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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Astra 1K
Mission typeCommunications
OperatorSociété Européenne des Satellites / SES S.A.
COSPAR ID2002-053A
SATCAT no.27557
Websitehttps://www.ses.com/
Mission duration15 years (planned)
Failed on orbit (DM-03 failure)
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft typeSpacebus
BusSpacebus-3000B3S
ManufacturerAlcatel Space
Launch mass5,250 kg (11,570 lb)
Power13 kW
Start of mission
Launch date25 November 2002,
23:04:23 UTC
RocketProton-K / DM-03
Launch siteBaikonur, Site 81/23
ContractorKhrunichev State Research and Production Space Center
Entered serviceFailed on orbit (DM-03 failure)
End of mission
DisposalDeorbited
Decay date10 December 2002
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric orbit [1]
RegimeLow Earth orbit
Geostationary orbit (planned)
Longitude19.2° East (planned)
Perigee altitude142 km (88 mi)
Apogee altitude288 km (179 mi)
Inclination51.5°
Period88.79 minutes
Transponders
Band54 transponders:
52 Ku-band
2 Ka-band
Coverage areaEurope
 

Astra 1K was a communications satellite manufactured by Alcatel Space for SES. When it was launched on 25 November 2002, it was the largest civilian communications satellite ever launched, with a mass of 5,250 kg (11,570 lb).[2] Intended to replace the Astra 1B satellite and provide backup for 1A, 1C and 1D at the Astra 19.2°E orbital position,[3] the Blok DM-03 upper stage of the Proton-K launch vehicle failed to function properly, leaving the satellite in an unusable parking orbit.

Launch

Astra 1K was to be a European (Luxembourg-based) geostationary communications satellite that was launched by a Proton-K launch vehicle from Baikonur Cosmodrome at 23:04:23 UTC on 25 November 2002. However, the DM-03 upper stage attached to the 5,250 kg (11,570 lb), 13 kW satellite (reported to be the most massive of civilian communications satellite, with its 52 Ku-band and two Ka-band transponders to cover 1,100 channels) was miscommanded to separate after the first burn, resulting in the satellite orbiting at a very low orbit. In an effort to prevent imminent re-entry, the satellite was raised to a circular orbit at an altitude of 288 km. Three options are now under consideration: a) to force its re-entry over the Pacific Ocean, b) to retrieve it by a U.S. shuttle, and c) to use up all the fuel on board the satellite to move it to a geostationary orbit at 19.2° East longitude. The relative security provided by the orbit provides adequate time for selecting the best option.[4] Although some attempts were made to "rescue" the satellite.[5] The decision was taken in December 2002 to deorbit the satellite, resulting in a huge insurance loss and bringing into question both continued use of the Block D series of upper stages and the "bigger is better" communications satellite philosophy.[2] Astra 1K was intentionally de-orbited on 10 December 2002.[6]

Overview

The satellite featured frequency re-use for some of its transponders, using dual patterns coverage, one covering eastern Europe, the other covering Spain. This design was meant to cover specific markets only, in order to expand the capacity of the fleet, as frequency re-use enables more channels to be transmitted simultaneously at the same frequency, with the drawback that channels broadcast on the Spain beam wouldn't be receivable by any means (no matter how large the receiving dish would be) in the east beam and vice versa. This would have left for example the Netherlands and parts of neighbouring countries without reception of either of the beams, as the beams overlap over those countries, efficiently jamming each other.

Astra 1K also featured multiple Ka-Band capabilities, originally intended to provide an upload path for satellite Internet access services. SES later developed such a 2-way commercial satellite internet service with ASTRA2Connect (now Astra Connect), using Ku-band for upload and download paths.[7]

Replacement satellite

A replacement satellite, Astra 1KR was successfully launched in 2006.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Report. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Proton-K/DM-2M". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  3. ^ "ASTRA 1K UNDER PROCUREMENT WITH AÉROSPATIALE" (Press release). SES ASTRA. 11 February 1998. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
  4. ^ "Display:Astra 1K 2002-053A". NASA. 10 February 2021. Retrieved 9 April 2021. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  5. ^ "ASTRA 1K satellite stabilised". SES. 28 November 2002. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
  6. ^ "ASTRA 1K - Satellite Informations". Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  7. ^ "SES TO DEVELOP INTERACTIVE SATELLITE RETURN CHANNEL" (Press release). SES ASTRA. 15 December 1998.
  8. ^ "ASTRA 1KR SATELLITE SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCHED" (Press release). SES ASTRA. 21 April 2006. Retrieved 26 January 2012.

External links

This page was last edited on 9 April 2021, at 03:05
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