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20th New York State Legislature

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

20th New York State Legislature
19th 21st
Federal Hall-Archibald Robertson.jpg
The Old New York City Hall, where the Legislature first met in 1784. From January 1785 to August 1790, the Congress of the Confederation and the 1st United States Congress met here, and the building was renamed Federal Hall. From 1791 to 1793, and from 1795 to 1796, the State Legislature met again here. The building was demolished in 1812. (1798)
Overview
JurisdictionNew York, United States
TermJuly 1, 1796 – June 30, 1797
Senate
Members43
PresidentLt. Gov. Stephen Van Rensselaer (Fed.)
Party controlFederalist (36-6)
Assembly
Members108
SpeakerGulian Verplanck (Fed.)
Party controlFederalist
Sessions
1stNovember 1 – 11, 1796
2ndJanuary 3 – April 3, 1797

The 20th New York State Legislature, consisting of the New York State Senate and the New York State Assembly, met from November 1, 1796, to April 3, 1797, during the second year of John Jay's governorship, first in New York City, then in Albany.

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  • ✪ Growth, Cities, and Immigration: Crash Course US History #25
  • ✪ The United States Senate's History and Traditions of the Past 200 Years (1989)

Transcription

Episode 25: Immigrant Cities Hi, I’m John Green, this is CrashCourse U.S. History and today we’re going to continue our extensive look at American capitalism. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, I’m sorry are you saying that I grow up to be a tool of the bourgeoisie… Oh not just a tool of the bourgeoise, Me from the Past, but a card-carrying member of it. I mean, you have employees whose labor you can exploit because you own the means of production, which in your case includes a chalkboard, a video camera, a desk, and a xenophobic globe. Meanwhile Stan, Danica, Raoul, and Meredith toil in crushing poverty--STAN, DID YOU WRITE THIS PART? THESE ARE ALL LIES. CUE THE INTRO. intro So, last week we saw how commercial farming transformed the American west and gave us mythical cowboys and unfortunately not-so-mythical Indian reservations. Today we leave the sticks and head for the cities--as so many Americans and immigrants have done throughout this nation’s history. I mean we may like to imagine that the history of America is all “Go west young man,” but in fact from Mark Twain to pretty much every hipster in Brooklyn, it’s the opposite. So, population was growing everywhere in America after 1850. Following a major economic downturn in the 1890s, farm prices made a comeback, and that drew more and more people out west to take part in what would eventually be called agriculture’s golden age. Although to be fair agriculture’s real golden age was in like 3000 BCE when Mesopotamians were like, “Dude, if we planted these in rows, we could have MORE OF IT THAN WE CAN EAT.” So it was really more of a second golden age. But anyway, more than a million land claims were filed under the Homestead Act in the 1890s. And between 1900 and 1910 the populations of Texas and Oklahoma together increased by almost 2 million people. And another 800,000 moved into Kansas, the Dakotas, and Nebraska. That’s right. People moved to Nebraska. Sorry, I just hadn’t yet offended Nebraskans. I’m looking to get through the list before the end of the year. But one of the central reasons that so many people moved out west was that the demand for agricultural products was increasing due to … the growth of cities. In 1880, 20% of the American population lived in cities and there were 12 cities with a population over 100,000 people. This rose to 18 cities in 1900 with the percentage of urban dwellers rising to 38%. And by 1920, 68% of Americans lived in cities and 26 cities had a population over 100,000. So in the 40 years around the turn of the 20th century, America became the world’s largest industrial power and went from being predominantly rural to largely urban. This is, to use a technical historian term, a really big deal. Because it didn’t just make cities possible, but also their products. It’s no coincidence that while all this was happening, we were getting cool stuff like electric lights and moving picture cameras. Neither of which were invented by Thomas Edison. I don’t know if you’ve noticed, but suddenly there are a lot more photographs in Crash Course U.S. History b-roll. So the city leading the way in this urban growth was New York, especially after Manhattan was consolidated with Brooklyn (and the Bronx, Queens and Staten Island) in 1898. At the turn of the century, the population of the 23 square miles of Manhattan Island was over 2 million and the combined 5 boroughs had a population over 4 million. But, while New York gets most of the attention in this time period, and all time periods since, it wasn’t alone in experiencing massive growth. Like, my old hometown of Chicago, after basically burning to the ground in 1871, became the second largest city in America by the 1890s. Also, they reversed the flow of the freaking Chicago River. Probably the second most impressive feat in Chicago at the time. The first being that the Cubs won two World Series. Even though I’m sorely tempted to chalk up the growth of these metropolises to a combination of better nutrition and a rise in skoodilypooping, I’m going to have to bow to stupid historical accuracy and tell you that much of the growth had to do with the phenomenon that this period is most