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Briz (rocket stage)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Briz-KM
ManufacturerKhrunichev
Country of originRussia
General characteristics
Diameter2.5 metres (8 ft 2 in)[1]
Length2.6 metres (8 ft 6 in)[1]
Gross mass6,475 kilograms (14,275 lb)[2]
Propellant mass5,055 kilograms (11,144 lb)[2]
Engine details
Powered by1 S5.98M[2]
Maximum thrust19.6 kN (4,400 lbf)
Specific impulse326 s
Burn time3000 seconds
PropellantN2O4/UDMH
Briz-M
ManufacturerKhrunichev
Country of originRussia
General characteristics
Diameter4.10 metres (13.5 ft)[3]
Length2.61 metres (8 ft 7 in)[3]
Gross mass22,500 kilograms (49,600 lb)[3]
Propellant mass20,000 kilograms (44,000 lb)[3]
Engine details
Powered by1 S5.98M[3]
Maximum thrust19.6 kN (4,400 lbf)
Specific impulse326 s
Burn time3000 seconds
PropellantN2O4/UDMH

The Briz-K, Briz-KM and Briz-M (Russian: Бриз-К, КM and M meaning Breeze-K, KM and M) are Russian liquid-propellant rocket orbit insertion upper stages manufactured by Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center and used on the Proton-M and Angara A5. The upper stages were also used on Rokot, one of Russia's smaller launchers, before its retirement in 2019.

Characteristics

Briz-K and Briz-KM

Briz-K, GRAU index 14S12, is a single-piece structure with a conical tank compartment and the engine located in a recess in the fuel tank. Briz-KM (GRAU index 14S45) is an improved version of Briz-K.[4][failed verification] The Briz-K and Briz-KM were used as a third stage of the Rokot launch vehicles.[5]

Briz-M

Briz-M, GRAU index 14S43, is designed for injecting large payloads into a low, medium-height or high geosynchronous orbit.[3] Briz-M is a twin upper stage consisting of a core module (using Briz-KM as the baseline) and a jettisonable add-on toroidal tank surrounding the core.[3] It is powered by a pump-fed gimballed main engine, the 14D30.[6] The main engine can be restarted 8 times in flight and allows precision placement of the spacecraft into orbit.[7] Orbital lifetime of the Briz-M is limited by available onboard battery power and is currently 24 hours.[7] The total time of the standard Proton/Briz-M mission to geosynchronous orbit profile from lift-off to spacecraft separation is approximately 9.3 hours.[7] A Proton launch vehicle with a Briz-M upper stage can also inject payloads to Earth escape trajectories.[7]

One of system's design goals has been to keep overall dimensions as small as possible. Briz-M takes much less space on board the launch vehicle compared to its predecessor, the Block D upper stage, leaving freed volume for the cargo.[8] A Proton with a Briz-M can place a 4,385 kg satellite, such as an A2100AX, into a target orbit with an apogee of 35,786 km, a perigee of 7,030 km, and an inclination of 17.3°.[9][10] Maximum lift capability of the Briz-M stage is 5,645 kg to geosynchronous transfer orbit with a 1,500 m/s residual velocity to GSO.[6] A tandem launch of multiple spacecraft is also supported, with the ability to inject the spacecraft into different orbits.[6]

History

The maiden flight of Briz-M took place on 5 July 1999. The flight was a failure, due to the explosion of the carrier rocket's second stage. The flight had a communications satellite as a payload.

Briz-M completed its first successful flight on 6the June 2000, when it delivered the Gorizont communications satellite into orbit.

It is planned to use Briz-M with the A3 and A5 versions of the future Angara rocket family.[3]

