To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jinn
Jinn gather to do battle with the hero Faramarz. Illustration in an illuminated manuscript of the Iranian epic Shahnameh
GroupingMythical creature
FolkloreReligion in pre-Islamic Arabia, Islamic folklore

Jinn (Arabic: جِنّ), also romanized as djinn or anglicized as genies, are invisible creatures in early pre-Islamic Arabia and later in Islamic culture and beliefs.[1] Like humans, they are accountable for their deeds and can be either believers (Muslims) or disbelievers (kuffar), depending on whether they accept God's guidance. Since jinn are neither innately evil nor innately good, Islam acknowledged spirits from other religions and was able to adapt them during its expansion. Jinn are not a strictly Islamic concept; they may represent several pagan beliefs integrated into Islam.[2][a] To assert a strict monotheism and the Islamic concept of tawhid (oneness of God), Islam denies all affinities between the jinn and God, thus placing the jinn parallel to humans, also subject to God's judgment and afterlife. The Quran condemns the pre-Islamic Arabian practice of worshipping or seeking protection from them.[4]

Although generally invisible, jinn are supposed to be composed of thin and subtle bodies (Arabic: أَجْسَام, romanizedajsām), and can change at will. They favour a snake form, but can also choose to appear as scorpions, lizards, or as humans. They may even engage in sexual affairs with humans and produce offspring. If they are injured by someone, they usually seek revenge or possess the assailant's body, requiring exorcism. Jinn do not usually meddle in human affairs, preferring to live with their own kind in tribes similar to those of pre-Islamic Arabia.

Individual jinn appear on charms and talismans. They are called upon for protection or magical aid, often under the leadership of a king. Many people who believe in jinn wear amulets to protect themselves against the assaults of jinn, sent out by sorcerers and witches. A commonly-held belief maintains that jinn cannot hurt someone who wears something with the name of God written upon it. While some Muslim scholars in the past had ambivalent attitudes towards jinn, contemporary Muslim scholarship increasingly associate jinn with idolatry.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    Views:
    720 385
    1 806 886
    1 204 657
    34 167
    686 412
  • The Origin Of The Jinn Race
  • What are the Jinn?
  • Jinn: The Ancient Arabian Shapeshifters | Monstrum
  • The Jinn: Supernatural Beings of the Muslim World
  • ‼️JINN Interrupts Dawah - WATCH TILL THE END 😱 #otmfdawah

Transcription

Etymology and translation

The winged genie in the bucket and cone motif, depicting a demi-divine entity,[5] probably a forerunner of the pre-Islamic tutelary deities, who became the jinn in Islam. Relief from the north wall of the Palace of king Sargon II at Dur Sharrukin, 713–716 BCE.

Jinn is an Arabic collective noun deriving from the Semitic root JNN (Arabic: جَنّ / جُنّ, jann), whose primary meaning is 'to hide' or 'to adapt'. Some authors interpret the word to mean, literally, 'beings that are concealed from the senses'.[6] Cognates include the Arabic majnūn (مَجْنُون, 'possessed' or, generally, 'insane'), jannah (جَنَّة, 'garden', 'eden' or 'heaven'), and janīn (جَنِين, 'embryo').[7] Jinn is properly treated as a plural (however in Classical Arabic, may also appear as jānn, جَانّ), with the singular being jinnī (جِنِّيّ).[b]

The origin of the word jinn remains uncertain.[3](p22) Some scholars relate the Arabic term jinn to the Latin genius – a guardian spirit of people and places in Roman religion – as a result of syncretism during the reign of the Roman empire under Tiberius and Augustus;[8](p38) however, this derivation is also disputed.[3](p25) Supporters argue that both Roman genii as well as Arabian jinn are considered to be lesser deities inhabiting local sanctuaries, trees or springs, and persons or families.[9] Aramaic ginnaya (Classical Syriac: ܓܢܝܐ) with the meaning of 'tutelary deity'[3](p24) or 'guardian' are attributed to similar functions and are another possible origin of the term jinn.

Another suggestion holds that the word is of Persian origin and appeared in the form of the Avestic Jaini, a wicked (female) spirit. Jaini were among various creatures in the possibly even pre-Zoroastrian mythology of peoples of Iran.[10][11] Wensick advocates a purely Arabic origin of the term, asserting that according to the common Semitic view psychic and bodily affections are caused by spirits. An object reacting upon such an affect would be an incarnation of said spirit. Since these spirits are covered from the sight of humans, they would have been called jinn.[12]: 45 

The anglicized form genie is a borrowing of the French génie, also from the Latin genius. It first appeared[13] in 18th-century translations of the Thousand and One Nights from the French,[14] where it had been used owing to its rough similarity in sound and sense and further applies to benevolent intermediary spirits, in contrast to the malevolent spirits called 'demon' and 'heavenly angels', in literature.[15] In Assyrian art, creatures ontologically between humans and divinities are also called genie.[16]

Though not a precise fit, descriptive analogies that have been used for these beings in Western thought include demon, spirit and fairy, depending on source.[17][3](p22) In turn, the Arabic translation for the Greek Nymph ('arūsa) is also used for jinn by Middle Eastern sources.[12]: 43  Although the term spirit is frequently used, it has been criticised for not capturing the corporeal nature of the jinn, and that the term genie should be used instead.[18]

Pre-Islamic era

A Sinai desert cobra. Snakes are the animals most frequently associated with jinn. Black snakes are commonly believed to be evil jinn, whereas white snakes are held to be benign (Muslim) jinn.[19]

The exact origins of belief in jinn are not entirely clear.[20](pp 1–10) Belief in jinn in the pre-Islamic Arab religion is testified not only by the Quran, but also by pre-Islamic literature in the seventh century.[21]: 54  Some scholars of the Middle East hold that they originated as malevolent spirits residing in deserts and unclean places, who often took the forms of animals;[20](p 1–10) others hold that they were originally pagan nature deities who gradually became marginalized as other deities took greater importance.[20](pp 1–10)

Fear and veneration

Jinn were already worshipped by many Arabs during the Pre-Islamic period.[8](p 34)[21]: 54  Julius Wellhausen observed that jinn were often thought to "inhabit or haunt desolate, dark and dingy places in the desert".[22] For that reason, they were held responsible for various diseases and mental illnesses.[8](p 122)[20](pp 1–10) Emilie Savage-Smith asserts that malicious jinn and good gods were distinct in pre-Islamic Arabia, but admits that such distinction is not absolute.[12]: 39  In the regions north to the Hejaz, Palmyra and Baalbek, the terms jinni and ilah (deity) were often used interchangeably.[23] Julius Wellhausen likewise agrees that in pre-Islamic Arabia it was assumed there are at least some friendly and helpful beings among the jinn. He distinguishes between a god and a jinni, not on the basis of morality, but on the basis of worship; the jinn are worshipped in private while the gods are worshipped in public.[12]: 39 

Al-Jahiz credits the pre-Islamic Arabs with believing that the society of jinn constitutes several tribes and groups, analogous to pre-Islamic Arabian culture. Jinn could also protect, marry, kidnap, possess, and kill people.[24][25](p 424) Despite being invisible, jinn are considered to have bodies (ajsām), as described by Zakariya al-Qazwini, they are among animals, along with humans, burdened beasts (like horses), cattles, wild beasts, birds, and reptiles.[26](p135) Jinn are further known as shapeshifters, often assuming the form of an animal, favoring the form of a snake. Other chthonic animals regarded as forms of jinn include scorpions and lizards. Both scorpions and serpents have been venerated in the ancient Near East.

