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Family tree of the House of Orange (1450–1815)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A summary family tree of the House of Orange-Nassau[1] from the joining of the house of Nassau-Breda/Dillenburg and the House of Châlon-Arlay-Orange to the end of the Dutch Republic is shown below. The family spawned many famous statesmen and generals, including two of the acknowledged "first captains of their age", Maurice of Nassau and the Marshal de Turenne.

John V Count of Nassau-Dietz, 1455–1516, Stadholder of Gelderland
Rangkronen-Fig. 18.svg

Blason Nassau-Dietz.svg
John IV Prince of Orange, 1475–1502
Princely crown.svg

Blason famille fr Chalon Orange.svg
William the Rich Count of Nassau-Dillenburg 1487- 1559
Rangkronen-Fig. 18.svg

Blason Nassau-Dillenbourg.svg
Henry III Count of Nassau-Breda 1483–1538
Rangkronen-Fig. 18.svg

Blason Nassau-Vianden.svg
Claudia of Châlon 1498–1521Philibert of Châlon, Prince of Orange, 1502–1530
Princely crown.svg
William I "the Silent" 1533–1584, Prince of Orange 1544, Stadholder of Holland, Zealand & Utrecht, assassinated by Spanish agent
Princely crown.svg

Willem van Oranje wapen.svg
Louis 1538–1574 died in battle against Spain
Blason Nassau-Dillenbourg.svg
Adolf 1540–1568, died in battle against Spain
Blason Nassau-Dillenbourg.svg
Henry 1550–1574 died in battle against Spain
Blason Nassau-Dillenbourg.svg
John VI "the Elder" 1535–1606, Stadholder of Gelderland
Blason Nassau-Dillenbourg.svg
René of Châlon 1519–1544, Prince of Orange,1521
Princely crown.svg

Blason René de Nassau-Dillenbourg, Prince de Châlon-Orange.svg
Philip William 1554–1618, Prince of Orange, 1584
Princely crown.svg

Blason Nassau-Orange.svg
Maurice 1567–1625, Prince of Orange,1618, Stadholder of Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, etc.
Princely crown.svg

Arms of Maurice or Nassau Prince of Orange.PNG
Frederick Henry 1584–1647, Prince of Orange, 1625, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, & etc.
Princely crown.svg

Willem van Oranje wapen.svg
Louise Juliana 1576–1644 married Frederick IV Elector Palatine from whom the British royal family descendsElisabeth 1577–1642 married Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Duke of Bouillonilleg.
Justinus van Nassau (1559–1631)
Admiral & General, Gov of Breda 1601–1625
Justinus van Nassau wapen.svg
William Louis "Us Heit", Count of Nassau-Dillenburg 1560–1620, Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen, and Drenthe
Blason Nassau-Dillenbourg.svg
Ernst Casimir, Count of Nassau-Dietz 1573–1632, Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen, and Drenthe
Nassau-Diez 1636 wapen.svg
John VII "the Middle", Count of Nassau-Siegen, 1561–1623
Blason Nassau-Dillenbourg.svg
illeg
William of Nassau (1601–1627), lord of de Lek
illeg
Louis of Nassau, Lord of De Lek and Beverweerd (1602– 1665)
Blason Nassau-LaLecq Beverweert Ouwerkerk Odijk.PNG
Frederick V, Elector Palatine, 1610 & King of Bohemia 1619–21Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne & Marshal-General of France 1611–1675
Charles I, King of England 1625–1649
Crown of Saint Edward (Heraldry).svg
Charles II
Crown of Saint Edward (Heraldry).svg
William II 1626–1650, Prince of Orange & Stadholder of Holland, Zealand, etc, 1647
Princely crown.svg

Willem van Oranje wapen.svg
Mary, Princess Royal
Coronet of a Child of the Sovereign.svg

Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg
James II
Princely crown.svg

Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg
Louise Henriette (1627–1667) married Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg descendants were Kings of Prussia and later German Emperorsilleg.
Frederick Nassau de Zuylestein (1608–1672)
general of the army, descendants were the Earls of Rochford in England
Blason Nassau-Zuylestein.svg
Albertine Agnes(1634– 1696)William Frederick,1613–1664 Count later Prince of Nassau-Dietz, Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe
Nassau-Diez 1640 wapen.svg
Henry Casimir I Count of Nassau-Dietz,1612–1640, Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe
Nassau-Diez 1636 wapen.svg
John Maurice "the Brazilian", Prince of Nassau-Siegen,1604–1679, gov. of Dutch Brazil, Field Marshal of the Dutch Army
Blason Nassau-Dillenbourg.svg
William III 1650–1702, Prince of Orange 1650, Stadholder of Holland, Zealand, etc, 1672, King of England, 1689
Princely crown.svg
Crown of Saint Edward (Heraldry).svg

Willem van Oranje wapen.svg
Royal Arms of England (1694-1702).svg
Mary II of England
Crown of Saint Edward (Heraldry).svg

Royal Arms of England (1689-1694).svg
ceded claims to the lands of Orange to France in 1713, but kept right to use the title in its German form: currently Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, "Prinz von Oranien"Henry Casimir II, Prince of Nassau-Dietz,1657–1696, Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe
Nassau-Diez 1640 wapen.svg
John William Friso 1687–1711, appointed heir by William III, Prince of Orange, 1702, Stadholder of Friesland 1696
Princely crown.svg

Arms of Johan Willem Friso as Prince of Orange.JPG
Anne, Princess Royal of EnglandWilliam IV 1711–1751, Prince of Orange, Stadholder of Holland, Zealand, etc. 1747
Princely crown.svg

Arms of Johan Willem Friso as Prince of Orange.JPG
Wilhelmina of PrussiaWilliam V 1748–1806, Prince of Orange,1751 Stadholder of Holland, Zealand, etc. 1751–1795
Princely crown.svg

Arms of Johan Willem Friso as Prince of Orange.JPG
Carolina 1743–1787Charles Christian, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg, 1735–1788
Princess Louise of Orange-Nassau, 1770– 1819 married Karl, Hereditary Prince of Braunschweig(-Wolfenbuttel), son of Princess Augusta of Great BritainPrince Frederick of Orange-Nassau, 1774–1799 an Austrian General, no issueWilliam VI, Fürst of Nassau-Orange-Fulda 1803–1806, Fürst of Nassau-Orange, Prince of Orange 1806
later
William I, King of the Netherlands 1815
Princely crown.svg

Arms of Sovereign Prince William I of Orange.svg
Frederick William, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg, 1768–1816
Royal Family of the Netherlands, see next table belowWilliam, Duke of Nassau, 1792–1839
Adolphe 1817–1905, Duke of Nassau 1839–1866, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, 1890–1905
Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg


William I, 1772–1843, King of the Netherlands, 1815–1840
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Royal Arms of the Netherlands (1815-1907).svg
Wilhelmina of Prussia
Wappen Preußen.png
William II, 1792–1849, King of the Netherlands, 1840
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Royal Arms of the Netherlands (1815-1907).svg
Anna Pavlovna of Russia
Mali tsr.svg
Prince Frederick of the Netherlands, 1797–1881
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Arms of the second son of the king of the Netherlands.svg

[2][3]
Princess Pauline of Orange-Nassau, 1800–1806Princess Marianne of the Netherlands, 1810–1883
[4]
married Prince Albert of Prussia (1809–1872)
Emma of Waldeck-PyrmontWilliam III, 1817–1890, King of the Netherlands, 1849
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Royal Arms of the Netherlands (1815-1907).svg
Sophia of WürttembergPrince Alexander of the Netherlands, 1818–1848Prince Henry of the Netherlands, "the Navigator" 1820–1879Princess Sophie of the Netherlands, 1824–1897 married Charles Alexander, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-EisenachPrincess Louise of the Netherlands,1828–1871 married Charles XV of SwedenPrincess Marie of the Netherlands, 1841–1910 married William, Prince of Wied one son was William, Prince of Albania
Wilhelmina, 1880–1962, Queen of the Netherlands, 1890–1948
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Royal Arms of the Netherlands (1815-1907).svg
Arms of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.svg

