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Hadim Mesih Pasha

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hadim Mesih Pasha (died 1589) was an Ottoman statesman who served as Grand Vizier under Murad III from 1 December 1585 until 15 April 1586.

Masih Pasha was born in Bosnia to a Christian family. As a eunuch he served as chief of the inner pantry and treasury of the imperial palace. In 1574 he was sent to Cairo as governor-general of Egypt. On his return to the capital in 1581 he became the third vizier. He was promoted to second vizier in July 1584 and in November 1585 he substituted for Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha when Osman Pasha left the capital on a campaign against the Safavids. On Osman Pasha's death Masih Pasha was appointed as Grand Vizier on 1 December 1585, a post he only held until 15 April 1586.[1] He died in 1589 and was buried in a tomb next to the mosque that he had commissioned in Istanbul.[2]

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In the previous episodes in our series on the Ottoman Wars we have covered the struggle in Albania and Moldavia Although the Ottomans were slowly getting closer to the peak of their power The resistance against them was mounting both in Europe and in the Middle East The rule of mehmed ii was coming to an end and a succession would prove to be a tricky affair The ottoman wars were just beginning With the death of Skanderbeg Venice took over the defenses of a large portion of the Balkan coast this was a continuation of the Ottoman-Venetian war of 1463 to 1479 and by the end of it the Republic was exhausted and was forced to sign the Treaty of Constantinople Mehmet ii received Euboea (Negroponte), Lemnos and most of Albania The conflict with the prince of Moldavia Stefan the third was also winding down So the ottomans were able to concentrate their forces against the kingdom of Hungary Which at this point was ruled by? Matias the first and was arguably one of the strongest kingdoms in Europe with the legendary black army defending it a number of raids were conducted into transylvania via Villar kia in this period eventually Matias gave the voivode of transylvania, Stefan the 5th Batory Enough forces and the latter matched the Ottoman raiding troops at the Battle of bread field on the 13th of October 1479 The Ottomans under Ali kocha Bay and the Prince of Wallachia Bazarov the fourth has between 10 and 20,000 troops mostly Akinji light raiders while stefan v commanded around 15,000 hungarians sheckler's Transylvanian Saxons and Serbs Both sides divided their troops into three groups Initially the Ottoman right and center pushed their counterparts The situation became even more critical for the Hungarian forces when Stefan fell from his horse and was almost Captured only saved by one of his knights at the last moment The ottoman leaders usually stayed behind the center in order to observe the battlefield But Ali koja Bey commanded the left flank and fought in the front lines, which prevented him from judging the tactical situation Famous Hungarian general Powell Konishi was commanding Stefan's right flank He managed to lure the Ottoman left away from the center and fen rapidly attacked and dispersed it His cavalry then attacks the Ottoman Center and soon the whole Ottoman army was in retreat According to different sources Between five and ten thousand warriors of the Sultan were killed while the Hungarians lost less than three thousand As the Ottomans often used their border vassals in these smaller attacks Hungary got some respite due to the victory at bread field Sultan Mehmet's now set his sights on strengthening his position in the Mediterranean and on conquering Italy has according to some sources Rome was his goal ever since he took Constantinople The disunity in Italy was promising and the newly acquired Albanian lands were a good springboard The peace with Venice also helped as the Ottoman Navy didn't need to contend with its formidable Navy anymore In May of 1480 the ottomans launched an invasion of Rhodes, but the Knights Hospitaller Managed to repel the assault by August despite the overwhelming Ottoman numbers at the same time the invasion of Italy had begun in July of 1480 a 20,000 strong Ottoman army under get 'ok amid Pasha set sail for the kingdom of Naples making landfall near Otranto the garrison initially considered it to be a smaller raid and sallied out as More Ottoman troops landed on the shores. The defenders were pushed back and forced to return to the city The ottoman commander sent a messenger demanding that the city surrender and convert to islam The citizens and