When they shift into a human form however, they are said to stay partly animal and are not fully human.[3](p164)[8](p164) Although the power of jinn usually exceed those of humans, it is conceivable a man could kill a jinni in single combat, but feared for attacking without being seen.[27] Some sources even speak of killed jinn leaving behind a carcass similar to either a serpent or a scorpion.[8]: 91–93 

Poetry and Soothsaying

Despite that they were often feared or inspired awe, the jinn were also pictured to befriend humans or have romantic feelings for them. According to common Arabian belief, soothsayers, pre-Islamic philosophers, and poets were inspired by the jinn.[8](p 34)[20](pp 1–10)

The Arabian poet al-Aʿshā (d. after 3/625) is said to got his inspiration for his poetry by a friend named Misḥal ("daʿawtu khalīlī Misḥalan") and further calls him his jinni-brother ("akhī ʾl-jinnī").[28] Similarly, the poet Thābit (d. 54/674) who later converted to Islam and became known as "the poet of the prophet", referred to his jinni-friend as his "sharp-sighted brother from the jinn" ("wa-akhī min al-jinn al-baṣīr").[28] The relationship between jinn and humans can also be romantic in nature. According to one famous Arabian story, the jinni Manzur fell in love with a human woman called Habbah. He is supposed to have taught her the arts of healing.[29]

The mutual relationship between jinn and humans is different than that of a jinni and a soothsayer (kāhin). The soothsayer is presented as someone who is totally controlled by the jinni entering. The soothsayer was consulted to reveal hidden information or settle disputes, as it was believed, the jinn speaking through them reveal hidden knowledge.[30]

Islam

Quran

The 72nd chapter of the Qur'an entitled Al-Jinn (The Jinn), as well as the heading and introductory bismillah of the next chapter entitled al-Muzzammil (The Enshrouded One)

Jinn are mentioned approximately 29 times in the Quran.[20](p21)

The Quran assumes that the audience is familiar with the subject without elaborating on the jinn much further.[31] According to the Quran 51:56-56, Muhammad was sent as a prophet to both human and jinn communities, and that prophets and messengers were sent to both communities.[32][33][34]

Throughout the Quran humans and jinn (al-ins wa-l-jinn) appear frequently as a pair, designating their equal status in regards of their creation and rejecting that jinn share divinity with the Creator.[35](p181)[5] The term ins derives from anisa, which means "to be familiar with", and refers to recognisable familiar human beings. In contrast, the term jinn refers to foreign, invisible, or unknown anthropomorphic beings, which are nonetheless subject to the same considerations as the former.[9](p101) They were both created to worship God (51:56).[36][35](p182) Because they are supposed to worship God from free will, they are both able for good and evil deeds (7:179, 55:56).[36][35](p182) They are, like humans, rational beings formed of nations (7:38).[36][35](p182)

Surah al-jinn is about the revelation to jinn.[8](p64) The same Surah mentions righteous jinn on one hand, and malicious jinn on the other.[35](p181) The jinn can neither harm nor benefit humans, for they are occupied with looking after themselves and their own place on the cosmos.[35](p185) This is in notable contrast to demons and devils in the Judeo-Christian tradition.[35](p181, 185) The Quran does not condemn the jinn as a source of harm, but by mistaking them for beings deserving cultic veneration (72:6).[36][12]: 41 [35](p185) Jinn and humans are blamed for ascribing divine attributes to another creature (i.e. jinn); jinn to themselves and humans to the jinn.[12]: 41 [9]: 102 

Despite their similarities, there are important differences between these two species recognised. Whereas humans are made from "clay" or "dirt", jinn were created from "smokeless fire" (Quran 15:27, Quran 55:15),[35](p182) which is possibly the reason why they are credited with some extraordinary abilities, such as invisibility, transformation, and ascending into the air like devils (Quran 72:8).[35](p182) Despite some superhuman powers, the jinn occupy no fundamentally different position in the Quran than humans. Like humans, the jinn have no knowledge of the future.[35](p182) Like humanity, jinn face epistemic limitations regarding "the hidden/occult" (ar-ghayb) and have to rely on God's messengers, and face eschatological judgement.[35](p182)[37][36]

Exegesis

Kashan, Iran, late 12th–13th century mina’i-fritware bowl. The scene in this bowl can be understood as depicting the enthroned (Second) Sulaymān with messengers to either side, crowned human headed winged jinn.[38]

In Quranic interpretation, the term jinn can be used in two different ways:[39](p12)[9]

  1. a specific invisible being, offspring of abu Jann considered to be, along with humans, thaqalān (accountable for their deeds), created out of "fire and air" (Arabic: مَارِجٍ مِن نَّار, mārijin min nār).[40]
  2. any object that cannot be detected by human sensory organs, including angels, devils, and the (spiritual) interior of human beings.[40][41][c]

Belief in jinn is not included among the six articles of Islamic faith, as belief in angels is. Nontheless, many Muslim scholars, including the Hanbalī scholar ibn Taymiyya and the Ẓāhirī scholar ibn Hazm, believe they are essential to the Islamic faith, since they are mentioned in the Quran.[3](p33) It is generally accepted by the majority of Muslim scholars that jinn can possess individuals. This is considered to be part of the doctrines (aqidah) of the "people of the Sunnah" (ahl as-sunnah wal-jammah'a) in the tradition of Ash'ari.[44](p 68) The Atharī scholars ibn Taimiyya and ibn Qayyim agree on this matter.[44] From among the Sunni schools of theology, only the Māturīdīs seems to debate possession. Al-Rustughfanī deemed jinn-possession impossible.[45] Al-Māturīdī focuses on the dynamics between jinn and humans based on Quran 72:6. He states that seeking refuge among the jinn increases fear and anxiety, however, not because of the jinn, but due to the psychological dependence of the individual towards external powers. By that, he refers to seeking refuge among the jinn as a form of širk, due to the reliance on a created thing instead of God.[39](p23)

Jurisprudence

The Singer Ibrahim and the jinn. Ibrahim has been imprisoned by his master Muhammad al-Amin and visited by a jinn in guise of an old man. The jinn offers him food and drink and is so impressed by Ibrahim's voice that he convinces Muhammad to free him.[46]

The jinn are obligated to follow the divine law (sharīʿa), as derived from the Quran by Muslim jurists (faqīh). Thus, the jinn are considered, along with humans, to be mukallāf. Believers among the jinn are called "Muslim jinn" (muslimū l-jinn).[47]

Since both creations must perform the required prayers (salah), Muslim jurists debated if one is allowed to perform the prayer behind a jinni. Shibli cites two Hanbalite scholars who regard this as permissible without hesitation. Since Muhammad was sent to jinn and humans, both are mukallāf and subject to the command to pray.[d]

Because humans and jinn are capable of procreation, Muslim jurists dealt with the issue of permissibility of intercourse between these two types of creatures. Some Ḥadīths, though considered fabricated (mawḍūʻ) by some muhaddith (hadith scholars), pushed the necessity for an explanation:[48]

"The Hour will come when the children of jinn will become many among you."

— Suyuti, Laqt al-marjân, 38.[48]

"Among you are those who are expatriated (mugharrabûn);" and this, he explained, meant "crossed with jinn."

— Suyuti, Laqt al-marjân, 28.[48]

Although there are recorded cases between human-jinn relationships[e] most Muslim jurists agree that such a relationship is not permissible.[49] Even those scholars who allowed such relationships, still considered them undesirable (makruh).[48] Offspring of human-jinn relationships are nonetheless, usually considered to be gifted and talented people with special abilities.[25]

Folklore

Examples of the Jinn of the Air depicted on Seljuk 13th century tilework from Kubad Abad.

