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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tik-Tok
Oz character
Tiktok.png
Tik-Tok as he appears in Ozma of Oz
illustrated by John R. Neill
First appearanceOzma of Oz (1907)
Created byL. Frank Baum
Information
SpeciesRobot
Gendermale in likeness
TitleAdviser to Ozma of Oz
NationalityEv

Tik-Tok is a fictional character from the Oz books by American author L. Frank Baum.[1] He has been termed "the prototype robot,"[2] and is widely considered to be the one of the first robots (preceded by Edward S. Ellis' Huge Hunter, or The Steam Man of the Prairies, in 1868) to appear in modern literature,[3] though the term "Robot" was not used until the 1920s, in the play R.U.R.

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  • Stable and efficient bipedal robot platform - NRI PI Meeting 2016

Transcription

I'm Andy Ruina from Cornell working with Jason Cortell, Matt Sheen, Matt Kelly and others. We're making a bipedal robot that can walk as reliably as a healthy person. You won't fear of falling. Like a gentle person: calm, comfortable, and maybe useful. In year 4 of 3, we're putting together Cornell X1: Tik-Tok. Both robot and control use a unique mix of as-yet unproven concepts. Tik-Tok uses battery- powered brushless motors avoiding hydraulic pumps. An archaic-looking, three-stage 70:1 chain reduction is efficient and doesn't have the reflected inertia of a harmonic drive; nor the weight and cost of direct-drive; nor the cost and friction of ballscrews. Tik-Tok can swing its leg fast! 30 degrees in 0.2 seconds. About as fast as humans and hydraulic robots, yet with our minimal electronics, we expect a total cost of transport of 0.25, bettering all other versatile bipeds. The control goal is mostly not falling. We can hugely exceed passive stability mechanisms, rejecting the largest possible disturbances, using fast foot placements and strong push-offs Arm swinging, body bending, and ankle torques are relatively trivial, so to us, disturbances rather than help. For an unstable system, the better the model predictions, the less control authority is needed. Knowledge is power, and power, that 0.2 second leg swing, makes up for model errors. The control is hierarchical. Balance, based on a point-mass model, is recovered every step by appropriate push-off and fast foot placement. Push-off and foot placement follow joint trajectories optimized offline for energy efficiency. We're making the first robot biped to beat human efficiency while approaching human robustness

Contents

Baum's character

Tik-Tok (sometimes spelled Tiktok) is a round-bodied mechanical man made of copper, that runs on clockwork springs which periodically need to be wound, like a wind-up toy or mechanical clock. He has separate windings for thought, action, and speech. Tik-Tok is unable to wind any of them up himself. When his works run down, he becomes frozen or mute or, for one memorable moment in The Road to Oz, continues to speak but utters gibberish. When he speaks, only his teeth move. His knees and elbows are described as resembling those in a knight's suit of armor. Being a machine, he is quite strong, allowing him to single-handedly overpower a whole horde of Wheelers without much difficulty, as demonstrated in a scene of the 1985 movie, Return to Oz.

As Baum repeatedly mentions, Tik-Tok is not alive and feels no emotions. He therefore can no more love or be loved than a sewing machine, but as a servant he is utterly truthful and loyal. He describes himself as a "slave" to Dorothy and defers to her.

Tik-Tok was invented by Smith & Tinker at their workshop in Evna. He was the only model of his kind made before the two disappeared. He was purchased by the king of Ev, Evoldo, who gave him the name Tik-Tok because of the sound he made when wound. The cruel king also whipped his mechanical servant, but his whippings caused no pain and merely kept Tik-Tok's round copper body polished.

Appearances in the works of Baum

Tik-Tok first appears in Ozma of Oz (1907) where Dorothy Gale discovers him locked up in a cave, immobilized. He becomes Dorothy's servant and protector, and, despite his tendency to run down at crucial moments, helps to subdue the Nome King. That novel also introduces Tik-Tok's monotonic, halting mode of speech: "Good morn-ing, lit-tle girl."

Later Baum published "Tik-Tok and the Nome King," a short tale in his Little Wizard Stories of Oz series (1914). In this story, Ruggedo the Nome King , angered by Tik-Tok's calling him a "fat nome", smashes him to pieces. Kaliko secretly reassembled Tik-Tok, but does not tell his master. Ruggedo then mistook the rebuilt Tik-Tok for a ghost. Ever after, he was colored whitish-grey in color plates, apparently a mistake.

