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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Akihito (明仁, Japanese: [akiçito]; About this soundEnglish pronunciation ; born 23 December 1933) is the current Emperor of Japan. He succeeded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the death of his father Hirohito (Emperor Shōwa) on 7 January 1989. According to Japan's traditional order of succession, he is the 125th member of the world's oldest reigning dynasty.

The Japanese government announced in December 2017 that Akihito would abdicate on 30 April 2019.[2]


In Japan, the Emperor is never referred to by his given name, but rather is referred to as "His Majesty the Emperor" (天皇陛下, Tennō Heika) which may be shortened to His Majesty (陛下, Heika).[3] In writing, the Emperor is also referred to formally as "The Reigning Emperor" (今上天皇, Kinjō Tennō). The Era of Akihito's reign bears the name "Heisei" (平成), and according to custom he will be renamed Emperor Heisei (平成天皇, Heisei Tennō, see "posthumous name") by order of the Cabinet after his death. At the same time, the name of the next era under his successor will be established.[4] If the Emperor abdicates as planned, he will receive the title of Jōkō (上皇), an abbreviation of Daijō Tennō (太上天皇, Retired Emperor), and a new era will be established.[5][6]

Life and work

Empress Nagako with her first son, Prince Akihito, in 1934
Empress Nagako with her first son, Prince Akihito, in 1934
The newly married Crown Prince and Crown Princess in Japanese traditional attire, with the Prince wearing a sokutai, the Princess a jūnihitoe, 1959
The newly married Crown Prince and Crown Princess in Japanese traditional attire, with the Prince wearing a sokutai, the Princess a jūnihitoe, 1959

Akihito was born in the Tokyo Imperial Palace, Tokyo, Japan, and is the elder son and the fifth child of the Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito) and Empress Kōjun (Nagako). Titled Prince Tsugu (継宮, Tsugu-no-miya) as a child, he was raised and educated by his private tutors and then attended the elementary and secondary departments of the Peers' School (Gakushūin) from 1940 to 1952.[7] Unlike his predecessors in the Imperial family, he did not receive a commission as an army officer, at the request of his father, Hirohito.

During the American firebombing raids on Tokyo in March 1945, Akihito and his younger brother, Prince Masahito, were evacuated from the city. During the American occupation of Japan following World War II, Prince Akihito was tutored in the English language and Western manners by Elizabeth Gray Vining. He briefly studied at the Department of Political Science at Gakushuin University in Tokyo, though he never received a degree.

Akihito was heir-apparent to the Chrysanthemum Throne from the moment of his birth. His formal Investiture as Crown Prince (立太子礼, Rittaishi-no-rei) was held at the Tokyo Imperial Palace on 10 November 1952. In June 1953 Akihito represented Japan at the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in London.[7]

Crown Prince Akihito and Crown Princess Michiko made official visits to thirty-seven countries. As an Imperial prince, Akihito compared the role of Japanese royalty to that of a robot. He expressed the desire to help bring the Imperial family closer to the people of Japan.[8]

Upon the death of Emperor Hirohito on 7 January 1989, Akihito acceded (senso) to the throne,[9] with an enthronement ceremony taking place (sokui)[9] on 12 November 1990.[7] In 1998, during a state visit to the United Kingdom, he was invested with the UK Order of the Garter.

On 23 December 2001, during his annual birthday meeting with reporters, the Emperor, in response to a reporter's question about tensions with Korea, remarked that he felt a kinship with Koreans and went on to explain that, in the Shoku Nihongi, the mother of Emperor Kammu (736–806) is related to Muryeong of Korea, King of Baekje, a fact that was considered taboo.[10][11]

Emperor Akihito underwent surgery for prostate cancer on 14 January 2003.[12]

In response to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami and the Fukushima I nuclear crisis, the Emperor made a historic televised appearance[13] urging his people not to give up hope and to help each other.[14] The Emperor and Empress also made a visit on Wednesday, 30 March 2011 to a temporary shelter housing refugees of the disaster, in order to inspire hope in the people. This kind of event is also extremely rare, though in line with the Emperor's attempts to bring the Imperial family closer to the people.[15] Later in 2011 he was admitted to hospital suffering from pneumonia.[16] In February 2012 it was announced that the Emperor would be having a coronary examination;[17] he underwent successful heart bypass surgery on 18 February 2012.[18]