The jinn (also known as: Albanian: Xhindi, Turkish: Cin, Belarusian: Чорт) were adopted by later Islamic culture, since the Quran affirms their existence.[50] Although depictions are categorized into little tradition (folklore) and greater tradition (official Islam) for research purposes, both depictions are largely the same.[f]

The Quran does not consider foreign mythological beings to be devils, but entities erroneously ascribed divine power to. Therefore, jinn were considered a third class of invisible beings, often neutral or morally ambiguous, not consequently equated with devils.[8](p52) Islam allowed to integrate local beliefs about spirits and deities from Iran, Africa, Turkey and India, into a monotheistic framework without demonizing them.[51] Thus, they exist alongside other mythological entities, such as demons (divs) and peri (fairies).[52]

The moral attitude of the jinn is usually associated with their religion. Good jinn are usually considered Muslim jinn or jinn Islam, whereas unbelieving jinn were tempted by the devils (shayatin) and are called kāfir jinn or jinn kāfir.[53] Besides Islam, they could also practise Christianity and Judaism.[54] Good jinn might teach people moral lessons and might be benevolent,[55] or aid spiritual persons, such as shamans (kam) in Central Asia, or spiritual healers in Senegal.[56][57]

Most of the time, jinn are believed not to interfere with humans and live mostly in desolate or abandoned places.[58][59] This is, for example, evident from the Turkish phrase İn Cin top oynuyor.[60] It is only when they are angered or disturbed, for example, if their children are trodden upon or hot water is thrown on them,[61] that they take revenge on humans. For this reason, Muslims utter "destur" (permission), before doing something which might accidentally hurt jinn, such as sprinkling hot water on public grounds or into bushes, so present jinn are advised to leave the place.[58][62][20](p149)

Angered or straightforwardly evil mannered jinn, could hurt people by inflicting physical damage, causing illness, or taking control over a human's body.[54] A human, however, cannot be controlled by jinn at any time. The individual needs to be in a state of dha'iyfah (Arabic: ضَعِيفَة, "(mental) weakness"). Feelings of insecurity, mental instability, unhappy love and depression (being "tired from the soul") are forms of dha'iyfah.[63] In that case, it is believed that an exorcism is required to save the person from the assaulting jinni.[64] To protect oneself from jinn, many Muslims wear amulets with the name of God graved on. Jinn are also said to be scared of iron and wolves.[65]

Modern and post-modern era

Post-modern literature and movies

The cave chamber Majlis al Jinn, believed to be a gathering place of the jinn in Omani lore

Jinn feature in the magical realism genre, introduced into Turkish literature by Latife Tekin (1983),[66] who uses magical elements known from pre-Islamic and Islamic Anatolian lore. Since the 1980s, this genre has become prominent in Turkish literature. The story by Tekin deals with folkloric and religious belief in a rationalized society.[67]

Contrary to the neutral to positive depiction of jinn in Tekin's novels, since 2004 jinn have become a common trope in Middle Eastern horror movies.[68] The presentation of jinn usually combines Quranic with oral and cultural beliefs about jinn.[69] Out of 89 films, 59 have direct references to jinn as the antagonist, 12 use other sorts of demons, while other types of horror, such as the impending apocalypse, hauntings, or ghosts, constitute only 14 films.[69] The popularity of jinn as a choice of monster can best be explained by their affirmation in the Quran.[70] They are still a popular trope today. A study from 2020 shows that jinn are still the favorite Horror element among teenagers.[71] Jinn further feature in Iranian horror movies.[72]

Prevalence of belief

Though discouraged by some teachings of modern Islam, cultural beliefs about jinn remain popular among Muslim societies and their understanding of cosmology and anthropology.[73] Affirmation on the existence of jinn as sapient creatures living along with humans is still widespread in the Middle Eastern world and West Africa.[74][75] Mental illnesses are still often attributed to jinn possession.[76] In modern Iran, (evil) jinn are often substituted by devils.[77] Similarly, in many modern tales, the term jinn is used for div (demon), causing a shift in meaning.[78] Nontheless, belief in jinn remains popular.[79]

According to a survey undertaken by the Pew Research Center in 2012, at least 86% of Muslims in Morocco, 84% in Bangladesh, 63% in Turkey, 55% in Iraq, 53% in Indonesia, 47% in Thailand and 15% elsewhere in Central Asia, affirm a belief in the existence of jinn. The low rate in Central Asia might be influenced by Soviet religious oppression.[80] 36% of Muslims in Bosnia and Herzegovina believe in jinn, which is higher than the European average (30%), although only 21% believe in sorcery and 13% would wear talisman for protection against jinn. 12% support offerings and appeal given to the jinn.[81]

Sleep paralysis is understood as a "jinn attack" by many sleep paralysis sufferers in Egypt, as discovered by a Cambridge neuroscience study Jalal, Simons-Rudolph, Jalal, & Hinton (2013).[82] The study found that as many as 48% of those who experience sleep paralysis in Egypt believe it to be an assault by the jinn.[82] Almost all of these sleep paralysis sufferers (95%) would recite verses from the Quran during sleep paralysis to prevent future "jinn attacks". In addition, some (9%) would increase their daily Islamic prayer (ṣalāh) to get rid of these assaults by jinn.[82] Sleep paralysis is generally associated with great fear in Egypt, especially if believed to be supernatural in origin.[83]

Similarly, European patients with a Muslim background often attribute mental illnesses to jinn.[84] Most common attributations to jinn are symptoms of hallucination and psychotic symptoms, but can also include mood disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Capgras syndrome, and epilepsy.[85] It has been noted that not all Muslims who believe in jinn, believe they can possess people. Furthermore, belief in possession is not limited to Muslims.[86] Contrary to the assumption that higher education is proportional to disenchantment, belief in jinn-possession may remain intact even after medical graduation.[87]

Visual art

Ornamentation of intertwined serpents above the door of the Citadel of Aleppo

Although there are very few visual representations of jinn in Islamic art, when they do appear, it is usually related to a specific event or individual jinn.

Visual representations of jinn appear in manuscripts and their existence is often implied in works of architecture by the presence of apotropaic devices like serpents, which were intended to ward off evil spirits. Lastly, King Solomon is illustrated very often with jinn as the commander of an army that included them.

Architectural representation

Takht-i Marmar, the marble throne supported by jinn and divs (demons), Gulistan Palace, Teheran, created for Fath Ali Shah (r. 1797–1833)

In addition to these representations of jinn in vicinity to kingship, there were also architectural references to jinn throughout the Islamic world. In the Citadel of Aleppo, the entrance gate Bab al-Hayyat made reference to jinn in the stone relief carvings of serpents; likewise, the water gate at Ayyubid Harran housed two copper sculptures of jinn, serving as talismans to ward off both snakes and evil jinn in the form of snakes.[88](p408)

Alongside these depictions of the jinn found at the Aleppo Citadel, depictions of the jinn can be found in the Rūm Seljuk palace. There are a phenomenal range of creatures that can be found on the eight-pointed tiles of the Seal of Sulaymān device.[88](p390) Among these were the jinn, that belonged among Solomon's army and as Solomon claimed to have control over the jinn, so did the Rūm Seljuk sultan that claimed to be the Sulaymān of his time.[88](p393) In fact, one of the most common representations of jinn are alongside or in association with King Solomon. It was thought that King Solomon had very close ties to the jinn, and even had control over many of them.[88](p399) The concept that a great and just ruler has the ability to command jinn was one that extended far past only King Solomon– it was also thought that emperors, such as Alexander the Great, could control an army of jinn in a similar way.[88](p399) Given this association, Jinn were often seen with Solomon in a princely or kingly context, such as the small, animal-like jinn sitting beside King Solomon on his throne illustrated in an illuminated manuscript of Aja'ib al-Makhluqat by Zakariya al-Qazwini, written in the 13th century.[89]

In the Kitāb al-Bulhān

The red king of the djinn, Al-Ahmar. One of the Seven jinn-kings in the late 14th-century Book of Wonders.

