Harbin[46]  China 5,115,000 609 8,400 C / B 79 5,300,000
86 329 Amman  Jordan 5,020,000 855 5,900 C / B 82 5,200,000
87 104 Dar es Salaam  Tanzania 4,980,000 596 8,400 C / B 76 5,550,000
88 79 Alexandria  Egypt 4,960,000 293 16,900 C / B 80 5,250,000
89 96 Kuwait City  Kuwait 4,860,000 712 6,800 C / B 104 4,275,000
90 87 Ankara  Turkey 4,850,000 660 7,300 C / B 91 4,750,000
91 78 Barcelona  Spain 4,840,000 1,075 4,500 C / B 95 4,650,000
92 81 Guadalajara  Mexico 4,830,000 803 6,000 C / B 85 5,050,000 incl. Zapopan
93 61 Belo Horizonte  Brazil 4,750,000 1,269 3,700 C / B 87 4,950,000
94 99 Dalian  China 4,600,000 971 4,700 C / B 96 4,600,000
95 155 Guiyang  China 4,480,000 557 8,000 C / B 173 2,950,000
96 151 Wenzhou  China 4,460,000 479 9,300 C / B 69 5,950,000
97 136 Casablanca  Morocco 4,410,000 272 16,200 C / B 108 4,225,000
98 93 Sydney  Australia 4,390,000 2,179 2,000 A / A 86 4,975,000 incl. Central Coast
99 91 Phoenix[47]  United States 4,365,000 3,225 1,200 N / A 102 4,400,000
100 359 Surabaya  Indonesia 4,325,000 907 4,800 C / B 90 4,775,000

See also

Number of urban areas by country in 2016

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Demographia World Urban Areas, 14th Annual Edition" (PDF). April 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 May 2018.
  2. ^ a b Brinkhoff, Thomas (1 January 2017). "Major agglomerations of the World". City Population. Archived from the original on 18 January 2018.
  3. ^ Demographia (March 2013). Demographia World Urban Areas (PDF) (9th ed.). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2013.
  4. ^ Includes large areas of Tokyo, Kanagawa, Chiba and Saitama prefectures and small areas of Gunma, Tochigi and Ibaraki prefectures.
  5. ^ Various international sources limit their population estimates to DKI Jakarta itself (the national capital district). However, the urbanization of Jakarta extends into the regencies of Tangerang, Bekasi, Bogor and Karawang and the separate cities of Bekasi, Depok and Bogor. Excludes urban areas of Karawang (650,000; 207 km2) and Serang (525,000; 65 km2).
  6. ^ Includes Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Noida, Gurgaon and Bahadurgarh. Excludes urban area of Meerut (1,489,000; 104 km2).
  7. ^ The population is higher than other agglomeration estimates (such as the United Nations and the Philippine Statistics Authority). The continuous urbanization of Manila extends outward into other neighbouring provinces such as Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Rizal and Batangas provinces. The Demographia population estimate is a "build-up" of municipality population within the continuously developed area (urban area or agglomeration).
  8. ^ Includes satellite cities in Gyeonggi Province such as Suwon, Goyang, Seongnam, Yongin, Bucheon and Ansand which are treated as separate urban agglomerations by the United Nations. Excludes urban area of Cheonan (500,000; 57 km2) in Chungcheongnam-do.
  9. ^ a b c d Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Suzhou, Wuxi, Ningbo, Changzhou, Shaoxing, and urban area of Zhangjiaggang-Jiangyin within the prefecture-level cities of Suzhou and Wuxi are treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Yangtze River Delta economic zone. Huai'an (1,856,000; 148 km2), Xuzhou (1,246,000; 233 km2), Nantong (1,036,000; 233 km2), Lianyungang (985,000; 155 km2), Zhenjiang (983,000; 168 km2), Yancheng (797,000; 207 km2), Huzhou (690,000; 111 km2), Taizhou (in Jiangsu Province; 300,000; 117 km2) and Suqian (220,000; 36 km2), as well as urban areas of Yangzhou (1,593,000; 233 km2) and Gaoyou (180,000; 39 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Yangzhou, urban areas of Kunshan (1,596,000; 492 km2), Changshu (1,139,000; 285 km2) and Taicang (523,000; 117 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Suzhou, urban areas of Cixi (1,200,000; 298 km2) and Yuyao (650,000; 122 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Ningbo, urban areas of Jiaxing (1,044,000; 259 km2) and Tongxiang (510,000; 52 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jiaxing, urban areas of Wenling (510,000; 52 km2), Jiaojiang (375,000; 41 km2) and Huangyan (200,000; 34 km2) within the prefectrure-level city of Taizhou (in Zhejiang Province), urban areas of Zhuji (500,000; 117 km2) and Shangyu (400,000; 158 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Shaoxing, urban areas of Yiwu-Dongyang (925,000; 233 km2), Jinhua (520,000; 186 km2), Yongkang (500,000; 223 km2), Dongyang (260,000; 104 km2) and Lanxi (220,000; 34 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jinhua, and urban area of Fuyang (450,000; 49 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Hangzhou are also excluded.