To 1907 after 1907
Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 1876–1934, Prince of the Netherlands
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Arms of Hendrik of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.svg
William, Prince of Orange 1840–1879
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Arms of the Prince of Orange (1815-1884).svg
Prince Maurice of the Netherlands1843–1850Alexander, Prince of Orange, 1851–1884
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Arms of the Prince of Orange (1815-1884).svg
Juliana 1909–2004, Queen of the Netherlands, 1948–1980
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Arms of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.svg
Arms of Juliana of the Netherlands.svg
Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld, Prince of the Netherlands 1911–2004
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Arms of Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld.svg
Beatrix,1938–, Queen of the Netherlands,1980–2013
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Arms of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.svg
Arms of Beatrix of the Netherlands.svg
Claus van Amsberg,1926–2002, Prince of the Netherlands
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Arms of Claus von Amsberg.svg
Princess Irene of the Netherlands, 1939, m.(1964–1981) Carlos Hugo of Bourbon-Parma, Duke of Parma, 4 children not eligible for thronePrincess Margriet of the Netherlands, 1943–
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Arms of Beatrix of the Netherlands.svg
Pieter van VollenhovenPrincess Christina of the Netherlands,(1947–2019), m. Jorge Pérez y Guillermo (m. 1975; div. 1996), 3 children not eligible for throne
William-Alexander of the Netherlands,1967–
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Arms of the children of Beatrix of the Netherlands.svg
Arms of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.svg

Prince of Orange & Heir Apparent, 1980, King of the Netherlands, 2013–
Queen Maxima of the Netherlands
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Arms of Maxima, Queen of the Netherlands.svg
Prince Friso of Orange-Nassau 1968–2013 m.(2004) Mabel Wisse Smit without permission, his children are not eligible for the throne and he was no longer a Prince of the Netherlands after his marriagePrince Constantijn of the Netherlands, 1969–
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Arms of the children of Beatrix of the Netherlands.svg
Princess Laurentien of the Netherlands4 sons, 2 of whom were eligible for the throne until Beatrix abdicated in 2013
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Arms of the children of Margriet of the Netherlands.svg
Princess Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands,2003– Princess of Orange & heiress apparent, 2013–
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Arms of the children of Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands.svg
Princess Alexia of the Netherlands, 2005–
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Arms of the children of Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands.svg
Princess Ariane of the Netherlands, 2007–
Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic).svg

Arms of the children of Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands.svg
Countess Eloise of Orange-Nassau, 2002–Count Claus-Casimir of Orange-Nassau, 2004–Countess Leonore of Orange-Nassau, 2006–


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  • The French Revolution: Crash Course World History #29