In the Book of Wonders compiled in the 14th century by Abd al-Hasan al-Isfahani, there are illustrations of various supernatural beings (demons, ʿafārīt,[90] jinn, the evil eye, devils, lilith, celestial spirits, etc.).[91][92](p27)

Each celestial spirits is referred to as a "King of the Jinn", represented alongside his spiritual helpers and alongside the corresponding talismanic symbols.[92](p27) For instance, the 'Red King of Tuesday' was depicted in the Book of Wonders as a sinister form astride a lion. In the same illustration, he holds a severed head and a sword, because the 'Red King of Tuesday' was aligned with Mars, the god of war.[92](p27) Alongside that, there were illustrations of the 'Gold King' and the 'White King'.[92](p27)

Aside from the seven 'Kings of the Jinn', the Book of Wonders included an illustration of Huma (Arabic: حمى), or the 'Fever'. Huma was depicted as three-headed and as embracing the room around him, in order to capture someone and bring on a fever in them.[92](p28)

Talismanic representation

Image of a talisman (Tawiz), supposed to ward off jinn, evil eye, sorcery, and demons.

The jinn had an indirect impact on Islamic art through the creation of talismans that were alleged to guard the bearer from the jinn and were enclosed in leather and included Qur'anic verses.[8](p80) It was not unusual for those talismans to be inscribed with separated Arabic letters, because the separation of those letters was thought to positively affect the potency of the talisman overall.[8](p82) An object that was inscribed with the word of Allah was thought to have the power to ward off evil from the person who obtained the object, though many of these objects also had astrological signs, depictions of prophets, or religious narratives.[93]

Jinn and magical practises

Zawba'a or Zoba'ah, the jinn-king of Friday

Jinn might be invoked, along with demons and devils, for means of sorcery, incantation, protection, or divination.[94][95] Soothsayers (kāhin) are credited with the ability to ask jinn about things of the past, since their lives are believed to last longer than that of humans.[96]: 73 

Common beliefs regarding sorcery and commanding jinn are attested in ibn al-Nadim's Kitāb al-Fihrist.[97]: 141  Since he locates such practises not as a branch of science or philosophy, but rather in a chapter about stories and fables, the author might not have believed in the efficiency on sorcery himself.[97]: 141  He reports that the art of commanding jinn and demons is traced back to Solomon and Jamshid. The first who would have practised a lawful method of incantation is supposed to be Abū Naṣr Aḥmad b. Hilāl.[97]: 142  Ibn Nadim explains lawful and unlawful subjugating of jinn and demons as distinct: While the former controls the jinn by the power of God's divine names, the latter pleases demons and devils by prohibited offerings and sinful acts.[97]: 141–142  Al-Jāḥiẓ is another author who tells about another man allegedly controlling jinn and demons: In the Umayyad period, ibn Hilāl is said to have the power to summon demons and jinn.[97]: 142  He further claimed to have married a daughter of Satan and begotten a child.[97]: 143 

There is evidence that subjugation of spirits, jinn, and demons, was also cultivated by various Islamic authorities. Al-Ṭabasī, who was considered a reliable muḥadīth (scholar of ḥadīth) and pious ascetic, wrote an extensive treatise (al-Shāmil fī al-baḥr al-kāmil) on subjugating demons and jinn.[97]: 145  According to Zakariya al-Qazwini, it was well-known that jinn obeyed al-Ṭabasī. He gives an example, that al-Ṭabasī demonstrated the jinn to the famous scholar Ghazālī, who saw them as shadows on the wall.[97]: 145  He professes that jinn only obey when the individual turns away from the temptations of creation and devoting oneself towards God.[97]: 146  The al-Shāmil gives detailed instructions for preparations of various incantations. Unlike, for example in the writings of al-Razi, the al-Shāmil has no direct link to Hellenistic or Hermetic magic or philosophy.[97]: 148  Magic was also used in the Ottoman Empire as evident from the Talismanic shirts of Murad III.[98]

Related to the occult traditions in Islamic culture is the belief in the "Seven kings of the Week", also known as rūḥāiya ulia (higher spirits; angels) and rūḥāiya sufula (lower spirits; demons). These beings are, for example, invoked for the preparation of Magic squares.[99][20](p87) This belief is attested by the Book of Wonders.[92] It contains artistic depictions of several supernatural beings (demons, jinn, the evil eye, fever (Huma, Arabic: حمى), devils, lilith, etc.).[91][92] Some of these beings indicate that the work connects Hebrew, Christian, and Islamic magical traditions.[92] The original work is attributed to al-Bakhi, who founded a system of astrological magic based on Neo-Platonic thought.[92] Although many pages are damaged, it is possible to reconstruct their meanings from Ottoman copies.[92] Each king is depicted with helpers and associated talismanic symbols.[92]

Associations
Planet Day Angel that monitors the associated ‘Afārīt

(Arabic; Hebrew equivalent)

‘Afārīt Type of madness (جُنُون, junūn) and parts of the body attacked Remarks
Common name Known other names
Sun Sunday Ruqya'il (روقيائيل); Raphael (רפאל) Al-Mudhdhahab/ Al-Mudhhib/ Al-Mudhhab (المذهب; The Golden One) Abu 'Abdallah Sa'id the name "Al-Mudh·dhahab" refers to the jinn's skin tone.
Moon Monday Jibril (جبريل); Gabriel (גבריאל) Al-Abyaḍ (الابيض; The White One) Murrah al-Abyad Abu al-Harith; Abu an-Nur Whole body the name "Al-Abyaḍ" refers to the jinn's skin tone, however he is portrayed as a "dark black, charcoal" figure. The possible connection of this name is with another name "Abū an-Nūr" ("Father of Light"); his names are the same as whose applied to Iblīs.
Mars Tuesday Samsama'il (سمسمائيل); Samael (סמאל) Al-Aḥmar (الاحمر; The Red One) Abu Mihriz; Abu Ya'qub Head, uterus the name "Al-Aḥmar" refers to the jinn's skin tone.
Mercury Wednesday Mikail (ميكائيل); Michael (מיכאל) Būrqān/ Borqaan (بورقان; Two Thunders) Abu al-'Adja'yb; Al-Aswad Back
Jupiter Thursday Sarfya'il (صرفيائيل); Zadkiel (צדקיאל) Shamhuresh (شمهورش) Abu al-Walid; At-Tayyar Belly
Venus Friday 'Anya'il (عنيائيل); Anael (ענאל) Zawba'ah (زوبعة; Cyclone, Whirlwind) Abu Hassan It is said the "whirlwind" (zawba'ah), to be caused by an evil jinn which travels inside it.
Saturn Saturday Kasfa'il (كسفيائيل); Cassiel (קפציאל) Maymun (ميمون; Prosperous) Abu Nuh Feet His name means "monkey"[92]

Comparative mythology

Ancient Mesopotamian religion

Beliefs in entities similar to the jinn are found throughout pre-Islamic Middle Eastern cultures.[20]: 1–10  The ancient Sumerians believed in Pazuzu, a wind demon,[20]: 1–10 [100]: 147–148  who was shown with "a rather canine face with abnormally bulging eyes, a scaly body, a snake-headed penis, the talons of a bird and usually wings."[100](p147) Ancient Mesopotamian religion has udug, Babylonian utukku, a class of demons that were believed to haunt remote wildernesses, graveyards, mountains, and the sea, all locations where jinn were later thought to reside.[20]: 1–10  The Babylonians also believed in the rabisu, a vampiric demon believed to leap out and attack travelers at unfrequented locations, similar to the post-Islamic ghūl,[20]: 1–10  a specific kind of jinn whose name is etymologically related to that of the Sumerian galla, a class of Underworld demon.[101][102]

Lamashtu, also known as Labartu, was a divine demoness said to devour human infants.[20]: 1–10 [100](p115) Lamassu, also known as Shedu, were guardian spirits, sometimes with evil propensities.[20]: 1–10 [100]: 115–116  The Assyrians believed in the alû, sometimes described as a wind demon residing in desolate ruins who would sneak into people's houses at night and steal their sleep.[20]: 1–10 

