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L. Frank Baum
L. Frank Baum (1911).jpg
Frank Baum, c. 1911
Born Lyman Frank Baum
(1856-05-15)May 15, 1856
Chittenango, New York, U.S.
Died May 6, 1919(1919-05-06) (aged 62)
Hollywood, California, U.S.
Resting place Forest Lawn Memorial Park, Glendale
Pen name George Brooks, Louis F. Baum, Laura Bancroft, Suzanne Metcalf, Capt. Hugh Fitzgerald, Schuyler Staunton, Edith Van Dyne, Floyd Akers, John Estes Cooke
Occupation Author, newspaper editor, actor, screenwriter, film producer
Language English
Nationality American
Genre Fantasy, poetry, short stories
Notable works The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
Maud Gage
(m. 1882; his death 1919)
Children Frank Joslyn Baum
Robert Stanton Baum
Harry Neal Baum
Kenneth Gage Baum


Lyman Frank Baum (May 15, 1856 – May 6, 1919), better known as L. Frank Baum, was an American author chiefly famous for his children's books, particularly The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and its sequels. He wrote a total of 14 novels in the Oz series, plus 41 other novels, 83 short stories, over 200 poems, and at least 42 scripts. He made numerous attempts to bring his works to the stage and the nascent medium of film; the 1939 adaptation of the first Oz book would become a landmark of 20th century cinema. His works anticipated such century-later commonplaces as television, augmented reality, laptop computers (The Master Key), wireless telephones (Tik-Tok of Oz), women in high-risk and action-heavy occupations (Mary Louise in the Country), police corruption and false evidence (Phoebe Daring), and the ubiquity of advertising on clothing (Aunt Jane's Nieces at Work).

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  • James H. Simons: Mathematics, Common Sense and Good Luck
  • Where good ideas come from | Steven Johnson
  • Authors@Google: Frank Rose


