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Family tree of Japanese monarchs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a family tree of the Emperors of Japan, from the legendary Emperor Jimmu to the present day.[1]

Modern scholars have come to question the existence of at least the first nine Emperors; Kōgen's descendant, Emperor Sujin (98 BC – 30 BC?), is the first for whom many agree that he might have actually existed.[2] These monarchs are regarded by historians as "legendary emperors", since there are insufficient material available for further verification and study.[3]

The reign of Emperor Kinmei (c. 509 – 571 AD), the 29th Emperor,[4] is the first for which the contemporary historiography is able to assign verifiable dates.[5] However, the conventionally accepted names and dates of the early Emperors were not to be confirmed as "traditional" until the reign of Emperor Kanmu (737–806), the 50th sovereign of the Yamato dynasty.[6]

SHINTO
DEITIES

(legendary
genealogy)
[7]
Izanagi[8] Izanami[9]
Takamimusubi[10] Amaterasu[11] Ōyamatsumi[12] Watatsumi[13] Susanoo[14]
Takuhadachiji-hime
-hime[15]
Ame-no-oshihomimi[16]
Ninigi[17] Konohana
Sakuyahime
[18]
Hohodemi 
(Hoori)
[19]
Toyotama
-hime
[20]
Mizokui[21]
son or
6th-generation
descendant
Ugayafu
-kiaezu
[22]
Tamayori
-hime
[23]
Ōkuninushi[24]
(Ōnamuchi)[25]
Seyadatara
-hime
Kotoshironushi[26] Tamakushihime Takeminakata
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

JAPANESE
EMPERORS
Inahi no
Mikoto
Itsuse no
Mikoto
Ahiratsu
-hime
711–585 BC
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Jimmu
660–585 BC(1)
Himetataraisuzu
-hime[27]
Kisumimi Tagishimimi 632–549 BC
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Suizei
581–549 BC(2)
Isuzuyori-hime Hikoyai Kamuyaimimi
d.577 BC
567–511 BC
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Annei
549–511 BC(3)
553–477 BC
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Itoku
510–476 BC(4)
Yosotarashi
-hime
501–393 BC
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kōshō
475–393 BC(5)
Ametarashihiko
kunioshihito
427–291 BC
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kōan
392–291 BC(6)
Oshihime 342–215 BC
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kōrei
290–215 BC(7)
Kuwashi-hime
Igashikome 273–158 BC
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kōgen
214–158 BC(8)
Kibitsuhiko Wakatakehiko
Hikofutsuoshi
no Makoto
208–98 BC
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kaika
157–98 BC(9)
148–30 BC
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Sujin
97–30 BC(10)
Hikoimasu
son or grandson
Takenouchi
no Sukune
Yasaka Iribiko 69 BC–70 AD
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Suinin
29 BC–70 AD(11)
Yamashiro
no Ōtsutsuki
Mawaka
Yasaka Iribime 13 BC–130 AD
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Keikō
71–130(12)
Kanime
Ikazuchi
Soga no
Ishikawa
Sukune
84–190
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Seimu
131–191(13)
Ioki Iribiko Yamato Takeru Futaji Irihime Okinaga
no Sukune
Soga
no Machi
Homuda
Mawaka
149–200
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Chūai
192–200(14)
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Jingū
200–270
Nakatsu Hime 201–310
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Ōjin
270–310(15)
Soga
no Karako
Princess Iwa
290–399
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Nintoku
313–399(16)
Wakanuke
no Futamata
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Richū
400–405(17)
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Hanzei
406–410(18)
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Ingyō
411–453(19)
Oshisaka
no Hime
Ohohoto
no Ōkimi
Soga 
no Koma
Ichinobe
no Oshiwa
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Ankō
453–456(20)
418–479
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Yūryaku
456–479(21)
Ohi
no Ōkimi
449–487
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kenzō
484–487(23)
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Ninken
488–498(24)
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Seinei
480–484(22)
Ushi
no Ōkimi
489–507
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Buretsu
498–507(25)
Tashiraka
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Keitai
507–531(26)
Soga 
no Iname