known for: immigration. Of course, by the end of the 19th century, immigration was not a new phenomenon in the United States. After the first wave of colonization by English people, and Spanish people, and other Europeans, there was a new wave of Scandinavians, French people, and especially the Irish. Most of you probably know about the potato famine of the 1840s that led a million Irish men and women to flee. If you don’t know about it, it was awful. And the second largest wave of immigrants was made up of German speakers, including a number of liberals who left after the abortive revolutions of 1848. Alright, let’s go to the ThoughtBubble. The Irish had primarily been farmers in the motherland, but in America, they tended to stay in cities, like New York and Boston. Most of the men began their working lives as low-wage unskilled laborers, but over time they came to have much more varied job opportunities. Irish immigrant women worked too, some in factories or as domestic servants in the homes of the growing upper class. Many women actually preferred the freedom that factory labor provided and one Irish factory woman compared her life to that of a servant by saying: “Our day is ten hours long, but when it’s done, it’s done, and we can do what we like with the evenings. That’s what I’ve heard from every nice girl that’s tried service. You’re never sure that your soul is your own except when you’re out of the house.” [1] Most German speakers had been farmers in their home countries and would remain farmers in the U.S., but a number of skilled artisans also came. They tended to stay in cities and make a go of entrepreneurship. Bismarck himself saw emigration from Germany as a good thing saying, “The better it goes for us, the higher the volume of emigration.”[2] And that’s why we named a city in North Dakota after him. Although enough German immigrants came to New York that the lower east side of Manhattan came to be known for a time as Kleindeutschland (little Germany), many moved to the growing cities of the Midwest like Cincinnati and St. Louis. Some of the most famous German immigrants became brewers, and America is much richer for the arrival of men like Frederick Pabst, Joseph Schlitz, and Adolphus Busch. And by richer, I mean more drunker. Hey. Thanks for not ending on a downer, Thought Bubble. I mean, unless you count alcoholism. So but by the 1890s, over half of the 3.5 million immigrants who came to our shores came from southern and eastern Europe, in particular Italy and the Russian and Austro Hungarian empires. They were more likely than previous immigrants to be Jewish or Catholic, and while almost all of them were looking for work, many were also escaping political or religious persecution. And by the 1890s they also had to face new “scientific” theories, which I’m putting in air quotes to be clear because there was nothing scientific about them, which consigned them to different “races” whose low level of civilization was fit only for certain kinds of work and predisposed them to criminality. The Immigration Restriction League was founded in Boston in 1894 and lobbied for national legislation that would limit the numbers of immigrants, and one such law even passed Congress in 1897 only to be vetoed by President Grover Cleveland. Good work, Grover! You know, his first name was Stephen, but he called himself Grover. I would have made a different choice. But before you get too excited about Grover Cleveland, Congress and the President were able to agree on one group of immigrants to discriminate against: the Chinese. Chinese immigrants, overwhelmingly male, had been coming to the United States, mostly to the West, since the 1850s to work in mines and on the railroads. They were viewed with suspicion because they looked different, spoke a different language, and they had “strange” habits, like regular bathing. By the time the Chinese Exclusion Act went into effect in 1882 there were 105,000 people of Chinese descent living in the United States, mainly in cities on the West Coast. San Francisco refused to educate Asians until the state Supreme Court ordered them to do so and even then the city responded by setting up segregated schools. The immigrants fought back through the courts. In 1886, in the case of Yick Wo v. Hopkins the United States Supreme court ordered San Francisco to grant Chinese-operated laundries licenses to operate. Then in 1898 in United States v. Wong Kim Ark, the Court ruled that American born children of Chinese immigrants were entitled to citizenship under the 14th Amendment, which should have been a duh but wasn’t. We’ve been hard on the Supreme Court here at Crash Course, but those were two good decisions. You go, Supreme Court! But despite these victories Asian immigrants continued to face discrimination in the form of vigilante-led riots like the one in Rock Springs, Wyoming that killed 26 people, and congressionally approved restrictions, many of which the Supreme Court did uphold, so meh. Also it’s important to remember that this large-scale immigration--and the fear of it--was part of a global phenomenon. At its peak between 1901 and the outbreak of World War 1 in 1914, 13 million immigrants came to the United States. In the entire period touched off by the industrialization from 1840 until 1914, a total of 40 million people came to the U.S. But at least 20 million people emigrated to other parts of the Western Hemisphere, including Brazil, the Caribbean, Canada (yes, Canada) and Argentina. As much as we have