Marriage and family

Then-Crown Prince Akihito on his wedding day, 10 April 1959
Then-Crown Prince Akihito on his wedding day, 10 April 1959
1987 (Showa 62), the last foreign visit as the crown prince (America)
1987 (Showa 62), the last foreign visit as the crown prince (America)
Emperor Akihito wore the sokutai at the Ceremony of the Enthronement on November, 1990
Emperor Akihito wore the sokutai at the Ceremony of the Enthronement on November, 1990

In August 1957, he met Michiko Shōda[7][19] on a tennis court at Karuizawa near Nagano. The Imperial Household Council (a body composed of the Prime Minister of Japan, the presiding officers of the two houses of the Diet of Japan, the Chief Justice of Japan, and two members of the Imperial family) formally approved the engagement of the Crown Prince to Michiko Shōda on 27 November 1958. At that time, the media presented their encounter as a real "fairy tale",[20] or the "romance of the tennis court". It was the first time a commoner would marry into the Imperial Family, breaking more than 2,600 years of tradition.[21] The engagement ceremony took place on 14 January 1959, and the marriage on 10 April 1959.

The Emperor and Empress have three children: sons Naruhito, Crown Prince of Japan (born 23 February 1960 at Imperial Household Agency Hospital in Tokyo Imperial Palace ) and Fumihito, Prince Akishino (born 30 November 1965 at Imperial Household Agency Hospital in Tokyo Imperial Palace) and daughter Mrs. Sayako Kuroda (born 18 April 1969 at Imperial Household Agency Hospital, Tokyo Imperial Palace).[7]

The announcement about the then-Crown Prince Akihito's engagement and marriage to the then-Ms. Michiko Shōda drew opposition from traditionalist groups, because Shōda came from a Roman Catholic family.[22] Although Shōda was never baptized, she was educated in Catholic schools and seemed to share the faith of her parents. Rumors also speculated that Empress Kōjun had opposed the engagement. After the death of Empress Kōjun in 2000, Reuters reported that she was one of the strongest opponents of her son's marriage, and that in the 1960s, she had driven her daughter-in-law and grandchildren to depression by persistently accusing her of not being suitable for her son.[23]

Official functions

According to the Constitution of Japan, Akihito is "the symbol of the state and the unity of the (Japanese) people." Unlike other constitutional monarchs, his function is defined as entirely representative and ceremonial in nature, without even a nominal role in government. He is limited to acting in matters of state as delineated in the Constitution, and even in those matters, he is bound by the requirements of the Constitution and the binding advice of the Cabinet. For instance, while he formally appoints the Prime Minister, he is required to appoint the person designated by the Diet, without the option to decline appointment.

Despite being strictly constrained by his constitutional position, he also issued several wide-ranging statements of remorse to Asian countries, for their suffering under Japanese occupation, beginning with an expression of remorse to China made in April 1989, three months after the death of his father, Emperor Shōwa.

In June 2005, the Emperor visited the island of Saipan (part of the Northern Mariana Islands, a U.S. territory),[24] the site of a battle in World War II from 15 June to 9 July 1944 (known as the Battle of Saipan). Accompanied by Empress Michiko, he offered prayers and flowers at several memorials, honoring not only the Japanese who died, but also American soldiers, Korean laborers, and local islanders. It was the first trip by a Japanese monarch to a World War II battlefield abroad. The Saipan journey was received with high praise by the Japanese people, as were the Emperor's visits to war memorials in Tokyo, Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Okinawa in 1995.

Since succeeding to the throne, Akihito has made an effort to bring the Imperial family closer to the Japanese people. He and Michiko have made official visits to eighteen countries and to all forty-seven Prefectures of Japan.[7]


The Emperor of Japan, at Chōwaden Reception Hall, giving a New Year's address to the people of Japan in 2010.

On 6 September 2006, the Emperor celebrated the birth of his first grandson, Prince Hisahito, the third child of the Emperor's younger son. Prince Hisahito is the first male heir born to the Japanese imperial family in 41 years (since his father Prince Akishino) and could avert a possible succession crisis as the Emperor's elder son, the Crown Prince Naruhito, has only one daughter, Princess Aiko. Under Japan's male-only succession law, Princess Aiko is not eligible for the throne. The birth of Prince Hisahito could mean that proposed changes to the law to allow Aiko to ascend the Chrysanthemum Throne will not go through after being temporarily shelved following the announcement of Princess Kiko's third pregnancy in February 2006.[25] The supporters of changes criticized the current law as it placed a burden on the few aging males old enough to perform royal duties as females left the family.[26]