In the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra, entities similar to jinn were known as ginnayê,[20]: 1–10  an Aramaic name which may be etymologically derived from the name of the genii from Roman mythology.[20]: 1–10  Like jinn among modern-day Bedouin, ginnayê were thought to resemble humans.[20]: 1–10  They protected caravans, cattle, and villages in the desert[20]: 1–10  and tutelary shrines were kept in their honor.[20]: 1–10  They were frequently invoked in pairs.[20]: 1–10 

Judaism

The sheyd אַשְמְדּאָי (Ašmodai) in bird-like form, with typical rooster feet, as depicted in Compendium rarissimum totius Artis Magicae 1775

The Jewish depiction of jinn (Hebrew: Shedim)[103] closely resemble that of the Islamic depictions in many regards. The story of Solomon being replaced by the evil jinn-king is well known in both Quranic exegesis and the Talmud.[20](p120) Likewise, they may be rebellious and evil or lawful obeying the holy scripture (i.e. the Torah).[104] Their resemblance to humans is captured in a description in the Babylonian Talmud: "In three regards the shedim are like angels, and in three like humans: They have wings, they fly from one end of the world to another, they know the future listening from behind the veil of the angels; and in three regards they resemble humans: They eat and drink, procreate, and die like humans."[105]

In earlier midrashim they are corporeal beings. If they take on human forms, their feet would remain that of roosters (instead of hooves in Muslim depiction). Later, in Judaism such entities developed into more abstract beings, in contrast to Islam where they retained their corporeal image.[106] However, like their Islamic-counterparts they are credited with possession.[103] Like Muslim excorcism on jinn, Jewish excorcism as well includes negotiations with these beings, asking for their religion, sex, name, and intention. The treatment of possession by jinn (jnun, shedim, etc.) differs from that of traditional Jewish cure of spirit possession associated with ghosts (Dybbuk).[107]

Buddhism

As in Islam, the idea of spiritual entities converting to one's own religion can be found in Buddhism. According to lore, the Buddha preached to Devas and Asura, spiritual entities who, like humans, are subject to the cycle of life, and who resemble the Islamic notion of jinn, who are also ontologically placed among humans in regard to eschatological destiny.[8](p165)[108]

Christianity

Abraham Ecchellensis writes that the jinn would be the children of Lilith and devils, and therefore would share three qualities with humans - such as procreation, eating, and dying - but share three qualities with devils in regard to flying, invisibility, and passing through solid substances; this depiction is linked to the Jewish account on shedim. Because of their human-like qualities, they are less noxious to humans than devils, and many would indeed live in some familiarity and even friendship with humans. In India, certain young jinn would assume a human form to play games with native children of human parents.[109]

Van Dyck's Arabic translation of the Old Testament uses the alternative collective plural "jann" (Arab:الجان; translation:al-jānn) to render the Hebrew word usually translated into English as "familiar spirit" (אוב, Strong #0178) in several places (Leviticus 19:31, 20:6; 1 Samuel 28:3,7,9; 1 Chronicles 10:13).[110]

Some scholars evaluated whether the jinn might be compared to fallen angels in Christian traditions. Comparable to Augustine's descriptions of fallen angels as ethereal, jinn seem to be considered as the same substance. Although the concept of fallen angels is not absent in the Quran,[111] the jinn nevertheless differ in their major characteristics from that of fallen angels: While fallen angels fell from heaven, the jinn did not, but try to climb up to it in order to receive the news of the angels. Jinn are closer to daemons.[112] Furthermore, the jinn and angels form two entirely different species in Islamic tradition: While the jinn are created on earth and can be good or bad, the angels were created in heaven and (with exception for the fallen angels) are obedient to God.[112]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ From T. Nünlist (2015) Dämonenglaube im Islam[3]: 2 
    TRANSLATION: (in English)
    "M. Dols points out that jinn-belief is not a strictly Islamic concept. It rather includes countless elements of idol-worship, as Muhammad's enemies practised in Mecca during jahilliya. According to F. Meier early Islam integrated many pagan deities into its system by degrading them to spirits. 1. In Islam, the existence of spirits that are neither angels nor necessarily devils is acknowledged. 2. Thereby Islam is able to incorporate non-biblical[,] non-Quranic ideas about mythic images, that means: a. degrading deities to spirits and therefore taking into the spiritual world. b. taking daemons, not mentioned in the sacred traditions of Islam, of uncertain origin. c. consideration of spirits to tolerate or advising to regulate them."[3](p2)
    ORIGINAL: (in German)
    "M. Dols macht darauf aufmerksam, dass der Ginn-Glaube kein strikt islamisches Konzept ist. Er beinhaltet vielmehr zahllose Elemente einer Götzenverehrung, wie sie Muhammads Gegner zur Zeit der gahiliyya in Mekka praktizierten. Gemäß F. Meier integrierte der junge Islam bei seiner raschen Expansion viele heidnische Gottheiten in sein System, indem er sie zu Dämonen degradierte. 1. Im Islam wird die Existenz von Geistern, die weder Engel noch unbedingt Teufel sein müssen, anerkannt. 2. Damit besitzt der Islam die Möglichkeit, nicht-biblische[,] nicht koranische Vorstellungen von mythischen Vorstellungen sich einzuverleiben, d.h.: a. Götter zu Geistern zu erniedrigen und so ins islamische Geisterreich aufzunehmen. b. in der heiligen Überlieferung des Islams nicht eigens genannte Dämonen beliebiger Herkunft zu übernehmen. c. eine Berücksichtigung der Geister zu dulden oder gar zu empfehlen und sie zu regeln."[3](p2)[2]
  2. ^ sometimes Arabs use Jānn (Arabic: جان) term for singular, jānn also referred to jinn world – another plural, snakes / serpents and another type of jinn
  3. ^ This is, for example, evident from A'sha's saying in mention of Sulayman ibn Dawud; and He subjected from the jinn among the angels (min jinni al-mala'iki)"[42]: 546  Al-Jahiz defines jinn as various spirits defined by their behaviour; a malicious and wicked jinn is called a s̲h̲ayṭān, a jinn lifting a heavy weight and listening at the doors of Heaven is a mārid, a jinn of great intelligence is called an ʿabḳarī, a jinn entirely good and pure is an angel.[43]
  4. ^ From T. Nünlist (2015) Dämonenglaube im Islam[3]: 89 
    TRANSLATION: (in English)
    "Islamic jurists have also repeatedly addressed the question of whether the jinn have a religion. Shchibli notes that in this context they had a controversial discussion about whether it was permissible under Sharia law to perform the Muslim ritual prayer (salat) behind a genie. Two Hanbali sources led by Shibli affirm this permissibility without hesitation and justify their point of view by saying that not only the humans (ins) but also the jinn are "mukallaf".[3](p2)
    ORIGINAL: (in German)
    "Auch die islamischen Rechtsgelehrten haben sich wiederholt mit der Frage beschäftigt, ob die Dschinn eine Religion haben. Shchibli hält fest, dass sie in diesem Zusammenhang kontrovers diskutiert hätten, ob es schariarehtlich zulässig sei, das muslimische Ritualgebet (salat) hinter einem Dschinni zu verrichten. Zwei von Schibli angeführte hanbalitische Gewährsleute bejahen diese Zulässigkeit ohne Zögern und begründen ihren Standpunkt damit, dass nicht nur die Menschen (ins), sondern auch die Dschinn mukallaf seien."[3](p89)
  5. ^ In a study of exorcism culture in the Hadhramaut of Yemen, love was one of the most frequent cited causes of relationships between humans and jinn. Love seems to be the most frequent occasion of contact between men and jinn. A jinni meets a woman and falls in love with her, or vice versa... This possession is manifest notably when the jinni has sexual intercourse with the person he/she possesses. In that case, the individual behaves with gestures and words as if they were having sexual intercourse, although he/she is apparently alone in the room. Besides, this person seems to suddenly lose all interest for his/her environment."[48]
  6. ^ From T. Nünlist (2015) Dämonenglaube im Islam TRANSLATION: (in English)
    "The distinction made between popular and scriptural Islam or between little and great traditions proves to be problematic and only serves as a makeshift here. This comparison implicitly suggests that the representations of daemonology in written sources differ from the findings documented in ethnographic, anthropological and sociologically oriented field studies. Such a view must be rejected. The treatment of the belief in daemons in the written sources primarily consulted in the context of these studies does not differ fundamentally from the views observed in popular Islam. Popular Islam and scriptural Islam do not design separate daemonologies. This situation is explained not least by the fact that the Quran and Sunna, the two most important sources in the area of Islam for the great tradition, clearly affirm the existence of jinn."[3](p4)