>> Welcome to the--welcome to this evening main event or only event. And so this will be--this is part as you know of the American Mathematical Society meeting of the western section that's taking care of--that's taking place on campus this weekend and it's also part of the Bay Area Science Festival. And it's cosponsored by the American Math Society, the Bay Area Science Festival and Mathematical Science Research Institute in Berkeley. And I'm just going to introduce the introducer. I'm the--I'm Michel Lapidus, the AMS associate secretary in charge of this meeting. And our introducer tonight is David Eisenbud, who is a former president of the American Mathematical Society and current director of the MSRI, Mathematical Sciences Research Institute in Berkeley. [ Applause ] >> My great pleasure tonight to introduce Jim Simons, a dear and now, old friend. He's going to talk about luck and I want to talk about luck too and I'll start with a sort of personal story. My father, Leonard Eisenbud, was a physicist and joined the physics department of Stony Brook in 1957, just one year after it started. Stony Brook is a great place now but it had growing pains. And at one point, the math department was in such terrible shape that the provost felt he needed to have a committee of outsiders to find a new chair and--that no one in the department would do. So they went searching for an outside chair. Various people applied and my father was on the committee that was to make the choice and they made some pretty questionable choices, among them this inexperienced young guy Jim Simons. Never done any administration before and really is too young for the job. And they interviewed the candidates and the provost, when he interviewed Jim, according to Jim said, "You know, of all the people I've interviewed, you are the only one who actually seems to want the job." [ Laughter ] And indeed, nobody else took the job and Jim did. Talk about luck for Stony Brook. I feel I've been touched by that luck too in getting to know Jim. PhD from Berkeley in 1958 with Bertram Kostant whom I saw in the audience a moment ago. Where is Bertram Kostant? Somewhere around, unless he left again. >> 61. >> 61, oh. As your Wikipedia entries [inaudible] that. He was the winner of the AMS Veblen Prize in 1976. Is that the right thing? He discovered that minimal manifolds can have singularities starting in Dimension 7, not such an obvious construction. Now, very famous for Chern-Simons theory which is applied in math and physics in all kinds of unexpected ways. In 1982, a change of life, he founded Renaissance Technologies and in some sense, the amazing chapter really--even more amazing chapter started then. He did nothing but use math and a lot of talented people's work too to become one of the richest men on earth and has now been sharing his wealth and his luck with the rest of us who are here. And I will all share the luck again in listening to Jim himself. Jim. [ Applause ] >> This is a high thing. OK. I guess you can hear me. Thank you very much for such a nice introduction. So I'm going to kind of talk about my life and its various peregrinations. Some of it about math and some of it about commonsense, and some of it about good luck, and then I'll take some questions if there are any. So, I always liked math when I was a little kid. I didn't think of it as math, just numbers and having fun. But I discovered Zeno's--and so this is proof of my thoughtfulness as a child. I discovered Zeno's paradox at about four years old, not knowing it was anybody's paradox or not knowing what the word paradox meant. But I learned from my father, to my horror, that a car could run out of gasoline. And I said, "Whoa. It shouldn't run out. You could use half of what you have and then you could use half of that and then you could use half of that and you'll never run out." And it didn't occur to me that you'd never get anywhere either but on the other hand--so my family doctor, Dr. Kaplan [assumed spelling], he knew I was a bright boy and he said, "Well, you know, bright Jewish boy, you should be a doctor. You know, that's a great field." And I wanted nothing less than to be a doctor. And I said, "Well, I don't really want to be a doctor. You know, I want to do something like with engineering or math or something." I didn't know much. I was about eight years old. And he said, "Well, you know, you can't make any money doing that stuff." And I said--and, you know, it didn't seem to be very much of an impediment at eight years old. I wasn't thinking about making a lot of money, I was just thinking that I did not want to be a doctor which was a very good choice for me and it turns out for anyone who would have the unfortunateness to be my patient as I would not have done a very good job. But I did like working and my first job was as a stock boy in Breck's garden supply during the Christmas season. They hired kids, a few people and I got this job. A stock boy works down in a basement in this particular place looking, you know, bringing stuff up to the floor and putting stuff away. But I was not a good stock boy because I could never remember where anything went, that it seemed to be no rhyme or reason, no order, it wasn't alphabetized or anything like that, you just had to know where things were. So the two people who ran it, they realized I was a failure as a stock boy. But I was there so they said, "OK. You can sweep the floor." And I love that job. So then, I had a big push broom and sawdust and I could throw the sawdust in the floor and push the broom and walk up and down keeping the floor as clean and thinking which I enjoyed to do--enjoyed doing very much. And it came to the end and Christmas was past and it was time for me to leave. So this couple sat me down and said goodbye and so on and asked me what I was going to do. I was I think 14 and I said, "Oh, I'm going to study mathematics. I think I want to go to MIT." Well they laughed very, very hard. And I'm sure they were thinking this kiddo doesn't even know where the dried sheep manure is and he's going to go to MIT and study mathematics. Well, I did. I never got back to them and said see, I did that. But I did. And I went to MIT and did study mathematics and realized that, you know, one could be a mathematician. But I really had an epiphany when I learned Stokes' theorem. Now, I guess you're all mathematicians so you probably know Stokes' theorem. You integrate one thing over a boundary and you take its differential and you--that's the same as integrating that over the interior or something. And that, you know, is a great generalization of the fundamental theorem of calculus and it works at all dimensions. And I thought it was the most beautiful thing, that theorem. And it really made me appreciate mathematics, it made me want to become--go into this field of differential geometry which I had sort of gradually learned existed. And what sealed the deal was a delicatessen called Jack & Marion's in Boston. It's not there anymore, I'm afraid, but it was quite a place and it was open very late at night and as an undergraduate, we used to go there and hang out and eat maybe at 2 in the morning because young kids can eat at all hours as some of you perhaps remember. But frequently, Is Singer and Warren Ambrose, I guess everyone has heard of Singer, and Ambrose was an older fellow. He must have been 50. He seemed ancient to me although he was a great teacher. They would show up there and work. They'd go over to some booth and drink coffee and do mathematics. And I thought my God, you know, what a great life. You know, here are these grownups, you know, and they are doing this stuff, they're doing it in dress and suits, they just had, you know, regular outdoor clothes and I said what a life this is. It's 2 in the morning, over sandwiches talking about math. So it was clear that that was for me. I graduated MIT. I graduated early but I stayed one more year at graduate school. But when I graduated, which is in 1958, see, that's where the '58 came from. Where was David? He confused those dates, '58. I did something that was actually an example of having no commonsense at all but it turned out that there was some good luck involved. In those days, motor scooters had just been becoming popular, you know, Vespas and they were Italian. It was either a Vespa or a Lambretta. Those were the two choices you had. And we decided, I and a friend from Colombia, South America, an MIT friend who was not a mathematician, we decided to ride motor scooters--get motor scooters, we didn't have them. We didn't even know how to ride motor scooters but we felt it couldn't be that difficult. We're going to ride them from Boston to Buenos Aires. [ Laughter ] Yeah. Well, Boston--they both began with B, you know, Boston to Buenos Aires. And we got the motor scooters and a third guy joined the gang. And we did get halfway, we got to Bogota and that took seven weeks. And I at least almost died. I came extremely close to death. I think I never told my mother that. If my mother had had the slightest idea of how dangerous that trip was, she wouldn't let me go but for some reason, she did. And so I got there. Now, one of the themes of this talk is how important partners are and people that you work with. And so this fellow, this Colombian boy and his friend subsequently became my first partners in a business venture which I'll get to in a minute. But--So it was lucky on that account but it showed little signs of commonsense. Anyway, I spent one year in MIT as a graduate student. I thought I'd been with MIT long enough that I should go to Berkeley and meet Chern, the great geometer of the day and get a proper education with differential geometry since that's what I seem to like. So I went there and I got a nice fellowship, I went to Berkeley. The only thing is that Chern did not go to Berkeley. Chern was coming to Berkeley that year that's why they said I should go there too but Chern perhaps knowing I was coming decided to go somewhere else for that year. I guess he was on sabbatical or something. So I didn't see Chern. But I worked with Kostant. Someone told me Bert Kostant was here. Is he here? No he's not here. I think maybe I didn't really see him. But anyway, I worked with a fellow named Bert Kostant. But the first thing that I did when I got to Berkeley or very early was--well, I got married actually. I got married within a month of getting there and there was a wedding and we even got wedding presents. And so--which was cash. So I had--we had some money and I thought well, it's just lying there. We should invest it. I didn't know anything at all about investing but I knew that one could invest money. So I went to Merrill Lynch and I was, you know, now I was 21 years old. And said I want to open an account and there were two stocks that I thought would be just terrific and I want to buy these stocks. Well, I said OK and I bought the stocks and--but I'm an impatient guy and after a month, nothing happened. It didn't go down, it didn't go up, it didn't go anywhere. So I was bored with that thing. So I went back and said, "Well, isn't there something that's a little more lively that I could, you know, you have any ideas?" Oh yeah. He said, soybeans. You should buy soybeans. Now, I had heard of soybeans. I've never eaten one myself. It turns out perhaps most people haven't ever eaten a soybean. But pigs eat them in great quantities and cows and so on. But I said, "Well, what does that mean exactly?" He said, "Well, you know, when you buy 5000 bushels, that's a contract. It's a futures market. Our guys tell us soybeans are going through the roof. You'd make a lot of money." I said OK. So I bought two contracts of soybeans and they did. They went up, I was making money, they went down, I was losing money. I sold them both, I got nervous then I bought one contract. Meanwhile, I was going back and forth from Berkeley into San Francisco early in the morning to watch the soybean market. And, you know, early was, you know, 8 o'clock in the morning already I was out, I mean, that was very early for a graduate student. And after a couple of weeks, I came to the most sensible conclusion of my life I think. I said, I'm either going to write a thesis or trade soybeans because you couldn't possibly do both. And I came to that realization at a good point. I had a very small profit. OK. I'm closing out the profit. And it was years before I ever traded a soybean again although the occasion did rise. So--then I went and worked on it. I mean, you couldn't do both. You couldn't write a thesis and trade soybeans. Anyway, I couldn't. So I did write a thesis and it was a very gratifying experience. I wrote it. I'm sorry Bert is not here but--so I got some results which I showed to my professor and he said, "Oh, those are very interesting. That's nice." [Inaudible] suggests that a question that's open about holonomy groups. Anyone know what a holonomy group is? Probably a lot of you know what holonomy--anyway, OK. Yes. OK. Some of you. Anyway, it's a group that's associated to a connection on a manifold. Let's say, on the tangent bundle, you can parallel translate all around and come back to where you started and you move the tangent space. And it was--had just been shown all the possible--and that's a [inaudible] group, it's a linear group of linear transformations. And it had recently been shown that there was a list of all the possible candidates for holonomy groups on an irreducible manifold, one you couldn't write as a product of two other Riemannian manifolds. And that list happened to include only groups that were transitive on the unit sphere. So, everyone of those groups, you would take any point on the sphere, in the tangent space and bring it to any other points. So it was transitive. And so that was kind of a question. Well, why are they all transitive on the sphere? And I said, "Oh, I want to try that problem." And he said, "Don't do that." He said, "That's a very hard problem." You know, [inaudible] tried it, he couldn't figure out, you know. So that was like throwing gasoline on the fire. Well, I'm going to do that problem. And by, well, perhaps a miracle, I did. So that was a good thesis. I was very pleased. I've had some interactions with Singer along the way because he was interested in that problem and we talked about a little bit or wrote to each other. And so then, they finished that and they hired me and I went to MIT and became a Moore instructor. But--OK. So now, I was an instructor at MIT. But I still had this sort of, I don't know, urge to do something different and when I had been in Colombia on my motor scooter trip and we got to Bogota and I saw Colombia and my friends, it was a very exciting country. You could do anything there it seemed. All kinds of things could be manufactured in one thing or another. And I had this friend down there who was very smart. In fact, two friends. And I said, you know, you guys ought to start a business. And they said, well, I don't know. I said, OK. I'm going to come down to Colombia and I won't leave until we find a business. And not that I had any money particularly to invest in this business or it turned out I did have a little bit and I stayed there two weeks, we found a business, they said they were going to do it. The father of one of them [inaudible] the money. I said, OK. I'll scrape from my father and I put up a little bit of money and then I went back to MIT after those two weeks and of course, it