  10. ^ Includes Kalyan, and the Panvel urban area. As of 2016, also includes the Census of India urban areas of Bhiwandi, Kalyan, VasaiVirar beginning in 2016.
  11. ^ a b Demographia defines urban area of New York as a combination of New York–Newark, BridgeportStamford, New Haven, Trenton, Danbury and Twin Rivers urbanized areas. New York and Philadelphia (same with Philadelphia urbanized area) are treated as separate urban areas. Urban areas of Hartford (925,000; 1,336 km2), AllentownBethlehem (665,000; 896 km2), Springfield (621,000; 904 km2), Harrisburg (446,000; 673 km2), Poughkeepsie (427,000; 847 km2), Lancaster (405,000; 642 km2), Reading (284,000; 269 km2), Atlantic City (250,000; 324 km2), York (235,000; 342 km2), NorwichNew London (209,000; 394 km2), Waterbury (195,000; 233 km2) and Pottstown (108,000; 205 km2) are also excluded.
  12. ^ Excludes urban areas of Baoding (1,283,000; 220 km2), Zhangjiakou (1,322,000; 220 km2) and Chengde (108,000; 23 km2).
  13. ^ Includes Francisco Morato. Excludes urban area of Santos (1,716,000; 207 km2).
  14. ^ Excludes urban areas of Toluca (1,747,000; 220 km2) and Cuernavaca (675,000; 171 km2).
  15. ^ a b c d Hong Kong in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Shenzhen are treated as separate urban areas because of the lack of freedom of labor movement without trade, immigration or customs barriers. Guangzhou–Foshan, Shenzhen, Dongguan and Zhongshan are also treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Pearl River Delta economic zone. While Guangzhou and Foshan are combined into a single urban area because they have become more economically integrated than the other urban areas, other areas in the Pearl River Delta economic region remain classified as separate urban areas. Thus, urban areas of Huizhou (1,387,000; 168 km2), Zhuhai (1,274,000; 246 km2) and Zhaoqing (500,000; 65 km2) as well as urban areas of Jiangmen (920,000; 259 km2) and Taishan (204,000; 44 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jiangmen, urban area of Lishui (300,000; 44 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Foshan and urban are of Macau (560,000; 21 km2) in the Macau Special Administrative Region are excluded. Urban area of Guangzhou–Foshan includes Shunde within the prefecture-level city of Foshan, which has been excluded in the 2011 edition. Urban area of Shenzhen includes Huiyang within the prefecture-level city of Huizhou, which has been excluded in the 2010 edition. Urban area of Huizhou includes only Huicheng District. The Demographia estimate for Dongguan is lower than last year, because local estimates previously used were higher than reported in the 2010 census.
  16. ^ Includes urban area of Narayanganj which has been excluded in the 2011 edition.
  17. ^ Includes Nara and Himeji. United Nations estimates separate Osaka–Kobe and Kyoto and exclude both Nara and Himeji. Excludes urban area of Ōtsu (775,000; 303 km2) and Wakayama (430,000; 91 km2).
  18. ^ The population estimate is suspect, due to the lack of readily available data for local areas outside the city jurisdiction (Moscow Oblast). Demographia is indebted to Richard Forstall, who has provided local authority area population data for portions of Moscow Oblast within the Moscow urban areas. Other estimates (such as the United Nations estimate) include only the municipality of Moscow, which includes only part of the urban footprint. Includes ElektrostalNoginsk within Moscow Oblast, which has been excluded in the 2011 edition.
  19. ^ Combination of Los Angeles–Long BeachSanta Ana, RiversideSan Bernardino and Mission Viejo urbanized areas. Excludes urban areas of TemeculaMurrieta (472,000; 420 km2), IndioPalm Springs (370,000; 373 km2), Oxnard (369,000; 218 km2), LancasterPalmdale (358,000; 300 km2), VictorvilleHesperiaApple Valley (350,000; 433 km2), Santa Clarita (272,000; 199 km2), Thousand Oaks (216,000; 223 km2), Santa Barbara (196,000; 145 km2), Hemet (163,000; 127 km2) and Simi Valley (126,000; 80 km2).
  20. ^ Excludes urban area of La Plata (675,000; 228 km2) which has been included in the 2007 edition.
  21. ^ Includes Eslamshahr and Karaj which has been excluded in the 2012 edition.
  22. ^ Tianjin and Tangshan are treated as separate urban areas. Urban areas of Cangzhou (500,000; 130 km2) and Langfang (465,000; 130 km2) as well as urban area of Qian'an (400,000; 168 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Tangshan are also excluded. The population of the urban area of Tianjin is lower than other estimates (such as the United Nations), which include metropolitan area population not within the continuously developed urban area. The Demographia population estimate is a "build-up" of sub-municipality population within the continuously developed area (urban area or agglomeration).