506?-570
Tachibana 467–539
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Senka
536–539(28)
465–536
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Ankan
531–536(27)
Soga
no Umako

c.551-626
Ishi-Hime 509–571
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kinmei
539–571(29)
Soga no
Kitashihime
Soga no
Oanenokimi
Hiro Hime
?-575
Unako
no Otoshi
538–585
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Bidatsu
572–585(30)
554–628
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Suiko
593–628(33)
540–587
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Yōmei
585–587(31)
Anahobe no
Hashihito
?–592
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Sushun
587–592(32)
Soga no
Kuramaro
Oshisako no Oe
b.556
Nukate Hime
b. 570
Prince
Sakurai
560-587?
Prince Shōtoku
574-622
Ōtomo 
no Koteko
Chinu no Ōkimi Kibi Hime
Soga no
Murajiko
611–664
593–641
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Jomei
629–641(34)
594–661
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kōgyoku
642–645(35)
Saimei
654–661(37)
596–654
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kōtoku
645–654(36)
Soga
no Masako
Fujiwara
no Fuhito

659–720
626–671
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Tenji
661–671(38)
Yamato Hime
no Ōkimi
648–672
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kōbun
671–672(39)
Princess Tōchi
648/653–678
645–701
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Jitō

686–697(41)
631–686
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Tenmu
672–686(40)
Fujiwara
no Fusasaki

681–737
Shiki
c.668-716
661–721
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Genmei
707–715(43)
Kusakabe
662–689
Prince Toneri
676–735
Fujiwara
no Miyako
?-754
683–707
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Monmu
697–707(42)
680–748
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Genshō
715–724(44)
733–765
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Junnin
758–764(47)
Fujiwara 
no Matate

715–766
Empress
Kōmyō

701–760
701–756
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Shōmu
724-749(45)
718–770
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kōken
749–758(46)
Shōtoku
764–770(48)
Princess Inoe
(Ikami)
717–775
709–782
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kōnin
770–781(49)
Takano 
no Niigasa

c.720-790
Fujiwara
no Uchimaro

756–812
Sakahito
754–829
Yamabe
737–806

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kanmu
781–806(50)
Fujiwara 
no Otomuro

760–790
Fujiwara
no Fuyutsugu

775–826
Asahara
779–817
Ate
774–824

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Heizei
806–809(51)
Kamino
786–842

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Saga
809–823(52)
Tachibana 
no Kachiko

786–850
Princess
Koshi
789–809
Ōtomo
786–840

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Junna
823–833(53)
Fujiwara 
no Nagara

802–856
Fujiwara 
no Yoshifusa

804–872
Minamoto
no Kiyohime
810–856
Fujiwara
no Nobuko
809–871
Masara
810–850

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Ninmyō
(Fukakusa)
833–850(54)
Princess
 Seishi

810–879
Fujiwara
no Akirakeiko
829–899
Michiyasu
827–858

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Montoku
850–858(55)
Tokiyasu
830–887

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kōkō
884–887(58)
Fujiwara 
no Mototsune

836–891
Fujiwara
no Takaiko
842–910
Korehito
850–880

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Seiwa
858–876(56)
Sadami
867–931

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Uda
887–897(59)
Fujiwara 
no Tadahira

880–949
Sadaakira
869–949

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Yōzei
876–884(57)
Fujiwara 
no Onshi

885–954
Atsuhito
885–930

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Daigo
897–930(60)
Prince
Atsumi
893-967
Kōshi
919-957
Fujiwara
no Morosuke

909–960
Fujiwara
 no Kinsue

957–1029
Fujiwara
 no Koretada

924-972
Yutaakira
923–952

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Suzaku
930–946(61)
Fujiwara 
no Anshi

927–964
Nariakira
926–967

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Murakami
946–967(62)
Fujiwara
no Kaneie