took a little while for all that to manif--take place. But I decided after that first year, you know, this is so exciting, I'm going to move to Colombia and work in this factory, in this place, and it was another nutty idea. And so, I took a job in the interim because the place wasn't ready, in fact, wouldn't have been ready for, you know, two years or a year and a half at an engineering place--well, some engineering company. So I quit the Moore instructorship and I--my job was to computers were just coming and my job was to calculate Bessel functions on a computer. Now, I didn't know what a Bessel function was at that time although I certainly learned what it was. And they made antennas and they needed--anyway, it was the most tedious, horrible thing one could do was to calculate Bessel functions all day long. So I began to really miss academia, I was friends with Bott and with Singer, all these guys and--So I said to Singer, "You know, I think I made a mistake." And he said, "Oh, we'll put you on Bott's contract." Bott was a great mathematician in Harvard. In those days, you had an NSF contract, they were very loose, you could just hire someone on the contract. So I went on Bott's contract and then I went back and said, OK, I'll let those boys run the factory and I'll just be a minority investor and I worked on mathematics which I did. And I was working and as David mentioned minimal, minimal varieties. Minimal varieties are manifolds that have minimal area or volume depending on the dimension with respect to their boundary. So a soap bubble is a minimal variety in two dimensions typically--not a soap bubble but if you take a wire frame and dip it in soap, you'll get a film. That's going to minimize area. And so I was just studying that subject kind of from first principles. Almost all the work had been very--had been analysis. But I was trying to understand the geometry of these things and was working slowly and going along. They hired me at Harvard to be assistant professor. So I was at Harvard for a full two years, once on Bott's contract and one as an assistant professor. But I actually didn't like Harvard. I don't know, there was something that any Harvard men or women here today probably--Yes, there is something. Well, maybe with you there, I would have liked it better but-- [ Laughter ] And I don't even know you. But, I don't know, it was a stodgy place. And also the--it's out of the factory so I felt I needed a change. So I went--there's a place in Princeton that's still going strong called the Institute for Defense Analyses or it's a branch of the Institute for Defense Analyses. And there, they would hire mathematicians. In there, it was super secret. It was a very highly classified place. They worked on secret codes and ciphers. In fact, in those days, you weren't even allowed to say what they're working on. So we just--stuff. But now it's permissible to say that's what they worked on. And it was--I didn't know anything about codes and ciphers but I knew they paid a lot and you could spend half of your time doing mathematics and half--as much as half. And the other half, you had to work on their stuff. And that sounded pretty good. So I moved to Princeton. And well, I loved that job. I loved everything about it. I learned about computers, I learned first that I don't know how to--would never know how to program a computer with any skill whatsoever. But there were fortunately people who could. I learned I like to make algorithms and think about testing things out on a computer. Maybe you can crack this code with this algorithm. Most of the time, it didn't work, sometimes it did. It was kind of exciting. And I liked the people and I was still working away at minimal varieties. And after maybe two years there, maybe into my third year, I solved this sort of famous problem in the subject of minimal varieties which as David said, I showed that you could fill in smoothly--this is in codimension 1 in Euclidean space. So in Euclidean space, you have a boundary of one dimension lower and you'll want two dimensions lower like a curve and three space, whatever, and you want to fill in. And I proved that you could do that smoothly without, you know, any singularities through ambient Dimension 7. So up to six dimensional surfaces and seven dimensional space with a five dimensional boundary I guess it would work, you could do it, a uniform proof. But in one dimension more, my proof broke down and I suggested a counterexample which turned out--and I couldn't prove it was a counterexample. It was locally stable but it might not have been globally stable. So it's a beautiful thing. You take the three sphere and you cross it with itself so now you get six dimensionals thing sitting in the actual--the seven dimensional sphere in eight space. Anyway, that's the boundary, six dimensional boundary. The cone on that which obviously, since it's a cone, clearly has a vertex and a singularity. But that does minimize volume, six to seven--seven dimensional volume. And then--so that was a good result and I published this paper which was everything I knew about minimal variety was packed into this paper. But it was a good paper. And so that was very nice. And so David said, I won the Veblen Prize and that's I guess what I wanted for some few years later. And I was also doing good work for them. It was great but it was the Vietnam wartime if you remember. You all know about the Vietnam War and some of you probably lived through it. And so now, we didn't do any work that had anything to do with the Vietnam War as far as I knew. Although in fact, God knows what they did with what we did because I never read any of the secret messages because we didn't have access to that stuff, we just tried to crack the codes. But I didn't like the war. Now--So the boss of my boss was in Washington, DC and he was a general named Maxwell Taylor. Some of you probably remember old Maxwell Taylor. And he was--had been a general, now, he'd been kicked upstairs, he ran the Institute for Defense Analyses. And he wrote an article for the New York Times, it was a cover story in the magazine section, a Sunday paper how we're doing so great in Vietnam, we're going to win the war, it's very important, [inaudible] just hold still. It's a terrific enterprise. Well, I mean, I didn't think so. And I'm sure there were others who didn't think so. But I wrote a letter to the Times saying not everyone who works for General Taylor shares his views. In fact, I think the whole thing is stupid and-- [ Laughter ] I mean, the words were classier than that but that was the effect of the letter and they published that letter eagerly I'm sure because, you know, no one said anything. I didn't hear anything from my superiors, I heard plenty from my friends but OK, you know. But then a few months later, a young guy came, sought me out and he told me he was a reporter for Newsweek magazine. I think it still exists but in those days, it was one of the two big news weekly, that and Time magazine. You're doing a story in Newsweek magazine on people who work for the Defense Department who are opposed to the war. And he said, "I don't have many takers because--but I wonder if I could interview you?" Well, I was 29 years old, no one had ever asked me for an interview before. And I thought oh, sure. Of course, you can interview me. So he interviewed me. And, you know, so the bottom line was I said, "Well, the rule IDA is you have to spend half of your time at their stuff and you can spend half of your time with your own stuff. And my algorithm now is--but I'm spending all my time on mathematics and when the war is over, I'll spend an equal amount of all my time at their stuff so I'll make it all up and so that's what I'm doing. That's what I'm doing. Yeah, exactly, oh-ho-ho-ho because--and it wasn't even quite true but it was close to being true. Anyway, then I did the only intelligent thing I had done that day. I told my boss that I gave this interview, [inaudible] more intelligent but I told him before I gave the interview but I didn't, I told him after. He said, "You did?" He said, "Why did you say?" I said, "Well, I told him about my half and a half proposition and so and so." He says, "I have to call Taylor", his boss. So he called Taylor. My memory is a little faint on this point but I think he may have called him in my presence or maybe I had leaved the room. But it seemed like only a microsecond before he told me, "You're fired." [ Laughter ] And I said, well--I said, you know, my title is permanent member of the-- [ Laughter ] --permanent member of this outfit. He said, "Well, it used to be a temporary member." He said, "I'll tell you the difference between a temporary member and a permanent member." He said, "A temporary member has a contract and a permanent doesn't." So I didn't have a leg to stand on. They may have given me a week severance. I don't remember what the deal was but they were probably more generous. And anyway, there I was. I didn't have a job. I had a wife, three kids and no job. But I wasn't, you know, I proved this theorem, I know I could get an academic job. And so I wasn't, you know, terrified at the prospect. It was all kind of exhilarating actually being fired. I think it's good once. You shouldn't make a habit of it. You shouldn't make a habit of being fired but once is perhaps salutary. Anyway, I did get as David said this offer at Stony Brook to be chair and I thought that would really be fun. As I've said before, I thought it would be better to be the firor [phonetic] than the firee. And the department was not strong, they had a great physics department at that. And it was a very new university and I had a wonderful time building a department. And I met Frank Yang, the famous physicist who was there and we became friends and we had an interesting interaction. And so he would--after a few months, he invited me up to his office, he was going to tell me what he was doing. I didn't know any physics but he was, you know, Nobel Prize winning great man and I figured I'd go up and get a lecture. And so I sat down and he told me what he was doing. He covered the board with equations so I didn't understand a goddamned thing. I didn't understand anything, I didn't know any physics but, you know, I looked and I looked--tried to look as intelligent as possible. I thanked him very much at the end and I went back downstairs. We repeated the same thing in year 2 and then again in year 3 but something happened in the middle of the lecture at year 3. He kind of showed me the same equations. They were getting familiar. And then I realized, I said stop, stop right there. He said, "Why should I stop?" I said because you're trying to invent mathematics that was done 30 or 40 years ago. He said, "What?" You know, what he was doing was in gauge theory, you use bundles and they have connections. But I think he didn't know that you could also have--there was a thing as parallel transport and a holonomy group and all that stuff. And he was torturously trying to create parallel translation in a bundle with a connection. And I said, you know, mathematicians have done that. He said, "Why would they have ever done that? Why would they study that kind of stuff?" And I said, well, it was beautiful, natural and it just came on anyway. How can I answer that question except to say it just came out of mathematics. So that was a great moment because he said OK. So we had a--so he organized a seminar with members of this institute with the article physics and it was kind of a translation seminar. I said we say this, you say that kind of thing. And he even wrote a glossary. He even wrote some kind of book with all these things. But it was the smartest group of students I ever had. It was his whole faculty. So I was, you know, I got to--but it was great. And they gave me at the end, a very thick dictionary because I'm a terrible speller. They gave me one of these things that weighs 100 pounds, you know, as a gift for that. So in the meantime, I was doing geometry myself and I started working with Chern, the guy. We had become--he came in the second year when I was at Berkeley having missed the first year but we became friends. We didn't do any science together but we became friends. And I had--while Stony Brook came up with some geometry in three dimensions that looked quite interesting, I showed it to him and he said, "Oh, we can do this in all dimensions. This is very exciting," and so--and so we worked together and developed and wrote a paper. And that was the roots of this Chern-Simons invariants which have seem to be used in a lot of places which is, you know, an example--I mean here, we did this math and we didn't think, oh, it's going to apply to this out of the other thing. I thought maybe it will apply, you know, maybe on a mathematics we built on it as I suppose it was. But the idea that it would find its way into physics 10 years later and become quite ubiquitous, I mean, it's condensed matter physics, it's in high energy physics, it's in cosmology, Chern-Simons term. And, you know, I don't know what they're doing with it and I don't have the faintest idea. But mathematics is that way and basic science is that way. You do a piece of basic science, you know, and you don't know where it's going to go. But if it's pretty good science, it can lead to a surprising place. I mean when Maxwell developed the Maxwell equations, the television occurred to him as a consequence. I don't think so. You know, he just wanted to know how the hell did his--how does this work, and obviously figured it out. So I was doing mathematics with Chern and then with a guy named Jeff Cheeger. It grew out of that with something called differential characters which now is kind of the root of a subject called differential cohomology if you ever heard of that. And we got--we worked on that and it led to questions that neither of us could figure out about rational numbers or certain volumes, whether they're rational or irrational. We really wanted to figure out but couldn't. We spent a couple of years struggling with those questions, I won't say where they came from. But in the meantime, my investment in Colombia paid off. So, a part of the company was sold, I had a few bucks, my father had more but we had some money. And my Colombian friends, God knows why, said, "OK. We have this money. We want you to invest it for us." Now, where they got the idea that I would be any better at investing for them than that broker at Merrill Lynch years ago, I don't know. But I said, fine. I'll do that. And I had a friend who had been a mathematician and was now a commodity trader, and he seemed to be doing pretty well. So I said, Charlie, we have this money. Would you manage it for us? And he said, "Yeah, of course. I'll be happy to." He said, "Why not?" It was more than he'd ever seen. So he thought it was good. And so, I made a deal with Charlie. He was going to get 25 percent of the profits. No fixed fee but 25 percent of the profits. And I said but if we lose much money and I said, you know, if we lose 25 percent, you have to stop. After all, we don't want to lose all the money. So that's a stop loss, OK? But as I was walking out of his apartment, something occurred to me and I said, oh, also, if you make too much, we're going to have to stop. He said, well, how much is too much? It's a reasonable question. I said, 10 times what we invested after your rapacious fee. Well, how could he say no? 10 times is