To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Astra 1M
Mission typeCommunications
OperatorSES Astra / SES S.A.
COSPAR ID2008-057A
SATCAT no.33436
Mission duration15 years (planned)
12 years, 6 months, 7 days (elapsed)
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft typeEurostar
BusEurostar 3000S
(now Airbus Defence and Space)
Launch mass5,320 kg (11,730 lb)
Power10 kW
Start of mission
Launch date5 November 2008, 20:44:20 UTC
RocketProton-M / Briz-M
Launch siteBaikonur, Site 200/39
ContractorKhrunichev State Research and Production Space Center
Entered serviceJanuary 2009
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric orbit
RegimeGeostationary orbit
Longitude19.2° East
Band36 Ku-band
Bandwidth26 MHz
33 MHz
Coverage areaEurope, Africa, Middle East

Astra 1M is a geostationary communications satellite which is operated by SES. It is positioned in geostationary orbit at a longitude of 19.2° East, from where it is used to provide direct to home (DTH) broadcasting to Europe, Africa, and the Middle East.

Satellite description

Astra 1M was built by Astrium (now Airbus Defence and Space) under a contract signed in July 2005, and is based on the Eurostar 3000S satellite bus. It is equipped with thirty six transponders operating in the J-band of the NATO-defined spectrum, or the Ku-band of the older IEEE-defined spectrum. At launch it had a mass of 5,320 kg (11,730 lb),[1] with an expected operational lifespan of 15 years,[2] however four of its transponders were deactivated five years after launch.[3] At the beginning of its operational life, it had a maximum power consumption of 10 kilowatts by the end of the satellite's operational life.[3]


The launch of Astra 1M was conducted by International Launch Services (ILS), using a Proton-M launch vehicle with a Briz-M upper stage. The launch occurred from Site 200/39 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, at 20:44:20 UTC on 5 November 2008.[4] Astra 1M was successfully placed into a geostationary transfer orbit (GTO), from which it raised itself to geostationary orbit by means of an onboard apogee motor.

See also


  1. ^ "Astra 1M". SES Astra. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  2. ^ "UCS Satellite Database". Union of Concerned Scientists. 1 April 2010. Archived from the original on June 2010. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
  3. ^ a b "Astra 1M". Gunter's Space Page. 11 December 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  4. ^ McDowell, Jonathan (14 March 2021). "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Report. Retrieved 10 April 2021.

External links

  • IMS Official provider's site
This page was last edited on 10 April 2021, at 06:26
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.