the garrison which had around 2,000 soldiers declined and managed to send messengers asking for help meanwhile, the ottoman cannons were disembarked from the ships on the 29th of july the ottomans surrounded the city and their cannons started bombarding the walls as The garrison was too small to defend the outer walls it moved to the citadel The ottomans quickly took the city looting and burning as they did Their cannons were moved to destroy the walls of the citadel The siege continued for 15 days On the 11th of August the ottoman artillery breached the northeastern wall and their troops entered the citadel the garrison alongside 10,000 citizens were massacred and thousands were enslaved according to the sources 800 men were left alive and the ottomans tried to forcibly convert them to Islam, but they refused and were beheaded These 800 became martyrs and their death became a banner uniting the Christian forces The ottomans then raided the cities of Lecce Taranto, Brindisi and viesta Most of their troops returned to albania leaving 1500 as a garrison in Otranto The kingdoms of Naples Sicily and Hungary besieged the city in May of 1481 As Sultan Mehmed died on the 3rd of May and with him the plan to take Italy No help arrived for the garrison and in August it surrendered Mehmed's didn't name a successor. So his sons bayazid and jem raced to the capital to capture the throne The former was quicker and was declared Sultan Bayezid the second on May 21st Jen captured the cities in Anatolia and defeated Bay as its forces on May 28th He declared himself the Sultan and offered to Bayazid that they divided the empire? The latter refused consolidated his forces and moved against Jem himself this time defeating his brother at Yenisehir here Jen fled to the Mamluks in Egypt then to the hospitaliers and ended up in the court of Pope Innocent to the 8th Who was willing to use the Ottoman Prince as a bargaining chip against Bayazid The new Sultan continued the Ottoman military conquests Smaller raids were used to loot the areas on the borders or to punish rebellious vassals One of the targets of the raids was the kingdom of Croatia which was in dynastic union with Hungary in 1491 such a raid ended up in a Croatian victory at the battle of Vrpile. In 1493 the Ottoman ruler in Bosnia Adeem jakob pasha Made another raid into Croatia and the locals raised their forces to meet him at Krbava Both sides had around 10,000 troops But while the Ottoman army was made up of cavalry, the Croatians fielded a mix of infantry and cavalry Initially the Croatian forces occupied steep hills and the Ottoman leader knew that he couldn't win a battle attacking uphill He sent three thousand horsemen to set an ambush to the right of these hills while 3,000 stays to the left the rest moved against the Croatians After the initial attack the ottoman started retreating and the Croatians pursued them descending into more open terrain The main Ottoman forces re-engaged them while the two hidden groups attacked them from the right and rear Soon the Croatian left retreated and was crushed the center and the right were pushed back and then surrounded Almost the entire Croatian army was massacred while the ottomans lost only a few hundred During this period the Ottomans renewed hostilities with Venice and started their wars against Poland Moldavia became an ottoman vassal while the Venetians were forced to give up their holdings on the Peloponnese after losing a number of naval engagements Meanwhile the main threat for the ottomans was rising in the east in iran the Seljuk Mongol and then the timurid invasions Changed the balance of power in the region as more Turkic and Turkish ice tribes were settling here in their wake by 1500 Iran-iraq and most of the caucuses were under the control of the Ak Koyunlu dynasty, which challenged mehmet ii in 1476 during the Battle of Otlukbeli Since that's defeat the Ak Koyunlu had not been trying to expand to the west anymore Internal strife was weakening their realm and in 1501 a member of the Safavid dynasty Ismail the first supported by a number of Turkmen tribes Occupied Tabriz and declared himself Shah In 1503 he defeated the last act of Ak Koyunlu sultan and soon he was in control of a vast empire Ismail and his dynasty belonged to the Shia branch of Islam and that Put him on a collision course with the Sun I'd Ottomans The noushad decided to test his Ottoman and mameluk neighbors by attacking Dulkadir which was under their protection in 1507 Neither state responded but the Ottoman Prince Salim retaliated by raiding Safavid territory adjacent to the area He governed At the same time Bayazid asks