Launch chronology

Proton-M/Briz-M

# Launch date Configuration Spaceport Result Payload Note
1 5 July 1999 Proton-K/Briz-Me Baikonur, Kazakhstan Failure Raduga 1 communication satellite.
Launch failure due to explosion of Proton second stage
2 6 June 2000 Proton-K/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Gorizont #45L communication satellite First successful flight of the Briz-M
3 7 April 2001 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Ekran-M #18L communications satellite Maiden flight of Proton-M
4 30 December 2002 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Nimiq 2 satellite
5 6 June 2003 Proton-K/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Americom-9 communication satellite
6 10 December 2003 Proton-K/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Three GLONASS positioning satellites (Kosmos -2402, -2403 and -2404 )
7 15 March 2004 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Eutelsat W3A communications satellite
8 17 June 2004 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Intelsat-10-02 communications satellite
9 5 August 2004 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Amazonas 1 satellite Delivered into an elliptical transfer orbit
10 15 October 2004 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success AMC-15 communications satellite for SES Americom
11 3 February 2005 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success AMC-12 communications satellite for SES Americom
12 22 May 2005 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Direc TV-8 satellite
13 8 September 2005 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Anik-F1R satellite
14 29 December 2005 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success AMC-23 communications satellite
15 28 February 2006 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Failure Arabsat-4A communication satellite
A Briz-M failure leaves it and the payload in unusable orbit, with Briz-M eventually exploding on 19 February 2007, producing over 1000 trackable pieces of space debris.[11][12]
16 4 August 2006 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Hot Bird 8 communications satellite Delivered into the geostationary orbit for the Eutelsat
17 8 November 2006 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Arabsat-4B (Badr-4) communications satellite
18 11 December 2006 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success MEASAT-3 Malaysian communications satellite
19 10 April 2007 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Anik F3 satellite for Telesat of Canada
20 7 July 2007 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success DirecTV-10 satellite
21 6 September 2007 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Failure JCSAT-11 satellite
Proton-M with cargo crashed after second stage failure of a gimbal mechanism
22 18 November 2007 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Sirus 4 communications satellite
23 9 December 2007 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Raduga-1M #1 satellite
24 28 January 2008 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Express AM33 satellite
25 11 February 2008 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Thor 5 satellite
26 15 March 2008 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Failure AMC-14 satellite AMC-14 deployed into useless orbit
Failed during second Briz-M burn. The failure was caused by a ruptured exhaust gas conduit, which led to a shutdown of the turbo pump feeding the Briz-M engine.[13]
27 19 August 2008 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Inmarsat 4 F3 satellite A modification was made to the Briz-M engine to include a new conduit in response to the 14 March failure. This modification will be used in all future launches.[13][14]
28 20 September 2008 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Nimiq-4 satellite [15]
29 6 November 2008 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Astra 1M satellite
30 10 December 2008 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Ciel-2 satellite [16]
31 11 February 2009 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Express-AM44 and Express-MD1 satellites
32 3 April 2009 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Eutelsat W2A satellite
33 16 May 2009 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success ProtoStar 2 satellite
34 1 July 2009 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Sirius FM-5 satellite [17]
35 12 August 2009 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Asiasat 5 satellite
36 17 September 2009 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Nimiq-5 satellite
37 24 November 2009 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Eutelsat W7 satellite
38 29 December 2009 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success DirecTV 12 satellite
39 28 January 2010 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Raduga-1M/Globus-1M military/communication satellites
40 12 February 2010 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Intelsat 16 satellite
41 20 March 2010 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Echostar-14 satellite
42 24 April 2010 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success SES-1 satellite
43 4 June 2010 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success BADR-5 satellite
44 11 July 2010 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success EchoStar-15 satellite
45 14 October 2010 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Sirius XM-5 satellite
46 14 November 2010 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success SkyTerra-1 communication satellite
47 27 December 2010 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success KA-Sat communication satellite
48 20 May 2011 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Telstar 14R satellite
49 16 July 2011 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success KazSat-2 and SES-3 satellites
50 18 August 2011 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Failure Ekspress-AM4 satellite
Lost contact with Briz-M on fourth burn.[18]
51 21 September 2011 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Kosmos 2473 (Garpun) satellite
52 29 September 2011 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success QuetzSat-1 satellite
53 19 October 2011 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success ViaSat-1 satellite
54 4 November 2011 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success 3 Glonass-M satellites.[19]
55 25 November 2011 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success AsiaSat-7 communication satellite
56 11 December 2011 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success AMOS-5 (Spacecom) and Luch-5A satellites[citation needed]
57 14 February 2012 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success SES-4 communication satellite[20]
58 25 March 2012 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Intelsat-22 communication satellite