Pending abdication

On 13 July 2016, national broadcaster NHK reported that the Emperor intended to abdicate in favor of his eldest son Crown Prince Naruhito within a few years, citing his age; an abdication within the Imperial Family has not occurred since Emperor Kōkaku in 1817. However, senior officials within the Imperial Household Agency denied that there was any official plan for the monarch to abdicate. Abdication by the Emperor required an amendment to the Imperial Household Law, which had no provisions for such a move.[27][28] On 8 August 2016, the Emperor gave a rare televised address, where he emphasized his advanced age and declining health;[29] this address was interpreted as an implication of his intention to abdicate.[30]

On 19 May 2017, the bill that would allow Akihito to abdicate was issued by the Japanese government's cabinet. On 8 June 2017, the National Diet passed a one-off bill allowing Akihito to abdicate, and for the government to begin arranging the process of handing over the position to Crown Prince Naruhito.[31] The Japanese government announced in December 2017 that Akihito would abdicate on 30 April 2019.[2] On 18 December 2017, the Imperial Household Agency confirmed that Akihito would move to Akasaka Palace upon abdication.

Ichthyological research

In extension of his father's interest in marine biology, the Emperor is a published ichthyological researcher, and has specialized in studies within the taxonomy of the family Gobiidae.[32] He has written papers for scholarly journals such as Gene and the Japanese Journal of Ichthyology.[33] He has also written papers about the history of science during the Edo and Meiji eras, which were published in Science[34] and Nature.[35] In 2005, a newly described goby was named Exyrias akihito in his honour, and in 2007 a genus Akihito Spp. of gobies native to Pacific islands also received his name.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Styles of
Emperor Akihito
Reference styleHis Majesty
Spoken styleYour Majesty
Alternative styleSir

Titles and styles

  • 23 December 1933 – 10 November 1952: His Imperial Highness The Prince Tsugu
  • 10 November 1952 – 7 January 1989: His Imperial Highness The Crown Prince
  • 7 January 1989 – present: His Majesty The Emperor

If the abdication goes as expected, Akihito's title will be "Daijō Tennō", or "Jōkō" in short.