much. So he said fine. So that was the other stopping rule. We stopped on that basis after 10 months. He had actually had multiplied the money by a factor, I guess of 13, and when you take off 20--anyway, we actually made 10 times our money. It was incredible. It was just completely lucky. He--well, I know it was completely lucky. [ Laughter ] But there it was. So now, I really, you know, had some money and I had followed his work. I had followed his work carefully. In fact, he never--I had to because he never quite knew where he was. So I said, "OK. I'll keep the books. Every week, I'll tell you where you stand." He said, "OK. That's great. It will take that--my mind off that." So I did that. And so I learned a little bit about that and there was the soybeans in my youth. And I thought, OK. Mathematics is driving me crazy. I recently gotten divorced, I was on the wrong side of the first wife. I was involved with another woman who turned out to be my second wife and my present wife. And I was frustrated with works like that. I'm going to go into business and be a trader. And I did. I did do that. And I brought--I started doing some training and that was working OK. I got some investors. I brought in a guy from IDA. He was the best cryptanalyst in the world. He was a wonderful model maker and so--and in fact he--I don't know if any of you have ever heard of the Baum-Welch algorithm or the EM algorithm. Anyway, it's a famous algorithm in statistics. He was the Baum of Baum-Welch. So, he was a very smart guy. And I said, "You know, I'm looking at these commodity charts. Actually it was currencies that we were trading. And they seem to have some shape to them. They don't look random to me. So, maybe we could make some models." And he said, "OK." But it turned out--and we did. We made a model and it looked like it was going to be OK. And it's a trade, but we were doing fundamental trade, and he hated the model building. He said I, you know--He loved the fundamental trade. He loved reading the newspapers and reading the tickers and the news tickers and getting ideas. It turned out he was for a while, very, very good. So, we put the models aside for a while and we trade it and we did very well, we did very well. But it was a gut wrenching experience. You know it's--You know one day you're walking and you think you're a genius. God, all my positions are in my way. Look, I'm a--And the next day you walk in and there were [inaudible] and you feel like you're a dope. How could I have done what I did and so on. There was no rhyme or reason. It was just, you know, you put your finger in the air and you try to sense which way the wind is blowing. I'll tell you one story to illustrate the craziness. It was a time when gold was going up. Gold had been--you couldn't buy or sell gold and finally you could and there was as the price was rising and it was rising and we had a deal where Lenny, Lenny Baum and I, where we'd each have the same--we'd each have our own account. I was the boss but we've each had our own account. And in our own account in fact we both buy gold. It was supposed to be independent and we both like gold. The gold was going up. It started at 200 and 300 and 400 and $500, it got to $500 which by today's standards would be like 15 or $1800. And I said, "You know, this is a very high price. I'm getting out." And I sold my half. But Lenny, I think you should--No. You don't know how high it was going to be. You can't--This is going to--this is going to go very, very high. I said, OK. So, he stayed at the 600, it was 700, it was 800, it goes to $800. That day, I happened to be talking to a friend of mine on the phone who was a stockbroker. And then he in fact, he was my stockbroker. And I said, "How are things, Dick?" And he said, "Oh, well, they're fine. This morning my wife Lucy came in to my closet and cleaned out all of my--all tie clasps and cufflinks and went downtown to sell them. Gold. They were gold. They were gold, see? And I said, well, I--are you having a hard time in your family? Why is she--so your wife--Oh, he says, "You know she's a jeweler." I said, "Yes, I know that." So he said, so she only has to stand in the short line." I said, "What do you mean the short line?" He says, "Don't you know that people are lining up and standing for hours selling their gold?" I said, "No, I did know that. Thank you very much." [ Laughter ] We had a phone in those days. If you picked it up--it was a different phone. If you picked it up, you went right to the floor of the commodity exchange. And I got Lenny in the office and I put the phone up to his ear and I said, "Lenny, sell the gold." In fact I--And he said, "No, no, no, no." I said, "Lenny, I'm the boss. Sell the blankety blank gold." I was more emphatic than that. He said, "All right, all right." So, he sold the gold and maybe it was $810. Oh, he was mad. And the next day we came in and it opened at $830. And oh, he said [inaudible]. I told you. By the end of that day, it had dropped 25 percent. It was down to $600 all in one day and it never of course went back up. So, that is an example of commonsense and very good luck. The good luck--if I hadn't called my stockbroker the day I did, Lenny would have held on to that gold, it would have gone to--it went back to 200 after a while. It would have wrote it out--written it all the way down, I think. And so, it was just playing luck that I have, but it was at least commonsense that out of everyone in the world is trying to sell that gold, how long can it be going up, you know. There is such a thing as supply and demand. So, there it was. So, that was what it was like to be a fundamental trader. It was stomach wrenching. So, Jim Ax, I got Jim Ax, who was a very well known algebraist to come and work for us and he was interested in the models of Lenny [inaudible] and he got a good computer programmer and we built some models and he showed that the models used for currencies would work for all commodities and we were on our way with models. And well, we kept fundamental trading but more and more we were trading the models, and finally it took about eight years, the models were good enough and we went to all models. And then we started the company. This was a [inaudible] and we started the company called Renaissance Technologies which has been going ever since. And as 300 people has 90 PhDs and it's 100 percent, it's 100 percent model and it's been remarkably profitable for a long time. And other mathematicians came in to help. I don't know if Elwyn Berlekamp is here. Maybe some of you know Elwyn. Henry Laufer joined us and each made important contributions. So, it has been remarkably successful. So, people said, well, what's the secret and--well, there are a lot of little secret because the way this works, you have a lot of smart guys and they keep inching away and getting a new idea here and a new idea there and you pile them together and soon you have an awful lot of little ideas that are independent of each other and you can, you know, you can make some progress. Bu the--I think--So, people say what's the secret sauce. But the secret sauce was really in the first instance having very smart people working for the firm. We were academics ourselves, we had an idea of who was a good scientist and who wasn't and we brought in and continued to bring in excellent people, not just mathematicians but computer scientists, statisticians, experimental physicist, astronomers, we got four or five astronomers who are good, it look at data. They can't do experiments. I have to--you can't make this star bump into that star. You just have to--You have to take it as it is and that's, you know, and make model. So, great scientists. We built a terrific infrastructure. The computer guys are wonderful. We've taken--I need to take in nine terabytes a day of data comes into that outfit. And it all get stored and organized and dished up to the researchers and so on. So, it's a great infrastructure. It's an open atmosphere. Everybody knows what everybody else is doing. And every week there's a research meeting if you'd have a good idea that you think it's going to go somewhere, you present it. If it looks good it's goes to a small meeting. People [inaudible] it more carefully but there aren't little groups working in the dark, well, this is my little system and I want [inaudible] this. So--And that's the best way to do science I think in a collaborative manner. Sure you don't immediately at first time you get--you have a thought, you know, run down the hallways say I have a thought. But, you know, you test that out a little bit. But--So, I think that's a very good way to do things. Everybody has a piece of the profits, all the senior people own part of the business and that I think is good too. So, we have very little turnover and we tried everything worldwide. We try that it runs 24 hours a day, not 7 days a week but I guess 5. And then the only rule is we never override the computer. No one ever comes in any day and says the computer wants to do this. That's crazy, we shouldn't do it. You don't do it. Because you can't simulate that. You can't study the past and wonder whether the boss was going to come in and change his mind about something. So, we just stick with it and it's worked. So, well--So, obviously I make money and in 1974 with my wife Marilyn, we started a foundation [inaudible]. We've been giving money away and Marilyn thought, "Hey, we should have a foundation." So, we had a foundation. And it was a one woman foundation. It was in her dressing room and she had a little box with records and so on. She studied accounting. She was a--actually a PhD in econometrics but she didn't know anything about accounting. And so she took a night course in accounting. And I put something on the door for addressing it and there was a wonderful cartoon. It showed a medieval setting, big castle with a tower and someone was standing on the tower addressing the multitudes below. And one of the multitudes people said to the--his neighbor and to think he started life as an accountant. So-- [ Laughter ] So she studied accounting and we built up the foundation. Initially, we gave money very broadly to social causes, to universities, to a variety of things. But in 2004, so just 10 years ago, we decided to just focus on basic science and other kinds of giving that we did were done outside of the foundation and the foundation grew, and it's a--it's a very--it's very good, it's a good foundation. We have a--the launch project on the causes of autism, just trying to understand that. It's really a lot of genetics and neuroscience. We have less applied things and look various aspects of life science. We have a math and physical science program. In fact that David Eisenbud who us sitting right there helped to organize for us which we have various kinds of grants and programs and one thing or another. And we also have started in the last few years goal driven collaborative projects. So that's a--as it's stated, it's a collaborative project consisting of maybe 10, 20, 30, 40 sometimes 50 scientists typically in different places but all working towards a common end. We have one on the origins of life which is an underfunded thing. You can imagine the NSF is going to--certainly not the NIH. It's not going to give you any money for the origins of life. But it's really fascinating and those--that's a project. We have a project called "Many Electrons" which is sort of a material science, condensed matter, physics trying to model the clouds of electrons inside materials. That's a many body problem really but you have not only is it many bodies which electrons that would normally repel each other but you also have there entangled if you guys know what entanglement means. It's a strange phenomenon in quantum mechanics. So, modeling these big clouds of electrons is extremely difficult to do even though the first principles are well known but so what? And so, that's a project and that's going quite well actually. We have a project in microbial oceanography studying all the interactions between the myriad of microbes in the oceans and a number of other things. So it's a--it's quite a vibrant foundation and I think maybe some people here have been beneficiaries. Anyone who haven't gotten the grant from us? Yeah. Oh, now you're all in the first row. [ Laughter ] OK. I didn't realize that. OK. Well, I mean I knew some people here that grants. So we give all kinds--Oh, there's someone way back there. Why aren't you in the first row with these beautiful girls? So that's--that's the foundation. Now, actually under less than wonderful circumstances, I went back to my older age and to do mathematics again. And, in 19--in 2004, we lost a son, we lost one of our sons, and that was obviously very sad. And kind of as a refuge, I just started thinking about math. And, you know, doing mathematics, you then retreat into your head and you're just thinking about a problem and it can blot out other stuff. And I thought about a problem in what's now called differential cohomology that I had thought about before and then I got serious about it and it turns out I later discovered there was a group of Germans--any Germans in the audience? Well, anyway. OK, there are some Germans in the audience. Who were working on the same problem and I didn't know that at that time. But I got an idea of how to solve it. It was--But it needed some topology which was beyond me and I spoke to my friend Dennis Sullivan who probably you've heard of, who is a great topologist and together we solved this problem, we beat out the Germans. They were very nice Germans actually. They came over and they had some other results that we didn't have and so on. And so it was all very collegial, but nonetheless we beat them and-- [ Laughter ] So that was, that was gratifying. And since then, I've been--I've written a couple of other papers with Dennis so I'm back, you know, small way doing some mathematics. So I retired from Renaissance in--five years ago, 2009, and well, I'm the chair so I go to a monthly meeting. But those guys are doing a wonderful job, Peter Brown and Bob Mercer who came out of IBM 20 years ago and they have ran the speech recognition group for IBM and they came and then they kept bringing the members of their group to Renaissance and now they're running the company. So--And I've just been focusing on the foundation. In fact one of our--I mentioned the other programs in the basic science program, we have a program called Math for America in New York City which John Ewing who was formally the head of--the executive director of the math--American Math Society who was here. There he is with his wife Janice and John runs that program and it's a very successful program of getting competent teachers and rewarding them in the New York City schools and now in the state schools as well. And so, that's what I do. So I gave a similar talk some years ago and my wife said, "Well, you know you ought to talk--and to talk with your values. Values I know it. I said--I remember--I think we were in the car I said--I'm not sure I have any values. I don't know. I don't know what my values are exactly. But, I said--But I have some guiding principles. So we call them guiding principles which I--Looking back, I think I've probably fall. And so I have five guiding principles. And I will tell you. So one of them is don't run with the pack. Try to do something that's original. Well, of course you want to do something