929–990
Minamoto 
no Masanobu

920–993
Fujiwara
no Kaishi
945–975
Norihira
950–1011

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Reizei
967–969(63)
Princess
Masako

950–1000
Fujiwara
no Chōshi
c.954–982
Morihira
959–991

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

En'yū
969–984(64)
Fujiwara
no Senshi
962-1002
Fujiwara 
no Michinaga

966–1028
Minamoto
no Rinshi
964–1053
Fujiwara
no Sanenari
975–1004
Morohada
968–1008

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kazan
984–986(65)
Fujiwara 
no Seishi

972–1025
Iyasada
976–1017

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Sanjō
1011–1016(67)
Fujiwara
no Kenshi

994–1027
Fujiwara
no Shōshi

988–1074
Kanehito
980–1011

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Ichijō
986–1011(66)
Fujiwara 
no Teishi

977–1001
Fujiwara
no Kinnari
Princess 
Teishi

1013–1094
Fujiwara
no Genshi

1016–1039
Atsunaga
1009–1045

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Suzaku
1036–1045(69)
Fujiwara
no Kishi
1007–1025
Atsuhira
1008–1036

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Ichijō 
1016–1036(68)
Fujiwara 
no Ishi

999–1036
Fujiwara
Shigeko
?-1062
Takahito
1034–1073

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Sanjō 
1068–1073(71)
Princess
Kaoruko

1029–1093
Chikahito
1025–1068

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Reizei 
1045–1068(70)
Princess 
Akiko
{Shōshi}

1027–1105
Fujiwara 
no Kanshi

1021–1102
Fujiwara 
no Hiroko

1036–1127
Fujiwara
no Sanesue
1035-1092
Sadahito
1053–1129

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Shirakawa
1073–1087(72)
Fujiwara 
no Kenshi

1057–1084
Fujiwara
no Kinzane
1053-1107
Fujiwara
no Ishi
1076–1103
Taruhito
1079–1107

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Horikawa
1087–1107(73)
Princess
Tokushi

1060–1114
Princess
 Yasuko

1076–1096
Fujiwara
no Michisue
1090-1128
Tokudaiji
Saneyoshi
1117-1173
Fujiwara 
no Nariko

1117–1160
Munehito
1096–1157

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Toba
1107–1123(74)
Fujiwara 
no Tamako

1101–1145
Fujiwara 
no Yasuko

1095–1156
Fujiwara
no Kinmichi
1117-1173
Tokudaiji
Kinyoshi
1115-1161
Masahito
1127–1192

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Shirakawa 
1155–1158(77)
Fujiwara no
Kinshi

1134–1209
Akihito
1119–1164

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Sutoku
1123–1142(75)
Fujiwara 
no Kiyoko

1121–1182
Taira 
no Kiyomori

1118–1181
Fujiwara
no Sanemune
1145-1214
Princess 
Yoshiko

1141–1176
Morihito
1143–1165

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Nijō
1158–1165(78)
Fujiwara
no Tashi

1140–1202
Narihito
1139–1155

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Konoe
1142–1155(76)
Fujiwara
no Shimeko

1131–1176
Norihito
1161–1181

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Takakura
1168–1180(80)
Taira 
no Tokuko

1155–1213
Saionji
Kintsune
1171-1244
Yorihito
1164–1176

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Rokujō
1165–1168(79)
Fujiwara 
no Ikushi

1146–1173
Takahura
1180–1239

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Toba 
1185–1198(82)
Kujō Ninshi
1173–1239
Prince
Morisada
1179-1223
Tokihito
1178–1185

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Antoku
1180–1185(81)
Tōin Saneo
1219-1273
Saionji Saneuji
1194-1269
Fujiwara
no Reishi

1185–1243
Tamehito
1196–1231

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Tsuchimikado
1198–1210(83)
Morinari
1197–1242

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Juntoku
1210–1221(84)
Fujiwara 
no Ritsushi

1192–1248
Yutahito
1212–1234

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Horikawa 
1221–1232(86)
Fujiwara
no Shunshi