another sunite leader Mohammed Shabani to attack the Safavids The latter obliged and moved against fair holdings in Central Asia in 1510 Ismail moved swiftly attacks, Chobani at Merve and defeated and killed him with ease despite having inferior numbers The shah would reciprocate in kind and his Shia supporters rebelled against Ottoman rule in Anatolia in 1511 Although this rebellion was defeated quickly. It was just the start as many Turkmen tribes in eastern Anatolia were shia At the same time the Ottoman Empire was facing another succession The ailing Sultan declared his older son Ahmed as heir apparent in 1511 his younger son Salim rebelled and despite initial setbacks took Istanbul in the april of 1512 and dethroned his father Soon Emmet's army was defeated and sell in the first became the Ottoman Sultan He still faced an increasing number of Shia Muslims in his realm Salim would use the religion against the supporters of Ismail and his scholars soon declared the Shia to be heretics The rulers wrote each other a number of letters full of insults in 1512 Salim ordered the execution of more than 40,000 Shia in Anatolia and also sent a letter to the shaper needs to request another invasion of the Safavid Ralf all that made war inevitable Ismail was forced to send a portion of his troops east to face the Schaben 'it's in 1514 Salim started his campaign against Ismail the Ottomans had around seventy thousand troops and more than 100 cannons while Ismail could feel fifty thousand most of them cavalry He has no artillery Initially the Safavid Shah used scorched earth tactics to weaken Salim's forces But as the armies were moving within Iran and close to the Safavid capital of Tabriz is now needed to make a stand and in August. He decided to do that at the valley of caldiran According to some sources his mails advisors suggest is attacking after dark to prevent the Ottomans from using their artillery But the shah considered himself a knight and declined The sources for the battle are extremely conflicted. So we will just present one of the depictions Selim sent his Janissaries forward keeping the rest of his troops back sure that his elite troops would be able to use their gunpowder weapons to disperse the enemy cavalry Yet the Safavid cavalry led by Ishmael himself managed to repulse the Janissaries The Ottoman Sultan then moved his sipahis forward to cover the retreat of the Janissaries, but the sipahis were also driven back At this point in the battle both groups returned to their initial positions Ismail ordered his cavalry to divide into two columns and attacked the extreme flanks of the Ottoman cavalry Safavid troops both on the left and the right flank were successful and inflicted heavy damage on the Ottoman cavalry They were then commanded to converge on the Ottoman center Yet Selim who observed the battle from a nearby hill was expecting that His Hannon's were now positioned at an angle targeting the impending cavalry attack Thousands of Safavid horsemen died under artillery volleys and their army was forced to retreat The Ottoman cavalry counter attacked and dispersed the remaining enemy forces Once again, we don't know the exact numbers but both sides suffered heavy losses In early September Selim entered Tabriz but his troops were on the verge of mutiny and soon he was forced to retreat the Ottomans took control of eastern Anatolia parts of the Caucasus and Mesopotamia yet the wars between these states were far from over Thank you for watching another episode in our series on the Ottoman Wars new videos in this series are on the way So make sure you are subscribed to our channel and have pressed the Bell button We would like to express our gratitude to our patreon supporters and channel members who make the creation of our videos possible Now you can also support us by buying our merchandise via the link in the description This is the kings and Generals channel and we will catch you on the next one

See also

References

  1. ^ Necipoğlu 2005, p. 403.
  2. ^ Necipoğlu 2005, p. 405.

Sources

  • Necipoğlu, Gülru (2005). The Age of Sinan: Architectural Culture in the Ottoman Empire. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-253-9.
Political offices
Preceded by
Hüseyin Pasha Boljanić
Ottoman Governor of Egypt
1574–1580
Succeeded by
Hadım Hasan Pasha
Preceded by
Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha
Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
1 November 1585 – 14 April 1586
Succeeded by
Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha


This page was last edited on 17 March 2019, at 21:13
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