Italian immigrants to thank for things like pizza (and we do thank you), Argentina can be just as grateful for the immigrant ancestors of Leo Messi. Also the Pope, although he has never once won La Liga. And there was also extensive immigration from India to other parts of the British Empire like South Africa; Chinese immigration to South America and the Caribbean; I mean, the list goes on and on. In short, America is not as special as it fancies itself. Oh it’s time for the Mystery Document? The rules are simple. I guess the author of the Mystery Document. I get it wrong and then I get shocked with the shock pen. Sorry I don’t mean to sound defeatist, but I don’t have a good feeling about this. Alright. “The figure that challenged attention to the group was the tall, straight, father, with his earnest face and fine forehead, nervous hands eloquent in gesture, and a voice full of feeling. This foreigner, who brought his children to school as if it were an act of consecration, who regarded the teacher of the primer class with reverence, who spoke of visions, like a man inspired, in a common classroom...I think Miss Nixon guessed what my father’s best English could not convey. I think she divined that by the simple act of delivering our school certificates to her he took possession of America.”[3] Uhh, I don’t know. At first I thought it might be someone who worked with immigrants, like Jane Addams, but then at the end suddenly it’s her own father. Jane Addams’s father was not an immigrant. Mary Antin? Does she even have a Wikipedia page?! She does? Did you write it, Stan? Stan wrote her Wikipedia page. AH. So, this document, while it was written by someone who should not have a Wikipedia page, points out that most immigrants to America were coming for the most obvious reason: opportunity. Industrialization, both in manufacturing and agriculture, meant that there were jobs in America. There was so much work, in fact, that companies used labor recruiters who went to Europe to advertise opportunities. Plus, the passage was relatively cheap, provided you were only going to make it once in your life, and it was fast, taking only 8 to 12 days on the new steam powered ships. The Lower East Side of Manhattan became the magnet for waves of immigrants, first Germans then Eastern European Jews and Italians, who tended to re-create towns and neighborhoods within blocks and sometimes single buildings. Tenements, these 4, 5 and 6 story buildings that were designed to be apartments, sprang up in the second half of the 19th century and the earliest ones were so unsanitary and crowded that the city passed laws requiring a minimum of light and ventilation. And often these tenement apartments doubled as workspaces because many immigrant women and children took in piecework, especially in the garment industry. Despite laws mandating the occasional window and outlawing the presence of cows on public streets, conditions in these cities were pretty bad. Things got better with the construction of elevated railroads and later subways that helped relieve traffic congestion but they created a new problem: pickpockets. “Pickpockets take advantage of the confusion to ply their vocation… The foul, close, heated air is poisonous. A healthy person cannot ride a dozen blocks without a headache.” So that’s changed! This new transportation technology also enabled a greater degree of residential segregation in cities. Manhattan’s downtown area had at one time housed the very rich as well as the very poor but improved transportation meant that people no longer had to live and work in the same place. The wealthiest, like Cornelius Vanderbilt and J.P. Morgan, constructed lavish palaces for themselves and uptown townhouses were common.[4][5] But until then, one of the most notable feature of gilded age cities like New York was that the rich and the poor lived in such close proximity to each other. And this meant that with America’s growing urbanization, the growing distance between rich and poor was visible to both rich and poor. And much as we see in today’s megacity, this inability to look away from poverty and economic inequality became a source of concern. Now one way to alleviate concern is to create suburbs so you don’t have to look at poor people, but another response to urban problems was politics, which in cities like New York, became something of a contact sport. Another response was the so-called progressive reform movement. And in all these responses and in the issues that prompted them – urbanization, mechanization, capitalism, the distribution of resources throughout the social order -- we can see modern industrial America taking shape. And that is the America we live in today. Thank you for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller. The script supervisor is Meredith Danko. The show is written by my history teacher, Raoul Meyer, Rosianna Halse Rojas, and myself. Our associate producer is Danica Johnson. And our graphics team is Thought Café. Every week, there’s a new caption for the libertage. If you’d like to suggest one, you can do so in comments where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians. Thanks for watching Crash Course and as we say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome. Immigrant Cities - ________________ [1] Quoted in H.W. Brands, American Colossus: The Triumph of Capitalism 1865-1900. p. 265. [2] Ibid p. 267 [3] Quoted in Brands, American Colossus, p. 324 [4] Ibid p. 315 [5] quoted in Brands, American Colossus p. 320

