To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Azhvaar
Personal
ReligionHinduism

The azhvaars also spelt as alwaars (considered by some a misspelling as the pronunciation for "wa" is not the same as "va" and does not exist in Thamizh or Sanskrit)[1] or Alvar, ( Tamil: ஆழ்வார்கள், romanized: Āḻvārkaḷ, lit. ''those immersed in god'' ) were Tamil poet-saints of South India who espoused bhakti (devotion) to the Hindu god Vishnu or his avatar Krishna in their songs of longing, ecstasy and service.[2] They are venerated especially in Vaishnavism, which regards Vishnu or Krishna as the Supreme Being.

Many modern academics place the Azhvaar date between 5th century to 10th century CE, however traditionally the Azhvaar are considered to have lived between 4200–2700 BCE. Orthodoxy posits the number of Azhvaars as ten, though there are other references that include Andal and Madhurakavi Azhvaar, making the number twelve.[3] Andal is the only female saint-poet in the 12 Azhvaars. Together with the contemporary sixty three Shaiva Nayanars, they are among the most important saints from Tamil Nadu.

The devotional outpourings of Azhvaars, composed during the early medieval period of Tamil history, helped revive the bhakti movement, through their hymns of worship to Vishnu and his avatars. They praised the Divya Desams, 108 "abodes" (temples) of these Vaishnava deities. The poetry of the Azhvaars echoes bhakti to God through love, and in the ecstasy of such devotions they sang hundreds of songs which embodied both depth of feeling and felicity of expressions.[4] The collection of their hymns is known as Divya Prabandha. The Bhakti literature that sprang from Azhvaars has contributed to the establishment and sustenance of a culture that broke away from the ritual-oriented Vedic religion and rooted itself in devotion as the only path for salvation. In addition they helped to make the Tamil religious life independent of a knowledge of Sanskrit.[5] As part of the legacy of the Azhvaars, five Vaishnava philosophical traditions (sampradayas) have developed at the later stages.[6]

Etymology

The word azhvaar has traditionally been etymologized as from Tamil. 'Azh' (ஆழ்), 'to immerse oneself' as 'one who dives deep into the ocean of the countless attributes of god'.[7]

However recently Indologist Sudalaimuthu Palaniappan has established[8] from epigraphy and textual evidence that the traditional term Āḻvār (ஆழ்வார்) for Vaiṣṇavaite Tamil poet saints has historically been a corruption of the original Āḷvār (ஆள்வார்). It is investigated with a multi-faceted approach using philology, linguistics, epigraphy, and religion.

Corruption of the original Āḷvār (ஆள்வார்) to Āḻvār (ஆழ்வார்)

Palaniappan[8] shows that what was originally Āḷvār (ஆள்வார்) meaning 'One who rules', or '(Spiritual) Master' got changed through hypercorrection and folk etymology to Āḻvār (ஆழ்வார்) meaning 'One who is immersed'. Palaniappan cites inscriptional evidence and even literary evidence from Vaishnavaite tradition itself for a gradual sound change from Āḷvār (ஆள்வார்) to Āḻvār (ஆழ்வார்) over a period of two centuries from the 9th to the 11th century involving references to religious leaders in Vaiṣṇavism, Śaivism and even Jainism and to political personalities. He states: "āḻvār is but a corrupt form of āḷvār which has been used interchangeably with nāyanār in secular and religious contexts in the Tamil land" and "... Notwithstanding the Vaiṣṇava claim of unbroken teacher-student tradition, the fact that Nāthamuni has used the form āļvār but Piļļān, a disciple and younger cousin of Rāmānuja, ended up using the form āḻvār suggests that there has been an error in transmission somewhere along the teacher-student chain between the two teachers. This error was obviously due to the influence of the sound variation that has occurred in the Srirangam area and elsewhere".

The original word ஆள்வார் compares with the epithet 'Āṇḍãḷ' (ஆண்டாள்) for the female canonized Vaishnava saint Gōdai (கோதை) and they share the same verb Tamil. āḷ (ஆள்), the former being the honorific non-past (or present-future) form and the latter the feminine past form of that same verb.