Citations

  1. ^ as-Samarqandi, Abu l-Lait. "Abu l-Lait as-Samarqandi's commentary on Abu Hanifa al-Fiqh al-absat: Introduction, text, and commentary". In Hans Daiber (ed.). Islamic Concept of Belief in the 4th/10th Century. p. 243. ISSN 1340-5306. {{cite book}}: |journal= ignored (help)
  2. ^ a b McAuliffe, Jane Dammen (2005). Encyclopaedia of the Qurʼān. Vol. 3. Brill. p. 45. ISBN 978-90-04-12356-4.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Nünlist, Tobias (2015). Dämonenglaube im Islam [Demonic Belief in Islam] (in German). Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4.
  4. ^ South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia. (2020). Vereinigtes Königreich: Taylor & Francis. p.
  5. ^ a b Fee, C.R.; Webb, Jeffrey B. (29 August 2016). American Myths, Legends, and Tall Tales: An encyclopedia of American folklore. ABC-CLIO. p. 527. ISBN 978-1-610-69568-8.
  6. ^ Lane, Edward William. "An Arabic-English Lexicon". Archived from the original on 8 April 2015.. p. 462.
  7. ^ Wehr, Hans (1994). Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (4 ed.). Urbana, Illinois: Spoken Language Services. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-87950-003-0.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k
    el-Zein, Amira (2009). Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-5070-6.
  9. ^ a b c d Abu-Hamdiyyah, Muhammad. The Qur'an: an introduction. Routledge, 2020.
  10. ^ Tisdall, W. St. Clair. The Original Sources of the Qur'an, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, London, 1905
  11. ^ The Religion of the Crescent or Islam: Its Strength, Its Weakness, Its Origin, Its Influence, William St. Clair Tisdall, 1895
  12. ^ a b c d e f Magic and Divination in Early Islam. (2021). Vereinigtes Königreich: Taylor & Francis.
  13. ^ ""genie, n."". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 2014.
  14. ^ Arabian Nights' entertainments. Vol. I. 1706. p. 14.
  15. ^ John L. Mckenzie (1995) The Dictionary Of The Bible Simon and Schuster ISBN 978-0-684-81913-6 p. 192
  16. ^ Mehmet-Ali Ataç (2010) The Mythology of Kingship in Neo-Assyrian Art Cambridge University Press ISBN 978-0-521-51790-4 p. 36
  17. ^ "jinn – definition of jinn in English". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on 3 April 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
  18. ^ Haring, Lee. "Africa and the Disciplines: The Contributions of Research in Africa to the Social Sciences and Humanities." (1995): 122-124.
  19. ^ Amira El Zein: The Evolution of the Concept of Jinn from Pre-Islam to Islam'. p. 260
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v
    Lebling, Robert (2010). Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and genies from Arabia to Zanzibar. New York, NY & London, UK: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-0-85773-063-3.
  21. ^ a b Zeitlin, I. M. (2007). The Historical Muhammad. United Kingdom: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-745-63998-7.
  22. ^ Zeitlin, Irving M. (19 March 2007). The Historical Muhammad. Polity. pp. 59–60. ISBN 978-0-7456-3999-4.
  23. ^ ʻAẓmah, ʻ. (2014). The Emergence of Islam in Late Antiquity: Allah and His People. Vereinigtes Königreich: Cambridge University Press. p. 293
  24. ^ "cin". TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi.
  25. ^ a b Aloiane, Z.A. (1996). "Anthropomorphic representation of evil in Islam and some other traditions – a cross-cultural approach". Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 49 (3). Akadémiai Kiadó: 423–434. JSTOR 43391301.
  26. ^ Nasr, S. H. (2013). Islamic Life and Thought. Vereinigtes Königreich: Taylor & Francis.
  27. ^ Abd-Allah, Umar F. (2002). "The Perceptible and the unseen: The Qur'anic conception of man's relationship to God and realities beyond human perception". In Palmer, Spencer J. (ed.). Mormons and Muslims: Spiritual foundations and modern manifestations. Religious Studies Center. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. pp. 209–264.
  28. ^ a b Yosefi, Maxim. “The Origins of the Traditional Approach towards the Jinn of Poetic Inspiration in Tribal Arab Culture.” Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, vol. 49, 2019, pp. 293–302. JSTOR, https://www.jstor.org/stable/27014158. Accessed 30 Oct. 2023.
  29. ^ Amira El Zein: The Evolution of the Concept of Jinn from Pre-Islam to Islam. pp. 108–109.
  30. ^ Ruiz, Manuel. "The conception of authority in pre-Islamic Arabia: its legitimacy and origin." (1971). p. 20
  31. ^ Rothenberg, Celia E. Spirits of Palestine: Gender, society, and stories of the jinn. Rowman & Littlefield, 2004. p.245
  32. ^ Quran 51:56-56
  33. ^ Muḥammad ibn Ayyūb al-Ṭabarī, Tuḥfat al-gharā’ib, I, p. 68
  34. ^ Abū al-Futūḥ Rāzī, Tafsīr-e rawḥ al-jenān va rūḥ al-janān, pp. 193, 341
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Sinai, Nicolai. "Key terms of the Qur'an: a critical dictionary." (2023): 1-840.
  36. ^ a b c d e Meri, Josef (2016). Routledge Revivals: Medieval Islamic Civilization (2006) An Encyclopedia - Volume I. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-351-66822-4.
  37. ^ Teuma, Edmund. "The Solomon legend in Muslim tradition." (1987).
  38. ^ On the Exercise of Coastal Control through Observation and Long Distance Communication Systems in Seljuk Territory in the XIIIth Century
  39. ^ a b DÜZGÜN, Şaban Ali. "DİNSEL ve MİTOLOJİK YÖNLERİYLE CİN ve ŞEYTAN ALGIMIZ."
  40. ^ a b Teuma, E. (1984). More on Qur'anic jinn. Melita Theologica, 35(1-2), 37-45.
  41. ^ Noegel, Scott B. & Wheeler, Brannon M. (2010) The A to Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism. Scarecrow Press ISBN 978-1-461-71895-6 page 170
  42. ^ translator: Gibril Fouad Haddad, author: ʿAbd Allah ibn ʿUmar al-Baydawi, 2016, The Lights Of Revelation And The Secrets Of Interpretation, ISBN 978-0-992-63357-8
  43. ^ Fahd, T. and Rippin, A., “S̲h̲ayṭān”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 17 August 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_1054> First published online: 2012 First print edition: ISBN 9789004161214, 1960-2007
  44. ^ a b Islam, Migration and Jinn: Spiritual Medicine in Muslim Health Management. (2021). Deutschland: Springer International Publishing.
  45. ^ Harvey, Ramon. Transcendent God, Rational World: A Maturidi Theology. Edinburgh University Press, 2021.
  46. ^ Komaroff, Linda, and Stefano Carboni, eds. The legacy of Genghis Khan: courtly art and culture in Western Asia, 1256-1353. Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2002.
  47. ^ Lange, Christian (2016). Paradise and Hell in Islamic Traditions. Cambridge United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-50637-3. p- 140
  48. ^ a b c d e Hanegraaff, Wouter J.; Kripal, Jeffrey (2008). Hidden intercourse : eros and sexuality in the history of Western esotericism (PDF). Leiden: Brill. pp. 53–56, 58. ISBN 978-90-474-4358-2. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  49. ^ Köse S. Ci̇nlerle Evli̇li̇k Konusunda Hanefî Faki̇hi̇ Hâmi̇d El-İmâdî’ni̇n (1103-1171/1692-1758) Teka’ku’u’ş-Şenn Fî Ni̇kâhi̇’l-Ci̇nn Adli Ri̇salesi̇. Journal of Islamic Law Studies. 2010;(15):453-464. Accessed January 25, 2022.
  50. ^ The Routledge Companion to the Qur'an. (2021). Vereinigtes Königreich: Taylor & Francis.
  51. ^ Juan Eduardo Campo (2009) Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing ISBN 978-1-438-12696-8 page 402
  52. ^ Heuer, B., Boykova, E. V., Kellner-Heinkele, B. (2020). Man and Nature in the Altaic World.: Proceedings of the 49th Permanent International Altaistic Conference, Berlin, July 30 – August 4, 2006. Deutschland: De Gruyter. p. 300-301
  53. ^ Muhaimin, A.G. (2006). The Islamic Traditions of Cirebon: Ibadat and Adat among Javanese Muslims. ANU E Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-920942-31-1.
  54. ^ a b Gregg, G. S. (2005). The Middle East: A Cultural Psychology. Vereinigtes Königreich: Oxford University Press, USA. p. 127
  55. ^ Celia E. Rothenberg Spirits of Palestine: Gender, Society, and Stories of the Jinn Rowman & Littlefield, 5 Nov 2004 ISBN 9781461741237 pp. 29-33
  56. ^ Bullard, A. (2022). Spiritual and Mental Health Crisis in Globalizing Senegal: A History of Transcultural Psychiatry. USA: Taylor & Francis.
  57. ^ Sidky, M. Homayun. "" Malang", Sufis, and Mystics: An Ethnographic and Historical Study of Shamanism in Afghanistan." Asian Folklore Studies (1990): 275-301.
  58. ^ a b Hughes, Thomas Patrick (1885). "Genii". Dictionary of Islam: Being a Cyclopædia of the Doctrines, Rites, Ceremonies. London, UK: W.H. Allen. pp. 134–136. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  59. ^ Türk Söylence Sözlüğü, Deniz Karakurt, Türkiye, 2011
  60. ^ "İn cin ne demek? İn cin TDK sözlük anlamı nedir?". Mynet Eğitim. 24 May 2022.
  61. ^ Robert Elsie A Dictionary of Albanian Religion, Mythology and Folk Culture C. Hurst & Co. Publishers 2001 ISBN 978-1-85065-570-1 p. 134
  62. ^ MacDonald, D.B., Massé, H., Boratav, P.N., Nizami, K.A. and Voorhoeve, P., "Ḏj̲inn", in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 15 November 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0191> First published online: 2012 First print edition: ISBN 978-90-04-16121-4, 1960–2007