Contents

Background

Under the provisions of the New York Constitution of 1777, the State Senators were elected on general tickets in the senatorial districts, and were then divided into four classes. Six senators each drew lots for a term of 1, 2, 3 or 4 years and, beginning at the election in April 1778, every year six Senate seats came up for election to a four-year term. Assemblymen were elected countywide on general tickets to a one-year term, the whole assembly being renewed annually.

In March 1786, the Legislature enacted that future Legislatures meet on the first Tuesday of January of each year unless called earlier by the governor. No general meeting place was determined, leaving it to each Legislature to name the place where to reconvene, and if no place could be agreed upon, the Legislature should meet again where it adjourned.

On July 1, 1795, Stephen Van Rensselaer took office as Lieutenant Governor of New York, leaving a vacancy in the Western District.

On March 4, 1796, the Legislature re-apportioned the Senate and Assembly districts, based on the figures of the New York State Census of 1795. The number of State Senators was increased from 24 to 43, adding 1 to the Southern D.; and 6 each to the other three districts. The number of assemblymen was increased from 70 to 108, double-county districts were separated, and several new counties were created.

At this time the politicians were divided into two opposing political parties: the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans.[1]

Elections

The State election was held from April 26 to 28, 1796. Senator Selah Strong (Southern D.) was re-elected. Assemblymen James Watson (Southern D.), Thomas Morris, Johannes Dietz, Jacob Morris, Leonard Bronck and Francis Nicoll (all five Western D.) were elected to the Senate. Samuel Haight, Andrew Onderdonk (both Southern D.), Robert Sands, Christopher Tappen, William Thompson (all three Middle D.), Ebenezer Clark, Moses Vail, James Savage, Peter Silvester, Anthony Ten Eyck (all five Eastern D.), Jedediah Sanger, James Gordon, Leonard Gansevoort, Thomas R. Gold, John Richardson, Vincent Mathews, Joseph White and Abraham Arndt (all eight Western D.) were also elected to the Senate. All, except Christopher Tappen, were Federalists.

Upon taking their seats, the new senators were classified: Ebenezer Clark, Anthony Ten Eyck, Thomas Morris and John Richardson drew 1-year terms; James Watson, Leonard Gansevoort, Francis Nicoll, Abraham Arndt, Johannes Dietz and Thomas R. Gold drew 2-year terms; Christopher Tappen, Moses Vail, Vincent Mathews and Joseph White drew 3-year terms; and Samuel Haight, Andrew Onderdonk, Selah Strong, Robert Sands, James Savage, Peter Silvester, William Thompson, Leonard Bronck, Jacob Morris, James Gordon and Jedediah Sanger drew 4-year terms.

Sessions

The Old Albany City Hall
The Old Albany City Hall

The Legislature met at Federal Hall in New York City on November 1, 1796, to elect presidential electors, and both Houses adjourned on November 11. This was the last session not held in Albany.

Federalist Gulian Verplanck was elected Speaker.

To balance the representation of the senatorial districts, the re-apportionment was amended, transferring Columbia Co. from the Eastern to the Middle District; and Albany and Saratoga counties from the Western to the Eastern D. Thus senators Spencer, Savage and Silvester moved from the Eastern to the Middle; and Bronck, Gansevoort, Gordon, Nicoll, Schuyler and Van Schoonhoven from the Western to the Eastern District.[2]

On November 7, 1796, the Legislature elected 12 presidential electors, all Federalists: Lewis Morris, Abijah Hammond, Richard Thorne, Peter Cantine Jr., Robert Van Rensselaer, Johannes Miller, Abraham Ten Broeck, Abraham Van Vechten, St. John Honeywood, William Root, Peter Smith and Charles Newkirk. They cast their votes for John Adams and Thomas Pinckney.

On November 9, 1796, the Legislature elected U.S. District Judge John Laurance to the U.S. Senate, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rufus King.