Reception by scholars

Palaniappan's findings on 'Āḻvār' have been accepted by scholars like Prof. Alexander Dubyanskiy. In his article on Āṇṭāḷ, Dubyanskiy says,[9] "Āṇṭāḷ was among the twelve Āḻvārs, the poet-saints, adepts of Viṣṇu, canonized by the tradition, which accepted the interpretation of meaning of the word āḻvār as "submerged, plunged [in love for god]", from the verbal root āḻ, "to plunge, to be in the deep". But recently it was convincingly shown by S. Palaniappan (2004) that initially the term in question was represented by the word āḷvār (from the verbal root āḷ "to rule"), which reads as "those who rule, lords", and was applied in the texts, both Śaiva and Vaiṣṇava, to Śiva and Viṣṇu accordingly (pp. 66–70). In the course of time the term underwent the process of sound variation, took the form āḻvār and acquired the folk etymology which was accepted and fixed by the tradition. It is worth noting here that this interpretation agrees well with the meaning of the poetess' nickname Āṇṭāḷ, which means "she who rules".

Modern Alvar

Alvar or Alwar[10] in modern times are confined to temples in South India. Still devout to Lord Vishnu, lot of the practices of have remained the same, except for some modern changes.[11][12]

Legacy

Alvars are considered the twelve supreme devotees of Vishnu, who were instrumental in popularising Vaishnavism in the Tamil-speaking regions.[13] The Azhvaars were influential in promoting the Bhagavata cult and the two Hindu epics, namely, Ramayana and Mahabaratha.[14] The religious works of these saints in Tamil, songs of love and devotion, are compiled as Nalayira Divya Prabandham containing 4000 verses and the 108 temples revered in their songs are classified as Divya desam.[15][16] The verses of the various azhvaars were compiled by Nathamuni (824 - 924 CE), a 10th-century Vaishnavite theologian, who called it the "Dravida Veda or Tamil Veda".[17][18] The songs of Prabandam are regularly sung in all the Vishnu temples of South India daily and also during festivals.[16][19]

The saints had different origins and belonged to different castes. As per tradition, the first three Azhvaars, Poigai, Bhutha and Pey were born miraculously. Tirumizhisai was the son of a sage; Thondaradi, Mathurakavi, Peria and Andal were from brahmin caste; Kulasekhara was a Kshatria, Namm was from a cultivator family, Tirupana from Tamil Panar community and Tirumangai from kazhvaar community. Divya Suri Saritra by Garuda-Vahana Pandita (11th century), Guruparamparaprabavam by Pinbaragiya Perumal Jiyar, Periya tiru mudi adaivu by Anbillai Kandadiappan, Yatindra Pranava Prabavam by Pillai Lokacharya, commentaries on Divya Prabandam, Guru Parampara (lineage of Gurus) texts, temple records and inscriptions give a detailed account of the alavars and their works. According to these texts, the saints were considered incarnations of some form of Vishnu.

According to traditional account by Manavala Mamunigal, the first three azhvaars namely Poigai, Bhoothath and Pey belong to Dvapara Yuga (before 4200 BCE). It is widely accepted by tradition and historians that the trio are the earliest among the twelve azhvaars.[15][16][20][21][22] Along with the three Saiva nayanmars, they influenced the ruling Pallava kings, creating a Bhakti movement that resulted in changing the religious geography from Buddhism and Jainism to these two sects of Hinduism in the region.

Summary

Some modern scholars suggest that they lived during 5th - 9th century CE, "on the basis of a few historical evidences", although no "clear" evidence exists to fit them between 5th to 9th century CE.[23][24] The Encyclopædia Britannica says that Azhvaars lived between 7th-10th century CE.[25] Professor of Religion and Asian Studies, James G. Lochtefeld of Carthage College, notes in his The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, the first three Azhvaars Poigai, Bhoothath and Pey belonged to the 7th century; while Nammalvar and Madhurakavi belonged to the 10th century; while rest of them lived in the 9th century.[26]

Traditionally the Alwars are considered to have lived between 4200 BCE - 2700 BCE.[27][28] Traditional dates take them to the age of Shuka from the period of the Bhagavata Purana, many are from Dvapara Yuga, while Nammalwar belongs to the early part of Kali Yuga.[29]