1209–1233
Saionji
Kitsushi

1225–1292
Kunihito
1220–1272

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Saga 
1242–1246(88)
Kanenari
1218–1234

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Chūkyō
1221(85)
Mitsuhito
1231–1242

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Shijō
1232–1242(87)
Tōin Inshi
1246-1329
Hisahito
1243–1304

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Fukakusa 
1246–1260(89)
Saionji 
(Fujiwara)
 no Kimiko

1232–1304
Tōin 
no Saneko

1245–1272
Tsunehito
1249–1305

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kameyama
1260–1274(90)
Fujiwara
no Kishi

1252–1318
Prince
Munetaka

1242–1274
Shōgun:
1252–1266
Tōin Sueko
1265-1336
Hirohito
1265–1317

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Fushimi
1287–1298(92)
Prince Hisaaki
1279–1308
Shōgun:
1289–1308
Reishi
1270-1307
Yohito
1267–1324

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Uda 
1274–1287(91)
Prince
Koreyasu

1264–1326
Shōgun:
1266–1289
Tomihito
1297–1348

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Hanazono
1308–1318(95)
Tanehito
1288–1336

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Fushimi 
1298–1301(93)
Prince Morikuni
1301–1333
Shōgun:
1308–1333
Takaharu
1288–1339

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Daigo 
1318–1339(96)
Saionji 
no Kishi

1303–1333
Kuniharo
1285–1308

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Nijō 
1301–1308(94)
Fujiwara 
no Kinshi

1271–1342
Yutahito
1322–1380

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kōmyō
1336–1348
Kazuhito
1313–1348

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kōgon
1332–1334
Princess 
Junshi

1311–1337
Noriyoshi
1328–1368

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Murakami 
1339–1368(97)
Prince
 Moriyoshi

1308–1335
Shōgun:
1333–1334
Prince 
Narinaga

1326–1338/1344
Shōgun:
1334–1338
Prince
Tsunenaga

1324–1338
Prince
Munenaga

1311–c.1385
Prince
Kaneyoshi

c.1329-1383
Okihito
1334–1398

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Sukō
1348–1351
Iyahito
1336–1374

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Kōgon 
1352–1371
Yutanari
1343–1394

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Chōkei
1368–1383(98)
Hironari
1347–1424

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Kameyama 
1383–1392(99)
Yoshihito
shinnō
1351–1416
Ohito
1359–1393

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-En'yū 
1371–1382
Key: Northern
Pretender

Legitimate
Emperor
Sadafusa
shinnō
1372–1456
Motohito
1377–1433

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Komatsu 
1382–1392
1392–1412(100)
Matsudaira
Nobumitsu
1404–1488
Mihito
1401–1428

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Shōkō
1412–1428(101)
Matsudaira
Chikatada
1431–1501
Hikohito
1419–1471

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Hanazono 
1428–1464(102)
Fushimi
Sadatsune
1426–1474
Matsudaira
Nagachika
1473–1544
Fusahito
1442–1500

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Tsuchimikado 
1464–1500(103)
Fushimi
Kunitaka
1456–1532
Matsudaira
Nobutada
1490–1531
Katsuhito
1464–1526

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Kashiwabara 
1500–1526(104)
Fushimi
Sadaatsu
1488–1572
Matsudaira
Kiyoyasu

1511–1535
Tomohito
1497–1557

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Nara 
1526–1557(105)
Fushimi
Kunisuke
1513–1563
Matsudaira
Hirotada

1526–1549
Michihito
1517–1593

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Ōgimachi
1557–1586(106)
Fushimi
Kuninobu
1566–1622
Tokugawa
Ieyasu

1543–1616
Shōgun:
1603–1605
Prince Masahito
1552–1586
Fushimi
Sadakiyo
1596–1654
Tokugawa
Hidetada

1579–1632
Shōgun:
1605–1623
Kazuhito
1572–1617

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Yōzei 
1586–1611(107)
Fushimi
Sadayuki
1632–1694
Tokugawa
Masako