The Legislature met for the regular session on January 3, 1797, at the Old City Hall in Albany, New York; and both Houses adjourned on April 3.

On January 24, 1797, the Legislature elected Senator Philip Schuyler to the U.S. Senate, to succeed Aaron Burr, for a 6-year term beginning on March 4, 1797.

Among the legislative acts of this session were: the declaration of Albany as the State capital, and plans to build a State capitol; the creation of the office of New York State Comptroller; and the creation of Delaware County, with 2 seats in the Assembly.

State Senate

Districts

Note: There are now 62 counties in the State of New York. The counties which are not mentioned in this list had not yet been established, or sufficiently organized, the area being included in one or more of the abovementioned counties.

Members

The asterisk (*) denotes members of the previous Legislature who continued in office as members of this Legislature. James Watson, Leonard Bronck, Francis Nicoll, Johannes Dietz, Jacob Morris and Thomas Morris changed from the Assembly to the Senate.

Note: The table shows the Districts as re-apportioned after the election.
District Senators Term left Party Notes
Southern Ezra L'Hommedieu* 1 year Federalist
Richard Hatfield* 2 years Federalist
Philip Livingston*[3] 2 years Federalist
James Watson* 2 years Federalist
Samuel Jones* 3 years Federalist until March 15, 1797, also Recorder of New York City,
from March 15, 1797, also New York State Comptroller
Joshua Sands* 3 years Federalist vacated his seat on April 26, 1797, upon
appointment as Collector of the Port of New York
Samuel Haight 4 years Federalist
Andrew Onderdonk 4 years Federalist elected to the Council of Appointment
Selah Strong* 4 years Federalist
Middle John Cantine* 1 year Dem.-Rep.
Reuben Hopkins* 1 year Dem.-Rep.
vacant[4] 1 year
John D. Coe* 2 years Dem.-Rep.
Ambrose Spencer* 2 years Federalist also Assistant Attorney General (3rd D.);
Spencer lived in Columbia Co., and
had been elected in the old Eastern D. in 1795;
elected to the Council of Appointment
Abraham Schenck* 3 years Dem.-Rep.
Christopher Tappen 3 years Dem.-Rep.
Thomas Tillotson* 3 years Dem.-Rep.
Robert Sands[5] 4 years Federalist
James Savage 4 years Federalist
Peter Silvester 4 years Federalist
William Thompson 4 years Federalist
Eastern Ebenezer Clark 1 year Federalist
Zina Hitchcock* 1 year Federalist
Anthony Ten Eyck 1 year Federalist
Jacobus Van Schoonhoven* 1 year Federalist Van Schoonhoven lived in Saratoga Co., and
had been elected in the old Western D. in 1793
Leonard Gansevoort 2 years Federalist elected to the Council of Appointment
Francis Nicoll* 2 years Federalist
Ebenezer Russell* 3 years Federalist
Philip Schuyler* 3 years Federalist Schuyler lived in Albany Co., and
had been elected in the old Western D. in 1795;
elected on January 24, 1797, to the U.S. Senate
Moses Vail 3 years Federalist
Leonard Bronck* 4 years Federalist
James Gordon 4 years Federalist
Western Thomas Morris* 1 year Federalist elected to the Council of Appointment
Michael Myers* 1 year Federalist
John Richardson 1 year Federalist
Abraham Arndt 2 years Federalist
Johannes Dietz* 2 years Federalist
John Frey* 2 years Federalist
Thomas R. Gold 2 years Federalist also Assistant Attorney General (7th D.)
Vincent Mathews 3 years Federalist
Joseph White 3 years Federalist
Jacob Morris* 4 years Federalist
Jedediah Sanger 4 years Federalist

Employees

  • Clerk: Abraham B. Bancker

State Assembly

Districts

Note: There are now 62 counties in the State of New York. The counties which are not mentioned in this list had not yet been established, or sufficiently organized, the area being included in one or more of the abovementioned counties.

Assemblymen

The asterisk (*) denotes members of the previous Legislature who continued as members of this Legislature.