  23. ^ The population is lower than other estimates (such as the United Nations), which include metropolitan area population not within the continuously developed urban area.
  24. ^ Excludes urban area of Brazzaville (1,685,000; 181 km2) in the Republic of the Congo.
  25. ^ Greater London urban area. Excludes urban areas of Reading (318,000; 84 km2), Southend-on-Sea (295,000; 72 km2), Aldershot (252,000; 79 km2), Luton (258,000; 51 km2), Medway (244,000; 52 km2), Crawley (181,000; 58 km2), Slough (164,000; 34 km2), Basildon (145,000; 37 km2), High Wycombe (133,000; 39 km2), Chelmsford (112,000; 26 km2) and Maidstone (108,000; 25 km2).
  26. ^ Includes Toyohashi.
  27. ^ Combination of Chicago, Kenosha and Round Lake BeachMcHenryGrayslake urbanized areas. Excludes urban areas of Milwaukee (1,388,000; 1,414 km2), Rockford (301,000; 396 km2), South Bend (278,000; 417 km2), Elkhart (144,000; 238 km2) and Racine (134,000; 127 km).
  28. ^ Johannesburg–East Rand and Pretoria are treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Vaal Triangle. Urban area of Vereeninging (Emfuleni) (650,000; 337 km2) is also excluded.
  29. ^ Excludes urban area of Wanzhou (Wanxian) (500,000; 41 km2) within the municipality of Chongqing. The direct-controlled municipality of Chongqing, which is sometimes translated as the direct-controlled city of Chongqing, has the largest population of any organism called a city in the stretches far beyond any reasonable definition of a metropolitan area.
  30. ^ The population is higher than other estimates (such as the United Nations), which do not include all population within the continuously developed urban area (especially in New Taipei City). Includes Taoyuan and Jhongli (Chungli) which have been excluded in the 2010 edition. Excludes urban area of Hsinchu (650,000; 117 km2).
  31. ^ Excludes urban areas of Fushun (1,412,000; 130 km2) and Tieling (325,000; 65 km2).
  32. ^ The population is higher than other agglomeration estimates (such as the United Nations), which does not include all of the continuously developed urban area in the state of Selangor. Continuous urbanization extends well beyond the municipality of Kuala Lumpur, for example to Port Klang and the area represents a single labor market (metropolitan area). The Demographia population estimate is a "build-up" of municipality population within the continuously developed area (urban area or agglomeration). Excludes urban area of Seremban (500,000; 155 km2).
  33. ^ Combination of Boston, Nashua, Providence (1,187,000; 1,412 km2), Worcester (489,000; 787 km2), Barnstable (247,000; 717 km2), Manchester (159,000; 223 km2), New Bedford (149,000; 142 km2) and LeominsterFitchburg (117,000; 168 km2).
  34. ^ Includes Shishi and Jinjiang within the prefecture-level city of Quanzhou.
  35. ^ Essen–Düsseldorf and Cologne–Bonn are treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area. Excludes urban area of AachenVaals (585,000; 401 km2) in both Germany and the Netherlands.
  36. ^ Combination of Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, DentonLewisville and McKinney urbanized areas.
  37. ^ Excludes urban area of ValparaísoViña del Mar (875,000; 161 km2).
  38. ^ Combination of Houston and Conroe urbanized areas. Excludes urban area of Texas City (106,000; 197 km2).
  39. ^ Miami urbanized area. Includes former urban areas of Fort Lauderdale and West Palm Beach, which were combined by the US Census Bureau into Miami in 2000.
  40. ^ Excludes urban area of Johor Bahru (1,640,000; 712 km2) in Malaysia and urban area of Batam (900,000; 218 km2) in Indonesia.
  41. ^ Includes Xianyang which has been excluded in the 2010 edition.
  42. ^ Atlanta urbanized area. Excludes urban areas of Gainesville (131,000; 326 km2) and Athens (129,000; 254 km2).
  43. ^ The population is higher than other agglomeration estimates (such as the United Nations), which does not include all of the continuously developed urban area, which stretches into Como, Lecco and Varese provinces. Excludes Bergamo which has been included in the 2007 edition (4,950,000; 3,043 km2 in total).
  44. ^ The US Census Bureau combines Washington and Baltimore into a single metropolitan area (consolidated area) but Demographia considers the two (same with Washington, DC and Baltimore urbanized areas) as separate urban areas. Urban areas of AberdeenHavre de Grace (214,000; 339 km2), Hagerstown (183,000; 344 km2), Frederick (142,000; 189 km2), Fredericksburg (141,000; 202 km2) and Waldorf (110,000; 176 km2) are also excluded.
  45. ^ Includes communities under the authority of the Town Council.
  46. ^ Excludes urban areas of Acheng (300,000; 39 km2) and Shangzhi (250,000; 18 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Harbin.
  47. ^ Combination of Phoenix–Mesa, Avondale and Sierra Vista urbanized area.
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This page was last edited on 6 February 2019, at 18:28
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