original. But sometimes, its--in math or in science in general, everyone is just kind of only to solve the same problem, do the same thing. If you're really fast, maybe you're going to be the winner. But its better, I think, probably you're not going to be the winner but if you can sort of doing and run around things. Think about something that other people aren't thinking about, that's a pretty good way to do things. Now, I've partnered with a lot of people and I think that partnering with people is terrific but you want to partner with wonderful people. And in the names I've mentioned, Chern and Sullivan and various people, John Ewing, they've been really outstanding--and David Eisenbud--outstanding people and you can live with your own efforts and sometimes you get, you know, partnered up with people who are smarter than you but that's fine. And it's--But just to have good choice in the partnership and I did that and I always try to do that. A third principle is be guided by beauty. Now, you all are mathematicians and you know that mathematics is beautiful and you know when an equation is greater or idea is very pretty and so on and that's a wonderful aesthetic to follow but it's not just true in mathematics. There are aesthetics in other enterprises or a well run business is kind of a beautiful thing. If everything is just working just right and the pieces are meshing and it's a good organization, that's kind of beautiful and it's a--So, beauty is a--it could be a good guide. The last--well, the penultimate principle is don't give up [inaudible]. Now, sometimes a discretion is the better part of valor and you can just say, the hell with it. But--and go on to something else and that's a decision that we've all made at one time or another. But persistence has a lot of value and something that's really worthwhile can take a lot of time to come to fruition and you ought to have patience if you believe in something to stick with it. And my final principle is hope for good luck. And that's it. So, thank you very much. [ Applause ] >> We have a few minutes for questions, so the floor is open. >> OK. Who has a question? All right, there's one there. And speak loudly. [ Inaudible Remark ] Well, I've not done a lot of things. [ Laughter ] So the question is when do you--do I have any wisdom about when not to do something. And--Well, I don't think I have any wisdom on that than anyone else. It looks like a room full of sensible people. And you probably can, you know, you've had a lot of opportunities to say no and it's--and in particular, being head of a foundation, you really need to know how to say no because, you know, if you--well anyway, I was going to tell a joke but I won't. OK. Another question? Yeah? [ Inaudible Remark ] I can't hear you. [ Inaudible Remark ] OK. My thoughts on the hedge fund industry today, do I think it's working right or I think it's--or what's right or what's wrong. Well, there are a lot of hedge funds today. When I started this, there were a lot fewer. A hedge fund, for those of you who don't know what they are, is a fund that people invest in. The managers charge a percentage of the profits, typically let's say 20 percent and a fixed fee to maybe 1 or 2 percent and they manage the money and then you hopefully will benefit from it. Hedge funds have ebbed and flow--and ebbed and flowed, I don't know what the word is. They've got--they've waxed and waned, that they've got better and they've got worse, they go through periods where they seem to be doing all very well. The last two years hedge funds have not done very well but the markets have--one of the things that's good about--some hedge funds buy and sell things and they go long and they go short. You need a certain amount of volatility to make that work. If nothing is really moving, then it's hard to make money. There's a lot of competition in hedge funds. There's an awful lot of them today, so I think probably as a whole industry it's not as successful as perhaps it was when there were fewer but there are certainly some good hedge funds, and they come in all stripes, where our fund as I've told you was 100 percent systematic and there aren't very many of those but there are some and few of them are good. But there are many that have other policies and do fundamental trading and, you know, it's a range of approaches. So, that's all I can say about hedge funds, I think, OK? [ Inaudible Remark ] What's the reason-- [ Inaudible Remark ] --on these collaborative goal-driven things? Well, it's not our only focus. It's shaping up to be about a third of what we'll do, of what we're doing and it's not there yet. I find it challenging and enjoyable. It's--Our autism project, which is certainly goal-driven and it is collaborative has shown me, yeah, this is a pretty good way to make progress. And I like working with people and I like seeing people working together, so you have to be careful. You understand that the goal may be far off but if they're making progress like this origins of life. I mean, you know, I don't think in my lifetime I'm going to know the answer which is really what's a completely plausible path let's say to RNA or something like that. From first principles how do we get to that? On the other hand, I see they're making some really nice progress and how this chemical came to in existence so that--and they're also looking at exoplanets and seeing and they can look at atmospheres of exosplanets and see what planets might have atmospheres that would be conducive to life. So, a lot of science will get done and gradually we'll--you know, eventually, maybe we'll find the answer. So, I like that approach. It's not the only approach. Most of the money we give out in mathematics is to individual researchers and so on and all those people who held up their hands or individuals, but I like that. Yes? [ Inaudible Remark ] When I was a kid how did my parents helped foster my mathematical knowledge. That's the question and the answer is they didn't. [ Laughter ] I mean, you know, they thought I was a good kid and they were glad I liked school but I don't think they said, "This boy is going to be a mathematician" or anything like that. So, I wasn't put into any push in any direction whatsoever, except to do my homework, and I was not a good homework doer, like I hated doing my homework. Yes? >> In your professional life when you look back would you change anything? And I think like going earlier in business or before mathematics? >> OK. So would I change anything as I look back in my professional life? Well, not really. I don't think I made any huge mistakes in my professional life. One doesn't know what a different path might have led to, but there's nothing that glares [inaudible] oh my god, I wish I hadn't done that. I mean, there are certainly things in my life that I can say I wish I hadn't said that or one thing or another or going out with that particular girl. But in general, no. When I look back I think it was an OK path. There's nothing [inaudible]--no big change that I would want to make. [ Inaudible Remark ] Wait a minute. OK, you next to speak up. [ Inaudible Remark ] OK. OK, that's a good question. The question is at Renaissance where the algorithms that they had developed and the ideas are very proprietary and not, you know, you can't patent them or copyright them because people would just take it over and you'd just be lawsuits all the time. The question is if we're developing this at a new science, would we have any wish to sort of share what the general public in some sense or other? And the answer is no. [ Laughter ] No. But that's not meant as a joke. That the--There isn't anything that these guys have done of such generality and power that it would be--that it's a shame that the world doesn't know it. It's a very powerful group of people who can focus on data and got some very good results, but there's nothing but so general that it would really need to be shared with the world as far as I know. Yes? [ Inaudible Remark ] Yes. Yes. OK. The question is what are my thoughts on math education in America. And my thoughts are needs to be better as probably most of you realized. So, kind of the background, I got interested in this because when I went to Berkeley to be a graduate student, I was the beneficiary of a National Defense Education Act fellowship. Now, only the--all folks here probably ever heard of the National Defense Education Act, but when Sputnik went up in 1957, the whole country went in into spasm. And the Congress said, "Oh my God, you know, the Russians are going to be beat us. They'll be on the moon throwing [inaudible] soon. We can't get our satellites up, they got theirs up. We need to strengthen the scientific enterprise in United States" and they did. They created the National Defense Education Act. They beefed up the National Science Foundation. When I got my--it was like quarrel with John about this but I'm going to give this statistics anyway. When I got my PhD in 1961, I think there were fewer than 100 people in United States, surely 100 Americans who got PhDs in mathematics. Ten years later, there were 1400. Now, 100 was too few, 1400 we don't know what to do with them because, you know, there weren't enough academic jobs. But--And in other professions, other area--scientific areas this was similar. There was a lot of growth. And we saw a national problem, cold war, and we were going to solve it through building up our science and we did. We did a marvelous job of building up science. Salaries went up in universities for those kind of folks and a lot of people came in to science, young people, and it was a great success. So--Well, 15 years ago, I looked around, more, maybe more than 15 years but--and I realized that the teaching math, I was only focusing on math, in our schools was really not very good. And I realized like we all do that the economy is becoming far more quantitative than it used to be 40 or 50 years ago and more and more things are based on quantitative methods and we're not really keeping up. Our teachers by and large don't know in particular math I think the subject very well. Because if you know enough math to be a good high school teacher and that means you know college math and something so that you're not just one step ahead of the kids. If you know that much math and you have the least mental agility which I--you'll see in a second I don't have, you know how to program a computer, you can go to work for Google, you can go to work for Microsoft, you can go to work for Apple. I have an Apple phone right here in front of me. And so--and, you know, you're going to get paid twice as much and so on. So, what's to keep someone who actually knows the field in the profession? Well, you might really like teaching and that's great. But the pullout--so something needed to be done to make the job of teaching math, and in fact math and science, more attractive so that we would educate our kids better and be able to compete in the world. And so, I had--OK. I have a program, I know what to do. A friend of mine or a guy who became my friend, Senator Schumer had just been elected. And part of the reason he was elected is because I gave him $250 or whatever it was. Anyway, I was--I was a supporter of Senator Schumer, I probably was a little more, but I know it wasn't some future [inaudible] but I had a party for him, he became a friend. And as soon as he got elected I went right to Washington, I say, "Here's an idea, you got to do this." And I said, "Create this program. Reward people who--give teachers a test. If they pass the test, you give them money and they'll be rewarded and they'll stay in the schools and people will be drawn into the field because they're going to get an extra stipend from the--I mean, you know, like the National Defense Education Act." He said, "That's a great idea. I'll get right on it." And as I left his office, another group went in about, I don't know, something about dams on the beaches of Long Island and I heard him say [inaudible], "That's a great idea. I'll get right on it." [ Laughter ] I'm exaggerating slightly but only slightly. So, he didn't get right on it. We had a few conversations but was nothing going to happen as a federal program. And so, a few years went by and then--actually, MSRI was kind of in the picture because we had a poker tournament to benefit MSRI. David hooked me up with a few people in New York who were also in the financial business. I don't know where you found those guys. And we sat together, how can we benefit MSRI. And one of the guys was a poker player and he was talking [inaudible] and then I say, "Hey, you know--and I like poker, I said, "Why don't we have a charity poker tournament?" And we did. And it worked extremely well and MSRI got the benefit. But I thought, well, if we're going to do this every year in New York, it'd better be something that really relates more to New Yorkers. I'm not going to get these guys coming out every year to give money to MSRI which is in California and for math research. I don't know how we talked them into it the first time but-- [ Laughter ] So then I thought, OK, you know, maybe this is the time to start this program here in the city and just do it ourselves. And so we did. And we had the tournament every year and that raised some money and of course I provided a great deal of it on top of that, so that the program was started privately. Two years ago, the state of New York took on to do the same program outside the city as we're doing in the city and they're building up, we have 800 teachers of now math and science in New York City. Next year there'll be a thousand and that will be 10 percent of the math and science teachers in New York will be part of this core of really knowledgeable committed teachers. They all get extra stipends and so on and the state is doing the same thing, and we're hoping that other states in the country will take on. The federal government is in a state of paralysis and it's probably better to work through states. But, you know, it's a long haul. That's a very long answer. I'm sorry. And maybe I'll take one more question. OK. [ Inaudible Remark ] You know--you mean Bourbaki. Yeah. Yeah, Bourbaki. Do you guys know about Bourbaki? You know about Bourbaki? Well, it was sort of a--the French of course did this. Any French people in the audience? No. [ Laughter ] You know, they're one of the codified, you know, all of--you know, in the United States and England we have common law, the tradition and the traditions grow up and, you know, you go by various court cases and that becomes a law or in one thing or another. In France, and it's not like that at all. Everything is codified. They're [inaudible]--you know, Napoleon wrote this code and, you know, the French like to codify everything. And so, Bourbaki wanted to get right down to it and codify mathematics somewhere. I think some of it was pretty good. I'm not an expert on it. What do you think about Bourbaki? [ Inaudible Remark ] Oh, that's when it went. >> They created it. >> I see. It was actually created at that time. Well, OK. [ Inaudible Remark ] Will he catch it, will they catch it, or just be exposed to it? [ Laughter & Applause ] [ Inaudible Remark ] There's no question and I'm sure the federal money is not well spent and my Republican friends take not a penny of it as well spent but I think some of it is. Anyway, I think we have to stop. David is going to throw me out, so thank you. [ Applause ]


