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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pancha Bhuta (Sanskrit: पञ्चभूत; pañca bhūta), five elements, is a group of five basic elements, which, in Hinduism, is the basis of all cosmic creation.[1] These elements are: Prithvi (Sanskrit: पृथ्वी:, Earth), Apas (Sanskrit: आपः, Water), Agni (Sanskrit: अग्नि, Fire), Vayu (Sanskrit: वायु:, Air), Akasha (Sanskrit: आकाश, Aether).[2] These elements have different characteristics and these also account for different faculties of human experience. In Ayurveda and Indian philosophy, the human body is made of these five elements.[3] However, the Chārvāka system of materialism did not accept Akasha as a basic element as it is not tangible and they accepted that there are only four basic elements.[4] Hinduism influenced Buddhism, which accepts only four Mahābhūtas, viewing Akasha as a derived (upādā) element. These five elements of Indian cosmological system are similar but not identical to five element theory used in China, which is Wuxing.[5]

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The Pancha Bhuta are the basic elements that make up any living organism on Earth or anywhere else in the Universe. Below table gives a reference on what component of the human body is associated with these elements. Each of the five finger in human beings is also associated with a particular element, so this means the energy associated with the appropriate element can be channelized through various hand mudras.[4]

Bhuta (Element) Human Body Component Associated Finger Associated consort Characteristic principle[6] Sense Organs
Akasha (Aether) Aether Thumb Prithvi Sound Ears
Vayu (Air) Air Index Finger Bharati Touch Skin
Agni (Fire) Fire Middle finger Svaha Eyes
Apas (Water) Water Ring finger Varuni  Tongue
Prithvi (Earth) Earth Little finger Akasha Nose


According to ayurveda and Yoga, Pancha Bhuta are associated with overall health of human being. Any disorder in human body indicates imbalance of one or more of these elements. Yoga Tattva Mudra Vijnana relates these five elements to five fingers of human being. Different Mudra were developed to balance these[7] in human body which form the Hasta Mudra in yogic tradition and are used in naturopathy.

The three dosha- three intrinsic tendencies, which, according to ayurveda are intrinsic in every human being, are representation of combination of these five elements in human body. The three dosha have subtle positive essences which control the mind and body function.[8]

Dosha Bhuta Composition Characteristic
Vata Vayu, Akasha Prana
Pitta Agni, Jala/Apas Tejas
Kapha Prithvi, Jala/Apas Ojas

Yogic view

According to Yoga, the aim of sadhana is to have mastery over oneself. This mastery can be achieved by mastering all the basic elements. The process of gaining mastery over these elements and purifying them is called Bhuta Shuddhi.

Pancha Bhuta Stalam is representation of Pancha Bhuta for yogic practice. People used to move from one temple to another and do sadhana on particular basic element.[9]

The seven Chakras in the human subtle body are associated with these five elements.[8]

Chakra Bhuta Characteristic
Muladhara Chakra Prithvi Stability, Support
Swadhishthan Chakra Jala Joy, Well-being
Manipura Chakra Agni Wisdom, Power
Anahata Chakra Vayu Compassion
Vishuddha Chakra Akasha Trust, Creativity
Ajna Chakra Akasha Knowledge, Intuition, Dignity
Sahasrara Chakra Akasha Oneness

Hasta Mudras

Hasta Mudra or hand posture is based on the panch Bhutas. The basic assumption is that all the five elements can be represented by five different fingers in human body as shown in the table below.[10]

Finger Name Bhuta
Kanishthika, Little Finger Jala/Apas
Anamika, Ring Finger Prithvi
Madhyama, Middle Finger Akasha
Tarjani, Index Finger Vayu
Angustha, Thumb Agni


Vastu shastra emphasizes on the placement of five elements in specified direction and the balance of these elements determines the condition of the associated structure.[8]

Bhuta Associated Direction Characteristics
Akasha/Dyaus East Expansion, enhancement
Vayu/Pavan West Movements, joy, happiness
Agni South Power, confidence, fame
Jala/Apas/Varuna North Spirituality, ideas, thoughts, healing
Prithvi/Bhumi Center, Diagonal Stability, peace and harmony

These correlations are used to define an ideal home: The house itself is placed so that maximum load and weight is in the southwest area of the plot. Thus, there is maximum open space in the north and east sides of the plot, satisfying Vayu/air and Akasha/aether. The main gate, the verandah and the main door are in the northeast of the house; south of the verandah the main living room, and south of that one or two bedrooms. The kitchen is placed in the southeast corner of the house, to balance Akasha and Agni.


Pancha Bhuta is associated with six human tastes/Rasas as below.[8]

Taste/Rasa Associated Bhuta
Madhura/Sweet Jala, Prithvi (Earth and Water)
Amla/Sour Prithvi, Agni (Earth and Fire)
Lavana/Salty Jala, Agni (Water and Fire)
Katu/Bitter Vayu, Agni (Air and Fire)
Tikta/Pungent Akasha, Vayu (Aether and Air)
Kashaya/Astringent Vayu, Prithvi (Air and Earth)

See also


  1. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam (ed.). India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 79.
  2. ^ (2019-01-28). "Story of Pañcabhūta". Retrieved 2022-09-18.
  3. ^ Venkatesan, Satish (2013-03-01). Ayurvedic remedies: An introduction. Vyiha. ISBN 978-9881224149. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  4. ^ a b Prasad Sinha, Harendra (2006). Bharatiya Darshan Ki Rooprekha. Motilal Banarsidass Publisher. p. 86. ISBN 9788120821446. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  5. ^ Carroll, Cain (2012). Mudras of India. Singing Dragon. p. 18. ISBN 978-1848191099. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  6. ^ Motilal Bansaridas Publishers Bhagavata Purana Book 1 Skandha III Page 374-375
  7. ^ "Five Elements". Archived from the original on 2020-11-28. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
  8. ^ a b c d "PANCHA BHOOTAS OR THE FIVE ELEMENTS". Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  9. ^ "pancha-bhutas-the-possibility-of-the-five-elements". 2012-01-23. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  10. ^ Sharma, Shiv (2003). Brilliance of Hinduism. Diamond Pocket Books (P). p. 93. ISBN 978-8128800825. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
This page was last edited on 13 June 2024, at 14:49
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