Transcription

Hi, my name is John Green, this is Crash Course World History and today we’re going to talk about The French Revolution. Admittedly, this wasn’t the French flag until 1794, but we just felt like he looked good in stripes. [vertical = slimming] As does this guy. Huh? So, while the American Revolution is considered a pretty good thing, the French Revolution is often seen as a bloody, anarchic mess—which— Mr. Green, Mr. Green! I bet, like always, it’s way more complicated than that. Actually no. It was pretty terrible. Also, like a lot of revolutions, in the end it exchanged an authoritarian regime for an authoritarian regime. But even if the revolution was a mess, its ideas changed human history— far more, I will argue, than the American Revolution. [Intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] Right, so France in the 18th century was a rich and populous country, but it had a systemic problem collecting taxes because of the way its society was structured. They had a system with kings and nobles we now call the ancien regime. Thank you, three years of high school French. [and Meredith the Interness] And for most French people, it sucked, [historical term] because the people with the money— the nobles and the clergy— never paid taxes. So by 1789, France was deeply in debt thanks to their funding the American Revolution— thank you, France, [also for Goddard and The Coneheads] we will get you back in World Wars I and II. And King Louis XVI was spending half of his national budget to service the federal debt. Louis tried to reform this system under various finance ministers. He even called for democracy on a local level, but all attempts to fix it failed and soon France basically declared bankruptcy. This nicely coincided with hailstorms that ruined a year’s harvest, [ah, hail] thereby raising food prices and causing widespread hunger, which really made the people of France angry, because they love to eat. Meanwhile, the King certainly did not look broke, as evidenced by his well-fed physique and fancy footwear. He and his wife Marie Antoinette also got to live in the very nice Palace at Versailles thanks to God’s mandate, but Enlightenment thinkers like Kant were challenging the whole idea of religion, writing things like: “The main point of enlightenment is of man’s release from his self-caused immaturity, primarily in matters of religion.” [while smacking folks in face w/ glove] So basically the peasants were hungry, the intellectuals were beginning to wonder whether God could or should save the King, and the nobility were dithering about, eating fois gras and songbirds, [I'd rather eat cake, personally] failing to make meaningful financial reform. In response to the crisis, Louis XVI called a meeting of the Estates General, the closest thing that France had to a national parliament, which hadn’t met since 1614. The Estates General was like a super parliament made up of representatives from the First Estate, the nobles, the Second Estate, the clergy, and the Third Estate, everyone else. The Third Estate showed up with about 600 representatives, the First and Second Estates both had about 300, and after several votes, everything was deadlocked, and then the Third Estate was like, “You know what? Forget you guys. [expletive deleted] We’re gonna leave and we’re gonna become our own National Assembly.” This did not please King Louis XVI. [everything can't be an eclair, Lou] So when the new National Assembly left the room for a break, he locked the doors, and he was like, "Sorry, guys, you can't go in there. And if you can't assemble, how you gonna be a national assembly?" […and with that, mischief managed!] Shockingly, the Third Estate representatives were able to find a different room in France, [D'oh!] this time an indoor tennis court where they swore the famous Tennis Court Oath. [Like McEnroe? You can't be serious..] And they agreed not to give up until a French constitution was established. So then Louis XVI responded by sending troops to Paris primarily to quell uprisings over food shortages, but the revolutionaries saw this as a provocation, so they responded by seizing the Bastille Prison on July 14th, which, coincidentally, is also Bastille Day. The Bastille was stormed ostensibly to free prisoners— although there were only seven in jail at the time— but mostly to get guns. But the really radical move in the National Assembly came on August 4, when they abolished most of the ancien regime. -- feudal rights, tithes, privileges for nobles, unequal taxation, they were all abolished -- in the name of writing a new constitution. And then, on August 26th, the National Assembly proclaimed the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen, which laid out a system of rights that applied to every person, and made those rights integral to the new constitution. That’s quite different from the American bill of rights, which was, like, begrudgingly tacked on at the end and only applied to non-slaves. The DoRoMaC, as I called it in high school, declared that everyone had the right to liberty, property, and security— rights that the French Revolution would do an exceptionally poor job of protecting, but as noted last week, the same can be argued for many other supposedly more successful revolutions. Okay, let’s go to the Thought Bubble. Meanwhile, back at Versailles, Louis XVI was