Childhood and early life

Baum was born in Chittenango, New York in 1856 into a devout Methodist family. He had German, Scots-Irish, and English ancestry, and was the seventh of nine children of Cynthia Ann (née Stanton) and Benjamin Ward Baum, only five of whom survived into adulthood.[1][2] "Lyman" was the name of his father's brother, but he always disliked it and preferred his middle name "Frank".[3]

His father succeeded in many businesses, including barrel-making, oil drilling in Pennsylvania, and real estate. Baum grew up on his parents' expansive estate called Rose Lawn, which he fondly recalled as a sort of paradise.[4] Rose Lawn was located in Mattydale, New York.[5] Frank was a sickly, dreamy child, tutored at home with his siblings. From the age of 12, he spent two miserable years at Peekskill Military Academy but, after being severely disciplined for daydreaming, he had a possibly psychogenic heart attack and was allowed to return home.[6]

Baum started writing early in life, possibly prompted by his father buying him a cheap printing press. He had always been close to his younger brother Henry (Harry) Clay Baum, who helped in the production of The Rose Lawn Home Journal. The brothers published several issues of the journal, including advertisements from local businesses, which they would give to family and friends for free.[7] By the age of 17, Baum established a second amateur journal called The Stamp Collector, printed an 11-page pamphlet called Baum's Complete Stamp Dealers' Directory, and started a stamp dealership with friends.[8]

At 20, Baum took on the national craze of breeding fancy poultry. He specialized in raising the Hamburg. In March 1880, he established a monthly trade journal, The Poultry Record, and in 1886, when Baum was 30 years old, his first book was published: The Book of the Hamburgs: A Brief Treatise upon the Mating, Rearing, and Management of the Different Varieties of Hamburgs.[9]

Baum had a flair for being the spotlight of fun in the household, including during times of financial difficulties. His selling of fireworks made the Fourth of July memorable. His skyrockets, Roman candles, and fireworks filled the sky, while many people around the neighborhood would gather in front of the house to watch the displays. Christmas was even more festive. Baum dressed as Santa Claus for the family. His father would place the Christmas tree behind a curtain in the front parlor so that Baum could talk to everyone while he decorated the tree without people managing to see him. He maintained this tradition all his life.[10]



Baum embarked on his lifetime infatuation—and wavering financial success—with the theater.[11] A local theatrical company duped him into replenishing their stock of costumes on the promise of leading roles coming his way. Disillusioned, Baum left the theater — temporarily — and went to work as a clerk in his brother-in-law's dry goods company in Syracuse. This experience may have influenced his story "The Suicide of Kiaros", first published in the literary journal The White Elephant. A fellow clerk one day was found locked in a store room dead, probably from suicide.

Baum could never stay away long from the stage. He performed in plays under the stage names of Louis F. Baum and George Brooks.[12][13] In 1880, his father built him a theater in Richburg, New York, and Baum set about writing plays and gathering a company to act in them. The Maid of Arran proved a modest success, a melodrama with songs based on William Black's novel A Princess of Thule. Baum wrote the play and composed songs for it (making it a prototypical musical, as its songs relate to the narrative), and acted in the leading role. His aunt Katharine Gray played his character's aunt. She was the founder of Syracuse Oratory School, and Baum advertised his services in her catalog to teach theater, including stage business, play writing, directing, translating (French, German, and Italian), revision, and operettas.

On November 9, 1882, Baum married Maud Gage, a daughter of Matilda Joslyn Gage, a famous women's suffrage and feminist activist. While Baum was touring with The Maid of Arran, the theater in Richburg caught fire during a production of Baum's ironically titled parlor drama Matches, destroying the theater as well as the only known copies of many of Baum's scripts, including Matches, as well as costumes.

The South Dakota years

In July 1888, Baum and his wife moved to Aberdeen, Dakota Territory where he opened a store called "Baum's Bazaar". His habit of giving out wares on credit led to the eventual bankrupting of the store,[14] so Baum turned to editing the local newspaper The Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer where he wrote the column Our Landlady.[15] Following the death of Sitting Bull at the hands of Indian agency police, Baum urged the wholesale extermination of all America's native peoples in a column that he wrote on December 20, 1890 (full text below).[16] On January 3, 1891 he returned to the subject in an editorial response to the Wounded Knee Massacre:[17]

The Pioneer has before declared that our only safety depends upon the total extirmination [sic] of the Indians. Having wronged them for centuries, we had better, in order to protect our civilization, follow it up by one more wrong and wipe these untamed and untamable creatures from the face of the earth.[18]

A recent analysis of these editorials has challenged their literal interpretation, suggesting that the actual intent of Baum was to generate sympathy for the Indians via obnoxious argument, ostensibly promoting the contrary position.[19]

Baum's description of Kansas in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is based on his experiences in drought-ridden South Dakota. During much of this time, Matilda Joslyn Gage was living in the Baum household. While Baum was in South Dakota, he sang in a quartet which included James Kyle, who became one of the first Populist (People's Party) Senators in the U.S.[citation needed][20]


Promotional Poster for Baum's "Popular Books For Children", circa 1901.
Promotional Poster for Baum's "Popular Books For Children", circa 1901.

Baum's newspaper failed in 1891, and he, Maud, and their four sons moved to the Humboldt Park section of Chicago, where Baum took a job reporting for the Evening Post. Beginning in 1897, he founded and edited a magazine called The Show Window,[21] later known as the Merchants Record and Show Window, which focused on store window displays, retail strategies and visual merchandising. The major department stores of the time created elaborate Christmastime fantasies, using clockwork mechanisms that made people and animals appear to move. The former Show Window magazine is still currently in operation, now known as VMSD magazine[21] (visual merchandising + store design), based in Cincinnati.[22] In 1900, Baum published a book about window displays in which he stressed the importance of mannequins in drawing customers.[23] He also had to work as a traveling salesman.[24]

In 1897, he wrote and published Mother Goose in Prose, a collection of Mother Goose rhymes written as prose stories and illustrated by Maxfield Parrish. Mother Goose was a moderate success and allowed Baum to quit his sales job (which had had a negative impact on his health). In 1899, Baum partnered with illustrator W.W. Denslow to publish Father Goose, His Book, a collection of nonsense poetry. The book was a success, becoming the best-selling children's book of the year.[25]

The Baum–Parrish Mother Goose used to promote a breakfast cereal (part 1 of 12 as a free premium)
The Baum–Parrish Mother Goose used to promote a breakfast cereal (part 1 of 12 as a free premium)

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz

In 1900, Baum and Denslow (with whom he shared the copyright) published The Wonderful Wizard of Oz to much critical acclaim and financial success.[26] The book was the best-selling children's book for two years after its initial publication. Baum went on to write thirteen more novels based on the places and people of the Land of Oz.

The Wizard of Oz: Fred R. Hamlin's Musical Extravaganza

1903 poster of Dave Montgomery as the Tin Man in Hamlin's musical stage version.
1903 poster of Dave Montgomery as the Tin Man in Hamlin's musical stage version.

Two years after Wizard's publication, Baum and Denslow teamed up with composer Paul Tietjens and director Julian Mitchell to produce a musical stage version of the book under Fred R. Hamlin.[27] Baum and Tietjens had worked on a musical of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz in 1901 and based closely upon the book, but it was rejected. This stage version opened in Chicago in 1902 (the first to use the shortened title "The Wizard of Oz"), then ran on Broadway for 293 stage nights from January to October 1903. It returned to Broadway in 1904, where it played from March to May and again from November to December. It successfully toured the United States with much of the same cast, as was done in those days, until 1911, and then became available for amateur use. The stage version starred Anna Laughlin as Dorothy Gale, alongside David C. Montgomery and Fred Stone as the Tin Woodman and Scarecrow respectively, which shot the pair to instant fame.

The stage version differed quite a bit from the book, and was aimed primarily at adults. Toto was replaced with Imogene the Cow, and Tryxie Tryfle (a waitress) and Pastoria (a streetcar operator) were added as fellow cyclone victims. The Wicked Witch of the West was eliminated entirely in the script, and the plot became about how the four friends were allied with the usurping Wizard and were hunted as traitors to Pastoria II, the rightful King of Oz. It is unclear how much control or influence Baum had on the script; it appears that many of the changes were written by Baum against his wishes due to contractual requirements with Hamlin. Jokes in the script, mostly written by Glen MacDonough, called for explicit references to President Theodore Roosevelt, Senator Mark Hanna, Rev. Andrew Danquer, and oil magnate John D. Rockefeller. Although use of the script was rather free-form, the line about Hanna was ordered dropped as soon as Hamlin got word of his death in 1904.