The Tik-Tok Man of Oz was a stage musical loosely adapted from Ozma of Oz; and the play was adapted back into a novel called Tik-Tok of Oz, the eighth Land of Oz book, published on June 19, 1914. Although Tik-Tok is a major character in that latter book, he in no way drives the plot. Tik-Tok also appears in most other Oz novels as a notable inhabitant of the Emerald City, most prominently in The Scalawagons of Oz, in which he operates the production of the Scalawagons.

Tik-Tok in Tik-Tok of Oz, 1914.
Tik-Tok in Tik-Tok of Oz, 1914.

Appearances in adult fiction

In the comic book Oz Squad, Tik-Tok's "Internal Clockwork Morality Spring" winds down and causes him to act violent and sexual, though he closely resembles Neill's depiction.

A somewhat sinister version of Tik-Tok is a minor character in Gregory Maguire's revisionist Oz novel Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West. In the novel, tiktok is used as an adjective for any mechanical or robotic being. The character Madame Morrible has a tiktok servant, called Grommetik, whose description matches Baum's Tik-Tok; however, this character's speech key is never wound. It is strongly implied that this tiktok servant kills Doctor Dillamond, on Madame Morrible's orders. Though no great detail is spent on the topic, Grommetik eventually becomes independent, and, possibly due to disgust of the things he was forced to do, tries to foment rebellion among the tik-toks.

John Sladek's 1983 novel Tik-Tok turns Baum's genial character into a psychotic murderer.

Gregory Benford's 1997 novel Foundation's Fear, set tens of thousands of years in the future, depicts a group of robots named tik-toks, who are responsible for supervising the automated farms on the planet Trantor. A tik-tok revolt against the forces of the Galactic Empire play a major role in the novel.

Later works

Tik-Tok was played by Wallace Illington in the 1908 film, The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays, which is now known only from a production still or two. In 1913, the comedian James C. Morton played Tik-Tok in The Tik-Tok Man of Oz, a musical play by Baum, Louis F. Gottschalk, Victor Schertzinger, and Oliver Morosco. The role of Tik-Tok was a straight man role similar to that of David C. Montgomery's Tin Woodman in The Wizard of Oz. Corresponding to Fred Stone Scarecrow or clown part was Shaggy Man, played by Frank F. Moore, who would later play the Scarecrow in His Majesty, the Scarecrow of Oz. Tik-Tok did not appear in any of the productions of The Oz Film Manufacturing Company.

Tik-Tok appeared in the Thanksgiving special Dorothy in the Land of Oz voiced by Joan Gerber.

Tik-Tok was a main character in Disney's Return to Oz, adapted from The Marvelous Land of Oz and Ozma of Oz. His legs are very stout and he speaks with his mustache rather than his teeth. In the movie, he is the entire Royal Army of Oz, which is ironic considering his general haplessness, partly from the character's in-book inability to wind up his clockworks for himself. In an interview for the Elstree project,[4] director Walter Murch explained that Tik-Tok's physical performance was created by acrobat Michael Sundin: "he would put his legs down into Tik-Tok's legs, and then he would bend over looking through his legs, through his thighs, and then he would cross his arms [across his chest] to operate Tik-Tok's arms." He used an LCD feed inside the costume to monitor his movements. Due to the heat and physical exertion of being upside-down, according to Murch, Sundin's "limit was two and half minutes from the moment the lid went on." Sean Barrett provided his voice, while Tim Rose remotely-operated the head.

Tik-Tok appears in Dorothy and the Wizard of Oz voiced by Jess Harnell. Just like the books, Tik-Tok was created by Smith & Tinker.

Other appearances

Tik-Tok's design was used in the video game Epic Mickey 2 as a design for the "Basher" Beetleworx.

References

  1. ^ Jack Snow, Who's Who in Oz, Chicago, Reilly & lee, 1954; New York, Peter Bedrick Books, 1988; p. 213.
  2. ^ Thomas P. Dunn and Richard D. Erlich, eds., The Mechanical God: Machines in Science Fiction, Westport, CT, Greenwood Press, 1982; p. 85.
  3. ^ Raylyn Moore, Wonderful Wizard, Marvelous Land, Bowling Green, OH, Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1974; p. 144.
  4. ^ TheElstreeProject (22 January 2014). "The Elstree Project: Operating Tik Tok". Retrieved 14 April 2018 – via YouTube.

External links

This page was last edited on 24 September 2018, at 11:11
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