still King of France, and it was looking like France might be a constitutional monarchy. Which might've meant that the royal family could hang on to their awesome house, but then, in October of 1789, a rumor started that Marie Antoinette was hoarding grain somewhere inside the palace. And in what became known as the Women's March, a bunch of armed peasant women stormed the palace and demanded that Louis and Marie Antoinette move from Versailles to Paris. Which they did, because everyone is afraid of armed peasant women. ["hell hath no rath" and all] And this is a nice reminder that to many people at the time, the French Revolution was not primarily about fancy Enlightenment ideas; it was mostly about lack of food and a political system that made economic contractions hardest on the poor. Now, a good argument can be made that this first phase of the revolution wasn’t all that revolutionary. The National Assembly wanted to create a constitutional monarchy; they believed that the king was necessary for a functioning state and they were mainly concerned that the voters and office holders be men of property. Only the most radical wing, the Jacobins, called for the creation of a republic. But things were about to get much more revolutionary— and also worse for France. First, the Jacobins had a huge petition drive that got a bit unruly, which led troops controlled not by the King but by the national assembly to fire on the crowd, killing 50 people. And that meant that the National Assembly, which had been the revolutionary voice of the people, had killed people in an attempt to reign in revolutionary fervor. You see this a lot throughout history during revolutions. What looked like radical hope and change suddenly becomes "The Man" as increasingly radical ideas are embraced. Thanks, Thought Bubble. Meanwhile, France’s monarchical neighbors were getting a little nervous about all this republic business, especially Leopold II, who in addition to being the not holy not roman and not imperial holy roman emperor, was Marie Antoinette’s brother. I should note, by the way, that at this point, the Holy Roman Empire was basically just Austria. Also, like a lot of monarchs, Leopold II liked the idea of monarchies, and he wanted to keep his job as a person who gets to stand around wearing a dress, pointing at nothing, owning winged lion-monkeys made out of gold. [must've been a real partier, that one] And who can blame him? So he and King William Frederick II of Prussia together issued the Declaration of Pilnitz, which promised to restore the French monarchy. At this point, Louis and the National Assembly developed a plan: Let’s invade Austria. [always a solid plan?] The idea was to plunder Austria’s wealth and maybe steal some Austrian grain to shore up French food supplies, and also, you know, spread revolutionary zeal. But what actually happened is that Prussia joined Austria in fighting the French. And then Louis encouraged the Prussians, which made him look like an enemy of the revolution, which, of course, he was. And as a result, the Assembly voted to suspend the monarchy, have new elections in which everyone could vote (as long as they were men), and create a new republican constitution. Soon, this Convention decided to have a trial for Louis XVI, who was found guilty and, by one vote, sentenced to die via guillotine. Which made it difficult for Austria and Prussia to restore him to the throne. Oh, it’s time for the open letter? [musical chairs undefeated champ rolls] An Open Letter to the Guillotine. But first, let’s see what’s in the secret compartment today. Oh, there’s nothing. Oh my gosh, Stan! Jeez. That’s not funny! [That's what Anne Boleyn said…] Dear Guillotine, I can think of no better example of Enlightenment thinking run amok. Dr. Joseph Guillotine, the inventor of the guillotine, envisioned it as an egalitarian way of dying. They said the guillotine was humane and it also made no distinction between rich or poor, noble or peasant. It killed equally. You were also celebrated for taking the torture out of execution. But I will remind you, you did not take the dying out of execution. [or have a self-cleaning function] Unfortunately for you, France hasn’t executed anyone since 1977. But you’ll be happy to know that the last legal execution in France was via guillotine. Plus, you’ve always got a future in horror movies. Best wishes, John Green The death of Louis XVI marks the beginning of The Terror, the best known or at least the most sensational phase of the revolution. I mean, if you can kill the king, you can kill pretty much anyone, which is what the government did under the leadership of the Committee of Public Safety (Motto: We suck at protecting public safety) led by Maximilien Robespierre. The terror saw the guillotining of 16,000 enemies of the revolution including Marie “I never actually said Let them eat cake” Antoinette and Maximilien Robespierre himself, who was guillotined in the month of Thermidor in the year Two. Oh, right. So while France was broke and fighting in like nine wars, the Committee of Public Safety changed the measurements of time because, you know, the traditional measurements are so irrational and religion-y. So they renamed all the months and decided that every day would have 10 hours and each hour 100 minutes. And then, after the Terror, the revolution pulled back a