National honours
Foreign honours
Country Awards
Order of the Sun (Afghanistan) - ribbon bar.gif
Order of the Supreme Sun
AUT Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria - 1st Class BAR.png
Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria, Grand Star [36]
Wisam al-Khalifa 1st class.gif
Order of al-Khalifa, Collar
Grand Crest Ordre de Leopold.png
Order of Leopold, Grand Cordon
Presidential Order
BRA Order of the Southern Cross - Grand Cross BAR.png
Order of the Southern Cross, Grand Collar
KHM Ordre Royal du Cambodge - Grand Croix BAR.png
Royal Order of Cambodia, Grand Cross
Ordre de la Valeur (Cameroun) GC 2nd type ribbon.svg
Order of Valour, Grand Cordon
CHL Order of Merit of Chile - Grand Cross BAR.png
Order of the Merit of Chile, Grand Collar
Order of Boyacá - Extraordinary Grand Cross (Colombia) - ribbon bar.png
Order of Boyaca, Grand Collar
 Côte d'Ivoire
Cote d'Ivoire Ordre national GC ribbon.svg
National Order of the Ivory Coast, Grand Cordon
 Czech Republic
CZE Rad Bileho Lva 3 tridy BAR.svg
Order of the White Lion, 1st Class (Civil Division) with Collar Chain
Orderelefant ribbon.png
Order of the Elephant (8 August 1953)[37]
EGY Order of the Nile - Grand Cordon BAR.png
Order of the Nile, Grand Collar
EST Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana - 1st Class BAR.png
Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana, The Collar of the Cross[38]
ETH Order of Solomon BAR.png
Order of Solomon, Grand Collar
FIN Order of the White Rose Grand Cross BAR.png
Order of the White Rose, Grand Cross with Collar
Legion Honneur GC ribbon.svg
Légion d'honneur, Grand Cross
 The Gambia
Order of the Republic of the Gambia, Grand Commander
GER Bundesverdienstkreuz 9 Sond des Grosskreuzes.svg
Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, Grand Cross, Special Class
GRE Order Redeemer 1Class.png
Order of the Redeemer, Grand Cross
HUN Order of Merit of the Hungarian Rep 1class Collar BAR.svg
Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary, Grand Cross with Chain
ISL Icelandic Order of the Falcon - Grand Cross BAR.png
Order of the Falcon, Grand Cross with Collar
Bintang Republik Indonesia Adipurna Ribbon Bar.gif
Star of Adipurna, 1st Class
Decoration without ribbon - en.svg
Freedom of the City of Dublin, awarded by Lord Mayor of Dublin
Cordone di gran Croce di Gran Cordone OMRI BAR.svg
Order of Merit of the Republic, Grand Cross with Cordon
JOR Al-Hussein ibn Ali Order BAR.svg
Order of al-Hussein bin Ali, Collar
Order of the Golden Eagle
Order of the Golden Heart of Kenya.svg
Order of the Golden Heart
Order of Mubarak the Great (Kuwait) - ribbon bar.gif
Order of Mubarak the Great, Collar
LVA Order of the Three Stars - Commander BAR.png
Order of the Three Stars, Commander Grand Cross with Chain[39]
Order of the Star of Africa (Liberia) - ribbon bar.png
Order of the Star of Africa, Knight Grand Band
Order of the Pioneers of Liberia - ribbon bar.png
Order of the Pioneers of Liberia, Grand Cordon
LTU Order of Vytautas the Great with the Golden Chain BAR.png
Order of Vytautas the Great, the Great Grand Cross with Collar[40]
Huisorde van de Gouden Leeuw van Nassau Ribbon.gif
Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau, Knight
Order of the Lion, Grand Commander
MY Darjah Utama Seri Mahkota Negara (Crown of the Realm) - DMN.svg
Honorary Recipient of the Order of the Crown of the Realm
MLI National Order - Grand Cross BAR.png
National Order of Mali, Grand Cordon
MEX Order of the Aztec Eagle 1Class BAR.png
Order of the Aztec Eagle, Grand Collar
Decoration without ribbon - en.svg
Order of Muhammad, Grand Collar
Order of Ojaswi Rajanya, Member (19 April 1960)[41]
King Birendra Investiture Medal 1975.png
King Birendra Coronation Medal (24 February 1975)[42]
NLD Order of the Dutch Lion - Grand Cross BAR.png
Order of the Netherlands Lion, Knight Grand Cross[43]
Order of the Federal Republic (civil) - Nigeria - ribbon bar.gif
Order of the Federal Republic, Grand Commander
Order Sint Olaf 1 kl.png
Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav, Grand Cross with Collar[44]
The Order of Oman.gif
Order of Oman, Superior Class
Nishan-e-Pakistan, 1st Class
PAN Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero - Grand Cross BAR.png
Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero, Gold Collar
PER Order of the Sun of Peru - Grand Cross BAR.png
Order of the Sun, Grand Cross in Brilliants
PHL Legion of Honor - Chief Commander BAR.png
Philippine Legion of Honor, Chief Commander[45]
PHL Order of Sikatuna - Grand Cross BAR.png
Order of Sikatuna, Rank of Raja[46]
PHL Order of Lakandula.png
Order of Lakandula, Grand Collar
POL Order Orła Białego BAR.svg
Order of the White Eagle
PRT Order of Saint James of the Sword - Grand Cross BAR.png
Order of Saint James of the Sword, Grand Collar (2 December 1993)
PRT Order of Prince Henry - Grand Cross BAR.png
Order of Prince Henry, Grand Collar (12 May 1998)[47]
Order of Independence (Qatar) - ribbon bar.gif
Collar of Independence
 Saudi Arabia
Decoration without ribbon - en.svg
Badr Chain
SEN Order of the Lion - Grand Cross BAR.png
Order of the Lion, Collar
 South Africa
Order of Good Hope, Grand Cross in Gold (4 July 1995)[48]
Order of the Golden Fleece Rib.gif
Order of the Golden Fleece, Knight[49]
ESP Charles III Order GC.svg
Order of Charles III, Grand Cross
Order of Charles III - Sash of Collar.svg
Order of Charles III, Collar
Seraphimerorden ribbon.svg
Royal Order of the Seraphim, Knight with Collar[50]
Order of the Rajamitrabhorn (Thailand) ribbon.png
The Most Auspicious Order of the Rajamitrabhorn
Order of the Royal House of Chakri (Thailand) ribbon.png
The Most Illustrious Order of the Royal House of Chakri
King Rama IX 60th Accession to the Throne (Thailand) ribbon.PNG
Commemorative Medal on the Occasion of the 60th Anniversary of the Accession to the Throne of H.M. King Bhumibol Adulyadej
Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise 1st 2nd and 3rd Class of Ukraine.png
Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise, First Class
 United Arab Emirates
Order of the Union. Sash ribbon or First Class.gif
Collar of the Federation
 United Kingdom
Order of the Garter UK ribbon.png
Stranger Knight of Order of the Garter (985th member; 1998)
Royal Victorian Order Honorary Ribbon.png
Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (1953)
UK Queen EII Coronation Medal ribbon.svg
Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal (2 June 1953)
 FR Yugoslavia*
Order of the Yugoslavian Great Star Rib.png
Order of the Yugoslav Star
National Order of the Leopard (Zaire) - ribbon bar.png
National Order of the Leopard, Grand Cordon
Other awards