1607–1678
Kokohito
1596–1680

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Mizunoo 
1611–1629(108)
Okiko
1624–1696

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Meishō
1629–1643(109)
Tsuguhito
1633–1654

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Kōmyō 
1643–1654(110)
Nagahito
1638–1685

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Sai 
1655–1663(111)
Satohito
1654–1732

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Reigen
1663–1687(112)
Takatsukasa
Fusako

1653–1712
Kujō
Sukezane

1669–1729
Mashiko
1669–1738
Asahito
1675–1710

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Higashiyama
1687–1709(113)
Princess
Yukiko

1680–1720
Yoshiko
1676–1707
Fushimi
Kuninaga
1676–1726
Kujō Yukinori
1700–1728
Naohito shinnō
1704–1753
Yashuhito
1702–1737

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Nakamikado
1709–1735(114)
Nijō Munemoto
1727–1754
Teruhito
1720–1750

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Sakuramachi
1735–1747(115)
Fujimi
Sadatake

1701–1754
Sukehito
shinnō
1733–1794
Toohito
1741–1762

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Momozono
1747–1762(116)
Toshiko
1740–1813

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Sakuramachi 
1762–1771(117)
Nijō Harutaka
1754–1826
Hidehito
1758–1779

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Go-Momozono 
1771–1779(118)
Fushimi
Kuniyori

1733–1802
Kajyūji Tadako
1780-1843
Morohito
1771–1840

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Kōkaku
1780–1817(119)
Princess
Yoshiko

1779–1846
Kujō Hisatada
1798–1871
Ayahito
1800–1846

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Ninkō
1817–1846(120)
Ōgimachi
Naoko
1803–1856
Fushimi
Sadayuki

1776–1841
Eishō
1835–1897
Osahito
1831–1867

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Kōmei
1846–1867(121)
Nakayama
Yoshiko

1836–1907
Fushimi
Kuniie

1802–1872
Kujō Michitaka
1839–1906
Yanagihara
Naruko

1859–1943
Mutsuhito
1852–1912

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Meiji
1867–1912(122)
Shōken
1849–1914
Kuni Asahiko
1824–1891
Teimei
1884–1951
Yoshihito
1879–1926

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Taishō
1912–1926(123)
Kuni
Kuniyoshi