  63. ^ Gingrich, Andre (1995). "Spirits of the border: Some remarks on the connotation of jinn in north-western Yemen". Quaderni di Studi Arabi. 13: 199–212. JSTOR 25802775. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  64. ^ Joseph P. Laycock Spirit Possession around the World: Possession, Communion, and Demon Expulsion across Cultures: Possession, Communion, and Demon Expulsion across Cultures ABC-CLIO 2015 ISBN 978-1-610-69590-9 page 243
  65. ^ Gods, Spirits, and Worship in the Greco-Roman World and Early Christianity. (2022). Vereinigtes Königreich: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 227
  66. ^ Tekin, L. (1983). Sevgili Arsiz Ölüm [Dear shameless Death].
  67. ^ Değirmenci, Aslı (9 August 2013). Mapping Geographies in Transition: Magical realism in the fiction of Salman Rushdie, Latife Tekin, and Ben Okri. Department of English (Ph.D. thesis). Buffalo, NY: State University of New York.
  68. ^ Şakrak, Bilgehan Ece (4 January 2019). "Religious evils in Turkish horror films". This Thing of Darkness: Shedding light on evil. BRILL. ISBN 978-1-84888-366-6.
  69. ^ a b Koçer, Zeynep (13 March 2019) [2007]. "The monstrous-feminine and masculinityas abjection in Turkish horror cinema: An analysis of Haunted [Musallat] [by] Alper Mestçi". In Holland, Samantha; Shail, Robert; Gerrard, Steven (eds.). Gender and Contemporary Horror in Film. Emerald Studies in Popular Culture and Gender. Bingley, UK: Emerald. pp. 151–165. doi:10.1108/9781787698970. ISBN 978-1-78769-898-7. S2CID 214474411.
  70. ^ Sengul, Ali. "Cinema, Horror and the Wrath of God: Turkish Islam's Claims in the Kurdish East." Nübihar Akademi 4.14: 11-28.
  71. ^ Gjinali, V., & Tunca, E. A. (2020). A General Look on the Impact of Turkish Horror Movies: An Exploratory Study on the Opinions of Youth on Horror Movies. SAGE Open, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244020979701
  72. ^ Khosroshahi, Zahra. "Vampires, Jinn and the Magical in Iranian Horror Films." Frames 16 (2019): 2.
  73. ^ Partovi, Pedram (3 December 2009). "Girls' dormitory: Women's Islam and Iranian horror". Visual Anthropology Review. 25 (2): 186–207. doi:10.1111/j.1548-7458.2009.01041.x. ISSN 1548-7458.
  74. ^ Olupona, Jacob K. (2014). African Religions: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-19-979058-6. OCLC 839396781.
  75. ^ Rassool, G. Hussein (16 July 2015). Islamic Counselling: An Introduction to theory and practice. Routledge. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-31744-125-0.
  76. ^ Rassool, G. Hussein (16 July 2015). Islamic Counselling: An Introduction to theory and practice. Routledge. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-31744-125-0.
  77. ^ Friedl, E. (2020). Religion and Daily Life in the Mountains of Iran: Theology, Saints, People. Vereinigtes Königreich: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 86
  78. ^ Huart, Cl. and Massé, H., “Dīw”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 31 January 2024 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_1879> First published online: 2012 First print edition: ISBN 9789004161214, 1960-2007
  79. ^ Omidsalar, Mahmoud محمود امیدسالار (15 December 2000). "Genie". Iranica Online (iranicaonline.org). دانشنامه ایرانیکا. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
  80. ^ Rassool, G. Hussein (16 August 2018). Evil Eye, Jinn Possession, and Mental Health Issues: An Islamic perspective. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-22698-7.
  81. ^ Větrovec, Lukáš. "Curse, Possession and Other Worlds: Magic and Witchcraft among the Bosniaks." p. 74
  82. ^ a b c Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E. (1 October 2013). "Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark". Transcultural Psychiatry. 51 (2): 158–175. doi:10.1177/1363461513503378. PMID 24084761. S2CID 22226921.
  83. ^ Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E. (1 September 2013). "Rates and Characteristics of Sleep Paralysis in the General Population of Denmark and Egypt". Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry. 37 (3): 534–548. doi:10.1007/s11013-013-9327-x. ISSN 0165-005X. PMID 23884906. S2CID 28563727.
  84. ^ 1. Lim A, Hoek HW, Blom JD. The attribution of psychotic symptoms to jinn in Islamic patients. Transcultural Psychiatry. 2015;52(1):18-32. doi:10.1177/1363461514543146
  85. ^ Lim A, Hoek HW, Blom JD. The attribution of psychotic symptoms to jinn in Islamic patients. Transcultural Psychiatry. 2015;52(1):18-32. doi:10.1177/1363461514543146
  86. ^ Guthrie E, Abraham S, Nawaz S. Process of determining the value of belief about jinn possession and whether or not they are a result of mental illness. BMJ Case Rep. 2016 Feb 2;2016:bcr2015214005. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2015-214005. PMID: 26838303; PMCID: PMC4746541.
  87. ^ Uvais, N. A.. Jinn and Psychiatry: Beliefs among (Muslim) doctors. Indian Journal of Social Psychiatry 33(1):p 47-49, Jan–Mar 2017. | DOI: 10.4103/0971-9962.200095
  88. ^ a b c d e Duggan, Terrance (2018). "The just ruler of the age". PHASELIS Journal of Interdisciplinary Mediterranean Studies. 4 (4): 389–421. doi:10.18367/Pha.18024.
  89. ^ Berlekamp, Persis (2011). Wonder, Image, & Cosmos in Medieval Islam. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 71.
  90. ^ de Lafayette, Maximillien (2017). Early & contemporary spirit artists, psychic artists, and medium painters from 5000 BC to the present day economy. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-365-97802-9.
  91. ^ a b Taheri, Alireza. "Comparative Study of «The Book of Felicity» Paintings and Book of «Al-Bulhan» of Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi." Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba: Honar-Ha-Ye-Tajassomi 22.1 (2017): 15-29.
  92. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Carboni, Stefano (2013). "The Book of Surprises (Kitab al-Buhlan) of the Bodleian Library". The La Trobe Journal. 91: 27–28.
  93. ^ Al-Saleh, Yasmine (2010). "Amulets and Talismans from the Islamic World". The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  94. ^ Gerda Sengers Women and Demons: Cultic Healing in Islamic Egypt BRILL 2003 ISBN 978-9-004-12771-5 page 31
  95. ^ Ian Richard Netton Encyclopaedia of Islam Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-1-135-17960-1 page 376
  96. ^ Morrow, John Andrew (27 November 2013) Islamic Images and Ideas: Essays on sacred symbolism, McFarland, ISBN 978-1-476-61288-1
  97. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Travis Zadeh Commanding Demons and Jinn: The Sorcerer in Early Islamic Thought Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2014
  98. ^ Felek, Özgen. "Fears, Hopes, and Dreams: The Talismanic Shirts of Murād III." Arabica 64.3-4 (2017): 647-672.
  99. ^ Mommersteeg, Geert. “‘He Has Smitten Her to the Heart with Love’ The Fabrication of an Islamic Love-Amulet in West Africa.” Anthropos, vol. 83, no. 4/6, 1988, pp. 501–510. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/40463380. Accessed 13 June 2020.
  100. ^ a b c d Black, Jeremy; Green, Anthony (1992). Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary. The British Museum Press. ISBN 978-0-7141-1705-8.
  101. ^ Cramer, Marc (1979). The Devil Within. W.H. Allen. ISBN 978-0-491-02366-5.
  102. ^ Al-Rawi, Ahmed (2009). "The Mythical Ghoul in Arabic Culture". Cultural Analysis. Socrates.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
  103. ^ a b YALÇINKAYA, Mustafa. "İLÂHİ DİNLERİN CİN KAVRAMI ALGISI: GENEL BİR YAKLAŞIM." PEARSON JOURNAL 5.7 (2020): 170-183.
  104. ^ J. W. Moore, Savary (M., Claude Etienne)|The Koran: Commonly Called the Alcoran of Mohammed|1853|J. W. Moore| p. 20
  105. ^ Kohut, Alexander. Ueber die jüdische Angelologie und Daemonologie in ihrer Abhängigkeit vom Parsismus. No. 3. Brockhaus, 1866. p. 54
  106. ^ GIMBEL, Jared Joseph. Spiritual Descent: A Study of Semi-Divine Beings and Non-Human Species in European Mythologies. 2011. p. 34-35
  107. ^ Bilu, Yoram. "The Moroccan Demon in Israel: The Case of 'Evil Spirit Disease.'" Ethos, vol. 8, no. 1, 1980, pp. 24–39. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/640134. Accessed 21 Apr. 2023.
  108. ^ Musæus-Higgins, Marie (1925). Poya Days. Asian Educational Services. p. 14. ISBN 978-8-120-61321-8.
  109. ^ Baring-Gould, Sabine. Legends of Old Testament Characters: From the Talmud and Other Sources. Vol. 1. Macmillan, 1871. pp. 24–25
  110. ^ "Arabic Bible". arabicbible.com. Arabic Bible Outreach Ministry.
  111. ^ Hanegraaff, Wouter J.; Kripal, Jeffrey (16 October 2008). Hidden Intercourse: Eros and sexuality in the history of western esotericism. BRILL. p. 53. ISBN 978-90-474-4358-2.
  112. ^ a b Azaiez, Mehdi; Reynolds, Gabriel Said; Tesei, Tommaso; Zafer, Hamza M., eds. (7 November 2016). Le Qur'an Seminar: Commentaire collaboratif de 50 passages coraniques [The Qur'an Seminar Commentary: A collaborative study of 50 Qur'anic passages] (in French and English) (bilingual ed.). Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. Q 72. ISBN 978-3110444797. ISBN 3110444798[full citation needed]