bit and another new constitution was put into place, this one giving a lot more power to wealthy people. At this point, France was still at war with Austria and Britain, wars that France ended up winning, largely [lol] thanks to a little corporal named Napoleon Bonaparte. The war was backdrop to a bunch of coups and counter coups that I won’t get into right now because they were very complicated, but the last coup that we’ll talk about, in 1799, established Napoleon Bonaparte as the First Consul of France. And it granted him almost unlimited executive power under yet another constitution. By which he presumably meant that France’s government had gone all the way from here to here to here. As with the American revolution, it’s easy to conclude that France’s revolution wasn’t all that revolutionary. I mean, Napoleon was basically an emperor and, in some ways, he was even more of an absolute monarch than Louis XVI had been. Gradually the nobles came back to France, although they had mostly lost their special privileges. The Catholic Church returned, too, although much weaker because it had lost land and the ability to collect tithes. And when Napoleon himself fell, France restored the monarchy, and except for a four-year period, between 1815 and 1870, France had a king who was either a Bourbon or a Bonaparte. Now, these were no longer absolute monarchs who claimed that their right to rule came from God; they were constitutional monarchs of the kind that the revolutionaries of 1789 had originally envisioned. But the fact remains that France had a king again, and a nobility, and an established religion and it was definitely not a democracy or a republic. And perhaps this is why the French Revolution is so controversial and open to interpretation. Some argue the revolution succeeded in spreading enlightenment ideals even if it didn’t bring democracy to France. Others argue that the real legacy of the Revolution wasn’t the enhancement of liberty, but of state power. Regardless, I’d argue that the French Revolution was ultimately far more revolutionary than its American counterpart. I mean, in some ways, America never had an aristocracy, but in other ways it continued to have one— the French enlightenment thinker, Diderot, felt that Americans should “fear a too unequal division of wealth resulting in a small number of opulent citizens and a multitude of citizens living in misery.” And the American Revolution did nothing to change that polarization of wealth. What made the French Revolution so radical was its insistence on the universality of its ideals. I mean, look at Article 6 of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen: “Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or through his representative, in its foundation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes.” Those are radical ideas, that the laws come from citizens, not from kings or gods, and that those laws should apply to everyone equally. That’s a long way from Hammurabi— and in truth, it’s a long way from the slaveholding Thomas Jefferson. In the 1970s, Chinese President Zhou Enlai was asked what the affects of the French Revolution had been. And he said, “It’s too soon to say.” And in a way, it still is. The French Revolution asked new questions about the nature of people’s rights and the derivation of those rights. And we’re still answering those questions and sorting through how our answers should shape society today. —must government be of the people to be for the people? Do our rights derive from nature or from God or from neither? And what are those rights? As William Faulkner said, “The past is never dead. It’s not even past.” Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller, our script supervisor is Danica Johnson, the show is written by my high school history teacher Raoul Meyer and myself, our graphics team is Thought Bubble, [If you <3 our graphics, Blame Canada!] and we are ably interned by Meredith Danko. [dba: The Interness or MTVCS] Last week’s phrase of the week was "Giant Tea Bag" [seriously, it totally was] If you want to suggest future phrases of the week, or guess at this week's you can do so in comments, where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians. Thanks for watching Crash Course, and as we say in my hometown, don’t forget, Metal Ball, I Can Hear You. [slides out like an ace photobomber] [music outro] [music outro]

References

  1. ^ "Official Website of the Dutch Royal House". Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst (RVD), The Hague, the Netherlands. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
  2. ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1875). Handboek der Wapenkunde. the Netherlands: Theod. Bom. p. 348. Prins FREDERIK: Het koninklijke wapen, in 't shcildhoofd gebroken door een rooden barensteel, de middelste hanger beladen met een regtopstaanden goud pijl.
  3. ^ Junius, J.H. (1894). Heraldiek. the Netherlands: Frederik Muller. p. 151. ...de tweede oon voert het koninklijk wapen gebroken door een barensteel van drie stukken met een zilveren pijl.
  4. ^ Junius, J.H. (1894). Heraldiek. the Netherlands: Frederik Muller. p. 151. ...is het wapen afgebeeld van de oudste dochter van den Koning der Nederlanden. De barensteel is van keel en beladen met een gouden koningskroon.

See also

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