The following table shows the place, century and star of birth of each Azhvaar. Scholarly dating, except that of Kulasekhara Azhvaar, is based on summary of views of modern scholars by Dr. N Subba Reddiar, although even these dates lack historical evidence.[23] Much effort has gone into dating Kulasekhara Azhvaar recently. The Azhvaar is now identified as Sthanu Ravi Kulasekhara (reigned 844—883 CE), the second known ruler of the Cheras of Makotai (Cranganore) (c. 800—1124 CE).[30]

Sl no Image Alwar Saint Scholarly dating[23] Traditional date[31][32] and place Composition Month Nakshatra Avatar of
1 Poigai Azhvaar 713 CE 4203 BCE, Kanchipuram Mudhal Thiruvandhadhi, 100 verses. Aiypassee Thiruvonam (Sravana) Panchajanya (Vishnu's conch)
2 Bhoothathalvar 713 CE 4203 BCE, Thirukadalmallai (Mahabhalipuram) Irandam Thiruvandhadhi, 100 verses. Aiypassee Avittam (Dhanishta) Kaumodaki (Vishnu's Mace)
3 Peyalvar 713 CE 4203 BCE, Mylapore Moondram Thiruvandhadhi, 100 verses. Aiypassee Sadayam (Satabhishak) Nandaka (Vishnu's sword)
4 Thirumalisai Azhvaar 720 CE 4203 BCE Thirumazhisai Nanmugan Thiruvandhadhi, 96 verses; ThiruChanda Virutham, 120 verses. Thai Magam (Maghā) Sudarshana Chakra (Vishnu's discus)
5 Nammalvar 798 CE 3102/3059[33] Azhvaar Thirunagari (Kurugur) Thiruvaymozhi, 1102 verses; Thiruvasiriyam, 7 verses; Thiruvirutham, 100 verses; Periya Thiruvandhadhi, 87 verses. Vaikasi Vishaakam (Vishākhā) Vishvaksena (Vishnu's commander)
6 Madhurakavi Azhvaar 800 CE 3102 BC, Thirukollur Kanninun Siruthambu, 11 verses. Chitthirai Chitthirai (Chithra) Kumuda Ganesha (Vishvaksena's disciple)
7 Kulashekhara Alwar (Sthanu Ravi Kulasekhara[30]) 9th century CE (reigned 844-883 CE)[30] 3075 BC, Tiruvancikkulam (Cranganore), Chera Kingdom of Makotai Perumal Thirumozhi, 105 verses. Maasee Punar Poosam (Punarvasu) Kaustubha (Vishnu's jewel embedded in his necklace)
8 Periyalvar 785 CE 3056 BC, Srivilliputhur Periyazhvaar Thirumozhi, 461 verses. Aani Swathi (Swaathee) Garuda (Vishnu's mount)
9 Andal 767 CE 3005 BC, Srivilliputhur Nachiyar Thirumozhi, 143 verses; Thiruppavai, 30 verses. Aadi Pooram (Pūrva Phalgunī (Pubbha)) Bhudevi (Vishnu's wife and the earth goddess)
10 Thondaradippodi Azhvaar 726 CE 2814 BCE, Thirumandangudi Thirumaalai, 45 verses; Thirupalliezhuchi, 10 verses. Margazhi Kettai (Jyeshta) Vanamalai (Vishnu's garland)
11 Thiruppaan Azhvaar 781 CE 2760 BCE, Uraiyur Amalan Adi Piraan, 10 verses. Karthigai Rogini (Rohinee) Srivatsa (An auspicious mark on Vishnu's chest)
12 Thirumangai Azhvaar 776 CE 2706 BCE, Thirukurayalur Periya Thirumozhi, 1084 verses; Thiru Vezhukootru irukkai, 1 verse; Thiru Kurun Thandagam, 20 verses; Thiru Nedun Thandagam, 30 verses; Siriya Thirumadal, 40 verses; Periya Thirumadal, 78 verses; Kaarthigai Krithika (Kṛttikā) Sharanga (Vishnu's bow)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ https://linguistics.stackexchange.com/questions/6039/how-is-sanskrit-va-supposed-to-be-pronounced
  2. ^ Andrea Nippard. "The Alvars" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  3. ^ Flood 1996, p. 131
  4. ^ "Indian Literature Through the Ages". Indian literature, Govt of India. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  5. ^ "About Alvars". divyadesamonline.com. Archived from the original on 21 June 2007. Retrieved 2 July 2007.
  6. ^ Mittal, S. G. R.; Thursby (2006). Religions of South Asia: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 9780203970027.
  7. ^ "Meaning of Alvar". ramanuja.org. Retrieved 2 July 2007.
  8. ^ a b Palaniappan, Sudalaimuthu. "Āḻvār or Nāyaṉār: The Role of Sound Variation, Hypercorrection and Folk Etymology in Interpreting the Nature of Vaiṣṇava Saint-Poets" – via www.academia.edu. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. ^ https://publications.efeo.fr/en/livres/820_the-archaeology-of-bhakti-i and http://www2.rsuh.ru/binary/object_40.1412591563.13923.pdf