Beginning with the success of the stage version, most subsequent versions of the story, including newer editions of the novel, have been titled "The Wizard of Oz", rather than using the full, original title. In more recent years, restoring the full title has become increasingly common, particularly to distinguish the novel from the Hollywood film.

Baum wrote a new Oz book, The Marvelous Land of Oz, with a view to making it into a stage production, which was titled The Woggle-Bug, but Montgomery and Stone balked at appearing when the original was still running. The Scarecrow and Tin Woodman were then omitted from this adaptation, which was seen as a self-rip-off by critics and proved to be a major flop before it could reach Broadway. He also worked for years on a musical version of Ozma of Oz, which eventually became The Tik-Tok Man Of Oz. This did fairly well in Los Angeles, but not well enough to convince producer Oliver Morosco to mount a production in New York. He also began a stage version of The Patchwork Girl of Oz, but this was ultimately realized as a film.

Later life and work

With the success of Wizard on page and stage, Baum and Denslow hoped for further success and published Dot and Tot of Merryland in 1901.[28] The book was one of Baum's weakest, and its failure further strained his faltering relationship with Denslow. It was their last collaboration. Baum worked primarily with John R. Neill on his fantasy work beginning in 1904, but Baum met Neill few times (all before he moved to California) and often found Neill's art not humorous enough for his liking. He was particularly offended when Neill published The Oz Toy Book: Cut-outs for the Kiddies without authorization.

Several times during the development of the Oz series, Baum declared that he had written his last Oz book and devoted himself to other works of fantasy fiction based in other magical lands, including The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus and Queen Zixi of Ix. However, he returned to the series each time, persuaded by popular demand, letters from children, and the failure of his new books. Even so, his other works remained very popular after his death, with The Master Key appearing on St. Nicholas Magazine's survey of readers' favorite books well into the 1920s.

In 1905, Baum declared plans for an Oz amusement park. In an interview, he mentioned buying Pedloe Island off the coast of California to turn it into an Oz park. However, there is no evidence that he purchased such an island, and no one has ever been able to find any island whose name even resembles Pedloe in that area.[29][30] Nevertheless, Baum stated to the press that he had discovered a Pedloe Island off the coast of California and that he had purchased it to be "the Marvelous Land of Oz," intending it to be "a fairy paradise for children." Eleven year old Dorothy Talbot of San Francisco was reported to be ascendant to the throne on March 1, 1906, when the Palace of Oz was expected to be completed. Baum planned to live on the island, with administrative duties handled by the princess and her all-child advisers. Plans included statues of the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman, Jack Pumpkinhead, and H.M. Woggle-Bug, T.E.[31] Baum abandoned his Oz park project after the failure of The Woggle-Bug, which was playing at the Garrick Theatre in 1905.

Because of his lifelong love of theatre, he financed elaborate musicals, often to his financial detriment. One of Baum's worst financial endeavors was his The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays (1908), which combined a slideshow, film, and live actors with a lecture by Baum as if he were giving a travelogue to Oz.[32] However, Baum ran into trouble and could not pay his debts to the company who produced the films. He did not get back to a stable financial situation for several years, after he sold the royalty rights to many of his earlier works, including The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. This resulted in the M.A. Donahue Company publishing cheap editions of his early works with advertising which purported that Baum's newer output was inferior to the less expensive books that they were releasing. Baum had shrewdly transferred most of his property into Maud's name, except for his clothing, his typewriter, and his library (mostly of children's books, such as the fairy tales of Andrew Lang, whose portrait he kept in his study)—all of which, he successfully argued, were essential to his occupation. Maud handled the finances anyway, and thus Baum lost much less than he could have.

Baum made use of several pseudonyms for some of his other non-Oz books. They include:

Baum also anonymously wrote The Last Egyptian: A Romance of the Nile. He continued theatrical work with Harry Marston Haldeman's men's social group The Uplifters,[33] for which he wrote several plays for various celebrations. He also wrote the group's parodic by-laws. The group also included Will Rogers, but was proud to have had Baum as a member and posthumously revived many of his works despite their ephemeral intent. Many of these play's titles are known, but only The Uplift of Lucifer is known to survive (it was published in a limited edition in the 1960s). Prior to that, his last produced play was The Tik-Tok Man of Oz (based on Ozma of Oz and the basis for Tik-Tok of Oz), a modest success in Hollywood that producer Oliver Morosco decided did not do well enough to take to Broadway. Morosco, incidentally, quickly turned to film production, as did Baum.

In 1914, Baum started his own film production company The Oz Film Manufacturing Company,[34] which came as an outgrowth of the Uplifters. He served as its president and principal producer and screenwriter. The rest of the board consisted of Louis F. Gottschalk, Harry Marston Haldeman, and Clarence R. Rundel. The films were directed by J. Farrell MacDonald, with casts that included Violet MacMillan, Vivian Reed, Mildred Harris, Juanita Hansen, Pierre Couderc, Mai Welles, Louise Emmons, J. Charles Haydon, and early appearances by Harold Lloyd and Hal Roach. Silent film actor Richard Rosson appeared in one of the films, whose younger brother Harold Rosson photographed The Wizard of Oz (1939). After little success probing the unrealized children's film market, Baum acknowledged his authorship of The Last Egyptian and made a film of it (portions of which are included in Decasia), but the Oz name had become box office poison for the time being, and even a name change to Dramatic Feature Films and transfer of ownership to Frank Joslyn Baum did not help. Baum invested none of his own money in the venture, unlike The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays, but the stress probably took its toll on his health.


L. Frank Baum grave at Forest Lawn Cemetery in Glendale, California. December 2011.
L. Frank Baum grave at Forest Lawn Cemetery in Glendale, California. December 2011.

On May 5, 1919, Baum suffered a stroke. The following day he slipped into a coma but briefly awoke and spoke his last words to his wife, "Now we can cross the Shifting Sands." Frank died on May 6, 1919.[35] He was buried in Glendale's Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery.[36]

His final Oz book, Glinda of Oz, was published on July 10, 1920, a year after his death. The Oz series was continued long after his death by other authors, notably Ruth Plumly Thompson, who wrote an additional twenty-one Oz books.[37]

Baum's beliefs


Baum's avowed intentions with the Oz books and other fairy tales was to retell tales such as are found in the works of the Brothers Grimm and Hans Christian Andersen, make them in an American vein, update them, avoid stereotypical characters such as dwarfs or genies, and remove the association of violence and moral teachings.[38] The first books contained a fair amount of violence, but it decreased with the series; in The Emerald City of Oz, Ozma objected to doing violence even to the Nomes who threaten Oz with invasion.[39] His introduction is often cited as the beginnings of the sanitization of children's stories, although he did not do a great deal more than eliminate harsh moral lessons.

Another traditional element that Baum intentionally omitted was the emphasis on romance. He considered romantic love to be uninteresting for young children, as well as largely incomprehensible. In The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, the only element of romance lay in the background of the Tin Woodman and his love for Nimmie Amee, which explains his condition and does not otherwise affect the tale, and that of Gayelette and the enchantment of the Winged monkeys. The only other stories with such elements were The Scarecrow of Oz and Tik-Tok of Oz, both based on dramatizations, which Baum regarded warily until his readers accepted them.[40]


Women's suffrage advocate

Sally Roesch Wagner of The Matilda Joslyn Gage Foundation has published a pamphlet titled The Wonderful Mother of Oz describing how Matilda Gage's feminist politics were sympathetically channeled by Baum into his Oz books. Much of the politics in the Republican Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer dealt with trying to convince the populace to vote for women's suffrage. Baum was the secretary of Aberdeen's Woman's Suffrage Club. Susan B. Anthony visited Aberdeen and stayed with the Baums. Nancy Tystad Koupal notes an apparent loss of interest in editorializing after Aberdeen failed to pass the bill for women's enfranchisement.

Some of Baum's contacts with suffragists of his day seem to have inspired much of his second Oz story The Marvelous Land of Oz. In this story, General Jinjur leads the girls and women of Oz in a revolt, armed with knitting needles; they succeed and make the men do the household chores. Jinjur proves to be an incompetent ruler, but a female advocating gender equality is ultimately placed on the throne. His Edith Van Dyne stories depict girls and young women engaging in traditionally masculine activities, including the Aunt Jane's Nieces, The Flying Girl and its sequel, and his girl sleuth Josie O'Gorman from The Bluebird Books.

Editorials about Native Americans

During the period surrounding the 1890 Ghost Dance movement and Wounded Knee Massacre, Baum wrote two editorials about Native Americans for the Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer which have provoked controversy in recent times because of his assertion that the safety of White settlers depended on the wholesale genocide of American Indians. Sociologist Robert Venables has argued that Baum was not using sarcasm in the editorials.[41]

The first piece was published on December 20, 1890, five days after the killing of the Lakota Sioux holy man, Sitting Bull (who was being held in custody at the time). Following is the complete text of the editorial:

Sitting Bull, most renowned Sioux of modern history, is dead.

He was not a Chief, but without Kingly lineage he arose from a lowly position to the greatest Medicine Man of his time, by virtue of his shrewdness and daring.

He was an Indian with a white man's spirit of hatred and revenge for those who had wronged him and his. In his day he saw his son and his tribe gradually driven from their possessions: forced to give up their old hunting grounds and espouse the hard working and uncongenial avocations of the whites. And these, his conquerors, were marked in their dealings with his people by selfishness, falsehood and treachery. What wonder that his wild nature, untamed by years of subjection, should still revolt? What wonder that a fiery rage still burned within his breast and that he should seek every opportunity of obtaining vengeance upon his natural enemies.

The proud spirit of the original owners of these vast prairies inherited through centuries of fierce and bloody wars for their possession, lingered last in the bosom of Sitting Bull. With his fall the nobility of the Redskin is extinguished, and what few are left are a pack of whining curs who lick the hand that smites them. The Whites, by law of conquest, by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, and the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians. Why not annihilation? Their glory has fled, their spirit broken, their manhood effaced; better that they die than live the miserable wretches that they are. History would forget these latter despicable beings, and speak, in latter ages of the glory of these grand Kings of forest and plain that Cooper loved to heroize.