Overseas visits

The following table includes the official visits made by Emperor Akihito, along with Empress Michiko, following succession to the throne on 7 January 1989.[52][53][54] The list includes all the visits made up to 31 December 2017. Although Empress Michiko has made two official visits on her own, in 2002 (To   Switzerland) and 2014 (To  Belgium), they did not include the Emperor and are not included in this table.

Serial no. Date (Year) Country Purpose
1 26 September – 6 October (1991)  Thailand,  Malaysia,  Indonesia "To foster friendly relations at the invitation of Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia"
2 23 October – 28 October (1992)  China "To foster friendly relations at the invitation of China"
3 6 August – 9 August (1993)  Belgium "To attend the funeral ceremony of King Baudouin of Belgium"
4 3 September – 19 September (1993)  Italy,  Belgium,  Germany "To foster friendly relations at the invitation of Italy, Belgium and Germany (Visit to the   Vatican City)"
5 10 June – 26 June (1994)  United States "To foster friendly relations at the invitation of the United States"
6 2 October – 14 October (1994)  France,  Spain "To foster friendly relations at the invitation of France and Spain"
7 30 May – 13 June (1997)  Brazil,  Argentina "To foster friendly relations at the invitation of Brazil and Argentina"
8 23 May – 5 June (1998)  United Kingdom,  Denmark "To foster friendly relations at the invitation of the United Kingdom and Denmark"
9 20 May – 1 June (2000)  Netherlands,  Sweden "To foster friendly relations at the invitation of the Netherlands and Sweden"
10 6 July – 20 July (2002)  Poland,  Hungary "To foster friendly relations at the invitation of Poland and Hungary"
11 7 May – 14 May (2005)  Norway "To foster friendly relations at the invitation of Norway"
12 27 June – 28 June (2005)  United States "To pay tribute to those who died in the war and to pray for world peace in the 60th year after the end of the war"
13 8 June – 15 June (2006)  Singapore,  Thailand "To celebrate the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations at the invitation of Singapore and to attend celebrations for the 60th anniversary of the accession to the throne of King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand"
14 21 May – 30 May (2007)  Sweden,  Estonia,  Latvia,  Lithuania,  United Kingdom "To mark presence as a honorary member of the Linnean Society on the 300th birth anniversary of Carl von Linné at the invitation of Sweden and the United Kingdom and to foster friendly relations at the invitation of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania"
15 3 July – 17 July (2009)  Canada,  United States "To foster friendly relations at the invitation of Canada, and to celebrate the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Crown Prince Akihito Scholarship Foundation (Visit to Hawaii)"
16 16 May – 20 May (2012)  United Kingdom "To attend a luncheon in commemoration of the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II at the invitation of Queen Elizabeth II"
17 30 November – 6 December (2013)  India "To foster friendly relations at the invitation of India"
18 8 April – 9 April (2015)  Palau "To pay tribute to those who died in the war and to foster international goodwill in the 70th year after the end of the war"
19 26 January – 30 January (2016)  Philippines "To foster friendly relations on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the normalization of diplomatic relations at the invitation of the Philippines"
20 28 February – 6 March (2017)  Vietnam "To foster friendly relations at the invitation of Vietnam"


The Emperor and Empress with their family in November 2013
The Emperor and Empress with their family in November 2013
Name Birth Marriage Issue
Naruhito, Crown Prince of Japan 23 February 1960 9 June 1993 Masako Owada Aiko, Princess Toshi
Fumihito, Prince Akishino 30 November 1965 29 June 1990 Kiko Kawashima Princess Mako of Akishino
Princess Kako of Akishino
Prince Hisahito of Akishino
Sayako, Princess Nori 18 April 1969 15 November 2005 Yoshiki Kuroda