59 24 April 2012 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success YahSat 1B communication satellite
60 17 May 2012 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Nimiq-6 communication satellite
61 9 July 2012 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success SES-5 communication satellite
62 6 August 2012 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Failure Telkom-3 and Ekspress-MD2 communication satellites[21]
Briz-M failure
63 14 October 2012 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Intelsat 23 communication satellite
64 3 November 2012 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Luch-5B and Yamal-300K communication satellites
65 20 November 2012 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success EchoStar-16 communication satellite
66 8 December 2012 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Partial failure Yamal-402 communication satellite Satellite placed close to designated orbit, it was possible to correct it[citation needed]
Briz-M stage failure
67 26 March 2013 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Satmex 8 communications satellite Satellite placed into Geostationary transfer orbit[22]
68 15 April 2013 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Anik-G1 satellite[23]
69 14 May 2013 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Eutelsat-3D satellite[24]
70 3 June 2013 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success SES-6 communication satellite Satellite deployed into super-synchronous transfer orbit[25]
71 30 September 2013 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Astra-2E communication satellite Satellite deployed into Geosynchronous transfer orbit[26]
72 25 October 2013 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Sirius FM-6 satellite Satellite deployed into Geostationary transfer orbit[27]
73 12 November 2013 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Raduga 1M #3 military communications satellite All telemetry and data from the Briz-M was lost due to failed onboard data processing system (Pyrite), however the satellite was delivered to the correct orbit[28]
74 8 December 2013 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Inmarsat-5 F1 satellite Satellite deployed into super-synchronous transfer orbit[29]
75 26 December 2013 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Ekspress AM-5 satellite[30]
76 15 February 2014 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Turksat-4A telecommunications satellite Satellite deployed into Geostationary transfer orbit[31]
77 16 March 2014 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Express AT1 and Express AT2 telecommunications satellites Satellites deployed into Geostationary orbit[32]
78 28 April 2014 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Luch-5V and KazSat-3 communications satellites Satellites deployed into Geosynchronous orbit[33]
79 16 May 2014 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Failure Ekspress AM-4R satellite
Failed Proton-M third stage[34]
80 28 September 2014 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Olimp-K/Luch military communications satellite Satellite deployed into Geostationary orbit[35]
81 21 October 2014 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Partial failure Ekspress-AM6 satellite Satellite placed close to designated orbit
Satellite was delivered to a lower-than-planned orbit due to problems with the Briz-M. Later, Roscosmos stated that Ekspress-AM6 would be able to reach its planned orbit and expected to be operational by 1 July 2015[36]
82 15 December 2014 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Yamal 401 satellite Satellite deployed into Geostationary orbit[37]
83 28 December 2014 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Astra 2G satellite Satellite deployed into Geostationary orbit[38]
84 1 February 2015 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Inmarsat 5-F2 satellite Satellite deployed into Supersynchronous orbit [39]
85 19 March 2015 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Ekspress AM-7 communications satellite Satellite deployed into Geostationary orbit [40]
86 16 May 2015 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Failure Mexsat-1 Centenario satellite
Third stage failure
87 28 August 2015 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Inmarsat-5 F3 communication satellite
88 16 October 2015 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Turksat-4B communication satellite
89 13 December 2015 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Kosmos-2513 (Garpun-12L) military/communication satellite
90 25 December 2015 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Ekspress-AMU1 communication satellite
91 30 January 2016 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Eutelsat-9B communication satellite
92 14 March 2016 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success ExoMars-2016[41] Mars exploration/communication satellite
93 9 June 2016 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Intelsat-31 (DLA-2) communications satellite
94 8 June 2017 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success EchoStar 21 communications satellite
95 16 August 2017 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Blagovest-11L communications satellite
96 11 September 2017 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Amazonas 5 communications satellite
97 28 September 2017 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success AsiaSat 9 communications satellite
98 18 April 2018 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Blagovest-12L military communications satellite
99 21 December 2018 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Blagovest-13L military communications satellite
100 30 May 2019 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Yamal-601 communications satellite
101 9 October 2019 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Kazakhstan Success Eutelsat 5 West B / MEV-1
102 30 July 2020 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Khazakhstan Success Ekspress-80/Ekspress-103
103 13 December 2021 Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur, Khazakhstan Success Ekspress-AMU3/Ekspress-AMU7

Rokot/Briz-K/KM

Angara A5/Briz-M

# Launch date Configuration Spaceport Result Payload Note
1 23 December 2014 Angara A5/Briz-M Plesetsk, Russia Success Dummy satellite Maiden flight of Russia's new-generation Angara A5 launch vehicle
Mass simulator intentionally not separated from Briz-M upper stage[42]
2 14 December 2020 Angara A5/Briz-M Plesetsk, Russia Success Dummy satellite Second launch of the Angara A5/Briz-M
Mass simulator intentionally not separated from Briz-M upper stage

References

  • "Proton 8K82K / Briz-M". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 4 September 2003. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
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