We cannot honestly regret their extermination, but we at least do justice to the manly characteristics possessed, according to their lights and education, by the early Redskins of America.[42][43]

Baum wrote a second editorial following the December 29, 1890 massacre and published on January 3, 1891:

The peculiar policy of the government in employing so weak and vacillating a person as General Miles to look after the uneasy Indians, has resulted in a terrible loss of blood to our soldiers, and a battle which, at best, is a disgrace to the war department. There has been plenty of time for prompt and decisive measures, the employment of which would have prevented this disaster.

The Pioneer has before declared that our only safety depends upon the total extirmination [sic] of the Indians. Having wronged them for centuries we had better, in order to protect our civilization, follow it up by one more wrong and wipe these untamed and untamable creatures from the face of the earth. In this lies safety for our settlers and the soldiers who are under incompetent commands. Otherwise, we may expect future years to be as full of trouble with the redskins as those have been in the past.

An eastern contemporary, with a grain of wisdom in its wit, says that "when the whites win a fight, it is a victory, and when the Indians win it, it is a massacre."[42][44]

These two short editorials continue to haunt his legacy. In 2006, two descendants of Baum apologized to the Sioux nation for any hurt that their ancestor had caused.[45]

The short story "The Enchanted Buffalo" claims to be a legend of a tribe of bison, and states that a key element made it into legends of Native American tribes. Father Goose, His Book contains poems such as "There Was a Little Nigger Boy" and "Lee-Hi-Lung-Whan." In The Last Egyptian, Lord Roane uses "nigger" to insult the title character, while in The Daring Twins, set in the American South, the only character to use the term is a boy from Boston complaining that his mother uses their money to help "naked niggers in Africa." Baum mentions his characters' distaste for a Hopi snake dance in Aunt Jane's Nieces and Uncle John, but also deplores the horrible situation of Indian Reservations. Aunt Jane's Nieces on the Ranch has a hard-working Mexican present himself as an exception to counter Anglo stereotypes of Mexican laziness.[citation needed] Baum's mother-in-law and Woman's Suffrage leader Matilda Joslyn Gage had great influence over Baum's views. Gage was initiated into the Wolf Clan and admitted into the Iroquois Council of Matrons for her outspoken respect and sympathy for Native American people; it would seem unlikely that Baum could have harbored animosity for them in his mature years.[46]

Political imagery in The Wizard of Oz

Numerous political references to the "Wizard" appeared early in the 20th century. Henry Littlefield, an upstate New York high school history teacher, wrote a scholarly article which was the first full-fledged interpretation of the novel as an extended political allegory of the politics and characters of the 1890s.[47] Special attention was paid to the Populist metaphors and debates over silver and gold.[48] Baum was a Republican and avid supporter of Women's Suffrage, and it is thought that he personally did not support the political ideals of either the Populist movement of 1890–92 or the Bryanite-silver crusade of 1896–1900. He published a poem in support of William McKinley.[49]

Since 1964, many scholars, economists, and historians have expanded on Littlefield's interpretation, pointing to multiple similarities between the characters (especially as depicted in Denslow's illustrations) and stock figures from editorial cartoons of the period. Littlefield himself wrote to The New York Times letters to the editor section spelling out that his theory had no basis in fact, but that his original point was "not to label Baum, or to lessen any of his magic, but rather, as a history teacher at Mount Vernon High School, to invest turn-of-the-century America with the imagery and wonder I have always found in his stories."[50]

Baum's newspaper had addressed politics in the 1890s, and Denslow was an editorial cartoonist as well as an illustrator of children's books. A series of political references is included in the 1902 stage version, such as references by name to the President, to a powerful senator, and to John D. Rockefeller for providing the oil needed by the Tin Woodman. Scholars have found few political references in Baum's Oz books after 1902.

Baum himself was asked whether his stories had hidden meanings, but he always replied that they were written to "please children".[51]


Baum was originally a Methodist, but he joined the Episcopal Church in Aberdeen to participate in community theatricals. Later, he and his wife were encouraged by Matilda Joslyn Gage to become members of the Theosophical Society in 1892.[52] Baum's beliefs are often reflected in his writing. The only mention of a church in his Oz books is the porcelain one which the Cowardly Lion breaks in the Dainty China Country in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. The Baums sent their older sons to "Ethical Culture Sunday School" in Chicago, which taught morality, not religion.[53][54]



  • The Boy Fortune Hunters in Egypt (1908)
  • Fortune Hunters in China
  • The Boy Fortune Hunters in the South Seas (1911)
  • Queen Zixi of Ix (1905)
  • The Fate of a Crown (1905)
  • Sam Steele's Adventures on Land and Sea (1906)
  • Daughters of Destiny (1906)
  • The Last Egyptian (1907)

Land of Oz works

Popular culture and legacy

See also


  1. ^ Rogers, p. 1.
  2. ^ Baum, L.F.; Zipes, J.; Denslow, W.W. (1998). The Wonderful World of Oz: The Wizard of Oz, The Emerald City of Oz, Glinda of Oz. Penguin Publishing Group. ISBN 9781440674358. Retrieved May 27, 2015. 
  3. ^ Hearn, Introduction, The Annotated Wizard of Oz, p. xv n. 3.
  4. ^ Rogers, pp. 2–3.
  5. ^ The house burned down in 1958 and became the site of a skating rink, itself later abandoned. For photos of the present day site
  6. ^ Rogers, pp. 3–4.
  7. ^ Schwartz, Evan (2009). Finding Oz: How L. Frank Baum Discovered the Great American Story. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 16. ISBN 9780547055107. 
  8. ^ Rogers, pp. 4–5.
  9. ^ Rogers, pp. 6–7; Hearn, Annotated Wizard, pp. xvii–xviii.
  10. ^ Rogers, pp. 49.
  11. ^ Rogers, pp. 8–9, 16–17 and ff.
  12. ^ Rogers, p. 6.
  13. ^ Abrams, Dennis (2010). L. Frank Baum. Infobase Publishing. p. 122. ISBN 1-604-13501-8. 
  14. ^ Rogers, pp. 23–5.
  15. ^ Rogers, pp. 25–7 and ff.
  16. ^ Sutherland, JJ (October 27, 2010). "L. Frank Baum Advocated Extermination Of Native Americans". NPR. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  17. ^ Stannard, David E, American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World, Oxford Press, 1992, page 126 ISBN 0-19-508557-4
  18. ^ Hastings, A. Waller. "L. Frank Baum's Editorials on the Sioux Nation", Northern State University. (Retrieved Nov 27, 2017)
  19. ^ Reneau, Reneau H. "Misanthropology: A Florilegium of Bahumbuggery," donlazaro translations, 2004 pp. 145-164
  20. ^ Koupal
  21. ^ a b "#ThrowbackThursday". Visual Merchandising and Store Design. Retrieved 2017-10-04. 
  22. ^ "Visual Merchandising and Store Design". Visual Merchandising and Store Design. Retrieved 2017-10-04. 
  23. ^ Emily and Per Ola d'Aulaire, "Mannequins: our fantasy figures of high fashion," Smithsonian, Vol. 22, no. 1, April 1991
  24. ^ Rogers, pp. 45–59.
  25. ^ Rogers, pp. 54–69 and ff.
  26. ^ Rogers, pp. 73–94.
  27. ^ Rogers, pp. 105–10.
  28. ^ Rogers, pp. 95–6.
  29. ^ ""Miscellaneous Questions" about L. Frank Baum, see heading "Has there ever been any sort of Wizard of Oz-themed amusement park or tourist attraction?"". Retrieved May 27, 2015. 
  30. ^ ""L. Frank Baum's La Jolla, Halfway to Oz" by Bard C. Cosman, in The Journal of San Diego History, Fall 1998, volume 44, Number 4". Retrieved May 27, 2015. 
  31. ^ "First Princess of Oz and Owner of Island." June 18, 1905, unidentified Chicago newspaper clipping in the L. Frank Baum file at the New York Public Library of the Performing Arts
  32. ^ Rogers, pp. 162–3; Hearn, Annotated Wizard, pp. lxvi–lxxi.
  33. ^ Rogers, pp. 182–3.
  34. ^ Rogers, pp. 110, 177, 181, 202–5 and ff.
  35. ^ Abrams p.99
  36. ^ Rogers, p. 239.
  37. ^ "Ruth Plumly Thompson". Archived from the original on May 1, 2013. 
  38. ^ Sale, p. 223.
  39. ^ Riley, p. 164.
  40. ^ Hearn, pp. 138–9.
  41. ^ Venables, Robert. "Twisted Footnote to Wounded Knee". Northeast Indian Quarterly. 
  42. ^ a b ""L. Frank Baum's Editorials on the Sioux Nation"". Archived from the original on December 9, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-09.  Full text of both, with commentary by professor A. Waller Hastings
  43. ^ Rogers, p. 259.
  44. ^ Professor Robert Venables, Senior Lecturer Rural Sociology Department, Cornell University, "Looking Back at Wounded Knee 1890", Northeast Indian Quarterly, Spring 1990
  45. ^ Ray, Charles (August 17, 2006). "'Oz' Family Apologizes for Racist Editorials". Morning Edition. National Public Radio. Retrieved September 4, 2007. 
  46. ^ Reneau, Reneau H. "A Newer Testament: Misanthropology Unleashed," donlazaro translations, 2008, pp. 129-147
  47. ^ LittlefieldHenry. "The Wizard of Oz: Parable on Populism.first=Henry". American Quarterly. v. 16, 3, Spring 1964, 47–58. Archived from the original on November 21, 2010. 
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