Patrilineal descent

See also


  1. ^ Noboru Takeshita was prime minister of Japan from 6 November 1987 to 3 June 1989, so he was the first prime minister of Japan during Emperor Akihito's reign.
  2. ^ a b Enjoji, Kaori (1 December 2017). "Japan Emperor Akihito to abdicate on April 30, 2019". CNN. Tokyo. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  3. ^ "Members of the Order of the Garter". The British Monarchy.
  4. ^ "National Day of Japan to be celebrated". Embassy of Japan in Pakistan. 7 December 2007. Archived from the original on 2 February 2008. Retrieved 28 December 2007.
  5. ^ "Government panel outlines proposals on Emperor's abdication, titles". The Japan Times Online. 14 April 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  6. ^ "Japan may announce new Imperial era name in summer 2018". The Japan Times. 19 May 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Their Majesties the Emperor and Empress". Imperial Household Agency. 2002. Archived from the original on 1 December 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2007.
  8. ^ "Those Apprentice Kings and Queens Who May – One Day – Ascend a Throne," The New York Times. 14 November 1971.
  9. ^ a b Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 44.
  10. ^ "Press Conference on the Occasion of His Majesty's Birthday". Imperial Household Agency. Archived from the original on 25 May 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2008.
  11. ^ Chotiner, Isaac (8 August 2016). "What Does the Japanese Emperor Do? And will Japan let him stop doing it?". Slate.
  12. ^ "Akihito has successful cancer operation". BBC News. BBC. 18 January 2003. Retrieved 28 December 2007.
  13. ^ "Six days later, Japanese still confronting magnitude of quake crisis". CNN. 29 April 2011.
  14. ^ "Message from His Majesty The Emperor". The Imperial Household Agency. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  15. ^ Japanese Emperor visits evacuation center Archived 14 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ "Japan's Emperor Akihito leaves Tokyo hospital". BBC News. 24 November 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  17. ^ "Emperor Akihito to have coronary examination". Mainichi Daily News. 1 February 2012. Archived from the original on 14 July 2012.
  18. ^ "Report: Japan's Emperor undergoes successful cardiac bypass". CNN. 18 February 2012.
  19. ^ Fukada, Takahiro, "Emperor — poise under public spotlight", Japan Times, 24 November 2009, p. 3.[dead link]
  20. ^ "The Girl from Outside". Time. 23 March 1959. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  21. ^ "The wedding that broke centuries of tradition". BBC News. 2017-09-01. Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  22. ^ Herbert P. Bix, "Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan", New York, 2001, p. 661
  23. ^ "Japan's Dowager Empress Dead At 97". CBS News. 2000-06-16. Retrieved 2016-10-21.
  24. ^ Brooke, James (28 June 2005). "Visiting Saipan, Japan's Emperor Honors Dead". New York Times. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  25. ^ Yoshida, Reiji (27 March 2007). "Life in the cloudy Imperial fishbowl". Japan Times. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  26. ^ "The Future of Japan's Dwindling Imperial Family". Retrieved 26 July 2014.
  27. ^ "天皇陛下 「生前退位」の意向示される ("His Majesty The Emperor Indicates His Intention to 'Abdicate'")" (in Japanese). NHK. 13 July 2016. Archived from the original on 13 July 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  28. ^ "Japanese Emperor Akihito 'wishes to abdicate'". BBC News. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  29. ^ "Message from His Majesty The Emperor". The Imperial Household Agency. 8 August 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  30. ^ "Japan's Emperor Akihito hints at wish to abdicate". BBC News. 8 August 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  31. ^ "Japan passes landmark bill for Emperor Akihito to abdicate". BBC News. 8 June 2017.
  32. ^ Hamilton, Alan. "Palace small talk problem solved: royal guest is a goby fish fanatic", The Times (London). 30 May 2007
  33. ^ PubMed Search Results Archived 10 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  34. ^ Akihito (October 1992). "Early cultivators of science in Japan". Science. 258 (5082): 578–80. doi:10.1126/science.1411568. PMID 1411568.
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External links

Born: 23 December 1933
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor of Japan
Heir apparent:
Order of precedence in Japan
First Gentlemen
as the Sovereign
Succeeded by
The Crown Prince
This page was last edited on 11 December 2018, at 15:48
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