1873–1929
Toshiko,
Princess Yasu

1896–1978
Higashikuni
Naruhiko

1887–1990
Setsuko
Matsudaira

1909–1995
Yasuhito,
Prince 
Chichibu

1902–1953
Nobuhito,
Prince 
Takamatsu

1905–1987
Kikuko,
Tokugawa

1911–2004
Yuriko
Takagi

b. 1923
Takahito,
Prince Mikasa

1915–2016
Hirohito
1901–1989

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

Shōwa
1926–1989(124)
Kōjun
1903–2000
Yoshihito,
Prince
Katsura

1948–2014
Princess 
Yasuko
of Mikasa

b. 1944
Tadateru 
Konoe

b. 1939
Sachiko
Princess Hisa

1927–1928
Takako,
Princess Suga

b. 1939
Hisanaga
Shimazu
b. 1934
Shigeko
Princess Teru

1925–1961
Morihiro
Higashikuni

1916–1969
Toshimichi
Takatsukasa

1923–1966
Kazuko,
Princess Taka

1929–1989
Michiko,
The Empress 
Emerita

b. 1934
Akihito
b. 1933

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The Emperor
Emeritus

1989–2019(125)
Masahito,
 Prince Hitachi

b. 1935
Hanako
Tsugaru

b. 1940
Atsuko,
Princess Yori

b. 1931
Takamasa
Ikeda
1926–2012
Prince 
Tomohito 
of Mikasa

1946–2012
Nobuko Asō
b. 1955
Naruhito
b. 1960

Imperial Seal of Japan.svg

The Emperor
2019–(126)
Masako, 
The Empress

b. 1963
Crown Prince
Fumihito

b. 1965
Crown Princess
Kiko

b. 1966
Sayako,
Princess
 Nori

b. 1969
Yoshiki Kuroda
b. 1965
Norihito,
Prince
Takamado

1954–2002
Hisako 
Tottori

b. 1953
Princess Akiko
of Mikasa

b. 1981
Princess Yōko
of Mikasa

b. 1983
Aiko,
Princess Toshi

b. 2001
Princess Mako
b. 1991
Princess Kako
b. 1994
Prince Hisahito
b. 2006
Princess
Tsuguko
 of Takamado

b. 1986
Princess 
Noriko
 of Takamado

b. 1988
Kunimaro
Senge
b. 1973
Princess
 Ayako
of Takamado

b. 1990
Kei Moriya
b. 1986

Also see

References

General
  • "Genealogy of the Emperors of Japan" (PDF). Imperial Household Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-03-30. Retrieved 2011-03-30.
Specific
  1. ^ Kamu-yamato Iware-biko. Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  2. ^ Yoshida, Reiji. "Life in the Cloudy Imperial Fishbowl", Japan Times. March 27, 2007; retrieved 2013-8-22.
  3. ^ Kelly, Charles F. "Kofun Culture", Japanese Archaeology. April 27, 2009.
  4. ^ Titsingh, pp. 34–36; Brown, pp. 261–262; Varley, pp. 123–124.
  5. ^ Hoye, Timothy. (1999). Japanese Politics: Fixed and Floating Worlds, p. 78; excerpt, "According to legend, the first Japanese Emperor was Jimmu. Along with the next 13 Emperors, Jimmu is not considered an actual, historical figure. Historically verifiable Emperors of Japan date from the early sixth century with Kimmei.
  6. ^ Aston, William. (1896). Nihongi, pp. 109.
  7. ^ Rotermund, Hartmut O., ed. (2000). "Généalogie des kami" [Genealogy of the kami]. Religions, croyances et traditions populaires du Japon [Religions, beliefs and popular traditions in Japan] (in French). Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. p. 117. ISBN 978-87-06-81432-9.
  8. ^ Atsushi, Kadoya (20 October 2005). "Izanagi". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  9. ^ Atsushi, Kadoya; Tatsuya, Yumiyama (12 March 2005). "Izanami". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  10. ^ Mizue, Mori (10 May 2005). "Takamimusubi". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  11. ^ Mizue, Mori (15 March 2006). "Amaterasu". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  12. ^ Kaoru, Nakayama (7 May 2005). "Ōyamatsumi". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  13. ^ Kaoru, Nakayama (13 May 2005). "Watatsumi". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  14. ^ Atsushi, Kadoya (10 May 2005). "Susanoo". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  15. ^ Mizue, Mori (13 May 2005). "Yorozuhatahime". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  16. ^ Kazuhiko, Nishioka (21 April 2005). "Amenooshihomimi". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  17. ^ Mizue, Mori; Tatsuya, Yumiyama (6 May 2005). "Ninigi". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  18. ^ Mizue, Mori (28 April 2005). "Konohanasakuyahime". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  19. ^ Mizue, Mori (22 April 2005). "Hohodemi". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  20. ^ Mizue, Mori (10 May 2005). "Toyotamabime". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  21. ^ Kazuhiko, Nishioka (6 May 2005). "Mizokui". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  22. ^ Mizue, Mori (12 May 2005). "Ugayafukiaezu". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  23. ^ Mizue, Mori (10 May 2005). "Tamayoribime". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  24. ^ Atsushi, Kadoya; Tatsuya, Yumiyama (20 October 2005). "Ōkuninushi". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  25. ^ Atsushi, Kadoya (21 April 2005). "Ōnamuchi". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  26. ^ Atsushi, Kadoya (28 April 2005). "Kotoshironushi". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  27. ^ Kazuhiko, Nishioka (26 April 2005). "Isukeyorihime". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
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