  10. ^ Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Murthy, Tejus (2017). "Alvars of South India: A psychiatric scanner". Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 59 (3): 375–379. doi:10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_383_16. PMC 5659091. PMID 29085100.
  11. ^ https://in.pinterest.com/pin/575686764849073511/[full citation needed][self-published source?]
  12. ^ https://indiathedestiny.com/india-philosophers/alvars-tamil-saints/
  13. ^ B.S. 2011, p. 47-48
  14. ^ B.S. 2011, p. 42
  15. ^ a b Rao, P.V.L. Narasimha (2008). Kanchipuram – Land of Legends, Saints & Temples. New Delhi: Readworthy Publications (P) Ltd. p. 27. ISBN 978-93-5018-104-1.
  16. ^ a b c Dalal 2011, pp. 20-21
  17. ^ Mukherjee (1999). A Dictionary of Indian Literatures: Beginnings-1850 Volume 1 of A Dictionary of Indian Literature, A Dictionary of Indian Literature. Orient Blackswan. p. 15. ISBN 9788125014539.
  18. ^ Garg, Gaṅgā Rām (1992). Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World: Ak-Aq. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 352–354. ISBN 9788170223757.
  19. ^ Ramaswamy, Vijaya (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Scarecrow Press. p. 211. ISBN 9780810864450.
  20. ^ Lochtefeld, James (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 515. ISBN 9780823931804. poygai.
  21. ^ Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (1920). Early history of Vaishnavism in south India. Oxford University Press. pp. 17–18. poigai azhwar.
  22. ^ Krishna (2009). Book of Vishnu. Penguin Books India. p. 136. ISBN 9780143067627.
  23. ^ a b c "Philosophy and Theistic Mysticism of the Āl̲vārs", by S. M. Srinivasa Chari, publisher = Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 9788120813427, p. 11
  24. ^ "Mādhavêndra Purī: A Link between Bengal Vaiṣṇavism and South Indian "Bhakti", by Friedhelm HardyThe Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland No. 1 (1974), pp. 23-41, Published by: Cambridge University Press, JSTOR 25203503
  25. ^ "Azhvaar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 30 Dec. 2014 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/18115/Azhvar>.
  26. ^ James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8.
  27. ^ "Philosophy and Theistic Mysticism of the Āl̲vārs", by S. M. Srinivasa Chari, publisher = Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 9788120813427, p. 10
  28. ^ "Śrībhāṣyam: Catuḥsūtryātmakaḥ", by Rāmānuja, Raghunath Damodar Karmarkar, p.18, original from = The University of Michigan
  29. ^ Jean Filliozat. Religion, Philosophy, Yoga: A Selection of Articles. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 23.
  30. ^ a b c Narayanan, M. G. S. "Perumals of Kerala: Brahmin Oligarchy and Ritual Monarchy—Political and Social Conditions of Kerala Under the Cera Perumals of Makotai (c. AD 800–AD 1124)" Kerala. Calicut University Press. 1996
  31. ^ "Ancient India: Collected Essays on the Literary and Political History of Southern India", by Sakkottai Krishnaswami Aiyangar, p. 403-404, publisher = Asian Educational Services
  32. ^ "Music and temples, a ritualistic approach", by L. Annapoorna, p. 23, year = 2000, ISBN 9788175740907
  33. ^ "History of Classical Sanskrit Literature", by M. Srinivasachariar, p. 278, ISBN 9788120802841

References

Nammalvar by A. Srinivasa Raghavan (Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi),1975, ISBN 81-260-0416 9 Alwargal - ^Or Eliya Arimugam by Sujatha (Visa Publications, Chennai, India)(in Tamil), 2001

External links

This page was last edited on 15 October 2020, at 03:01
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.