County Assemblymen Party Notes
Albany James Bill
Philip Conine Jr.
James C. Duane
Jacob Hochstrasser*
James Holcomb
Nathaniel Ogden
John Prince
Philip P. Schuyler
Dirck Ten Broeck* Federalist
John H. Wendell
Clinton Charles Platt
Columbia Caleb Benton
Palmer Cady
John C. Hogeboom Dem.-Rep.
John McKinstry
Peter I. Vosburgh
Jonathan Warner
Dutchess Samuel A. Barker Federalist
Jacob Bockée Federalist
Joseph Crane Jr.
Richard Davis*
Jesse Oakley* Federalist
William Pearce
Jacob Smith*
Jesse Thompson* Federalist
William B. Verplanck Federalist
William Wheeler
Herkimer Isaac Brayton
Arthur Breese
Matthew Brown Jr.
Ludwick Campbell
Gaylord Griswold Federalist
Joshua Leland
Henry McNeil Federalist
Kings Peter Vandervoort* Federalist
Montgomery Jacob Eaker
Frederick Gettman* Federalist
George Metcalfe from February 16, 1797, also Assistant Attorney General (5th D.)
John C. Van Eps
Peter V. Veeder
Simon Veeder
New York Leonard Bleecker
Richard Furman* Federalist
Josiah Ogden Hoffman Federalist also New York State Attorney General
James Kent Federalist previously a member from Dutchess Co.;
from March 28, 1797, also Recorder of New York City
Alexander Lamb* Dem.-Rep.
Herman LeRoy
Jonathan Little
Jacob Morton* Federalist
Jotham Post Jr.* Federalist
James Roosevelt Federalist
James Tylee
Gulian Verplanck Federalist elected Speaker
Henry Will
Onondaga Silas Halsey
Comfort Tyler
Ontario Lemuel Chipman
Charles Williamson
Orange Isaac Blanch
Jonathan Cooley
Seth Marvin*
Otsego Joshua H. Brett
Francis Henry Federalist
Timothy Morse
Isaac Nash
Abraham C. Ten Broeck
Queens Lewis Cornwall
David Kissam Federalist
William Pearsall Federalist
John M. Smith Federalist
Rensselaer John Bird* Federalist
John Carpenter Federalist
Jacob A. Fort Federalist
Daniel Gray* Federalist
James McKown Federalist
Hosea Moffitt Federalist
Richmond Lewis Ryerss*
Saratoga Seth C. Baldwin
Samuel Clark
Adam Comstock* Dem.-Rep.
John McClelland*
John Taylor
Schoharie John Rice Federalist
Suffolk Jared Landon*
Abraham Miller*
Joshua Smith Jr.*
Silas Wood* Federalist
Tioga Emanuel Coryell* Federalist
vacant
Ulster Johannes Bruyn Dem.-Rep.
John Burr
Francis Crawford
John C. DeWitt Dem.-Rep.
Ebenezer Foote* Federalist from March 20, 1797, also Delaware County Clerk
Josiah Hasbrouck Dem.-Rep.
James Oliver* Federalist
Benjamin Sears
Washington Anthony I. Blanchard* also Assistant Attorney General (4th D.)
Gerrit G. Lansing
Timothy Leonard*
Daniel Mason
Edward Savage* Dem.-Rep.
Andrew White
Westchester John Barker Federalist
Joseph Carpenter* Federalist
Mordecai Hale* Federalist
Charles Teed* Federalist
Samuel Youngs Federalist

Employees

  • Clerk: James Van Ingen
  • Sergeant-at-Arms: Robert Hunter
  • Doorkeeper: Richard Ten Eyck

Notes

  1. ^ The Anti-Federalists called themselves "Republicans." However, at the same time, the Federalists called them "Democrats" which was meant to be pejorative. After some time both terms got more and more confused, and sometimes used together as "Democratic Republicans" which later historians have adopted (with a hyphen) to describe the party from the beginning, to avoid confusion with both the later established and still existing Democratic and Republican parties.
  2. ^ The History of Political Parties in the State of New-York, from the Ratification of the Federal Constitution to 1840 by Jabez D. Hammond (4th ed., Vol. 1, H. & E. Phinney, Cooperstown, 1846; pages 99ff)
  3. ^ Philip Livingston, son of Peter Van Brugh Livingston
  4. ^ It is unclear what caused this vacancy, since none of the sources mention any other person elected to the Senate. The Civil List of 1858 states that the number of Senators was 43 (page 108), and subsequent Legislatures had 43 members, until the re-apportionment by the Constitutional Convention of 1801.
  5. ^ Original owner of Robert Sands Estate in Rhinebeck, Dutchess Co.

Sources

This page was last edited on 29 August 2019, at 22:13
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