Sources

  • Barnhart, Robert K. (1995). The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology.
  • "Genie". The Oxford English Dictionary (Second ed.). 1989.
  • Rāzī, Abu al-Futūḥ (1988). Tafsīr-e rawḥ al-jenān va rūḥ al-janān. Vol. IX–XVII. Tehran, IR.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) (pub. so far)
  • Ṭabarī, Moḥammad Ayyūb (1971). Matīnī, J. (ed.). Tuḥfat al-gharā'ib. Tehran, IR.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  • Aarne, A.; Thompson, S. (1973). The Types of the Folktale (2nd rev. ed.). Helsinki, FI: Folklore Fellows Communications 184.
  • Balkhī, Abu’l-Moayyad (1993). Smynova, L.P. (ed.). Ajā'eb al-donyā. Moscow, RU.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  • Christensen, A. (1941). Essai sur la Demonologie iranienne [Essay on the Demons of Iran]. Historisk-filologiske Meddelelser (in French). Denmark: Det. Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab.
  • Dozy, R. (1967). Supplément aux Dictionnaires arabes (in French) (3rd ed.). Leyden.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  • el-Shamy, H. (1995). Folk Traditions of the Arab World: A guide to motif classification. Vol. 1–2. Bloomington, IL.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  • Yazdī, Abū Bakr Moṭahhar Jamālī (1967). Afshār, Ī. (ed.). Farrokh-nāma. Tehran, IR.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  • Kolaynī, Abū Jaʿfar Moḥammad (1988). Ghaffārī, A. (ed.). Ketāb al-kāfī. Vol. 1–8. Tehran, IR.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  • Lane, E.W. (1968). An Arabic-English Lexicon (PDF). Beirut, LB. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 February 2008.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  • Loeffler, L. (1988). Islam in Practice: Religious beliefs in a Persian village. New York, NY.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  • Marzolph, U. (1984). Typologie des persischen Volksmärchens [Typology of Persian Folktales] (in German). Beirut, LB: Massé, Croyances.
  • Mīhandūst, M. (1976). Padīdahā-ye wahmī-e dīrsāl dar janūb-e Khorāsān. Honar o mordom. pp. 44–51.
  • Nöldeke, T. (1913). "Arabs (Ancient)". In Hastings, J. (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. Vol. I. Edinburgh, UK. pp. 659–673.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  • Thompson, S. (1955). Motif-Index of Folk-Literature. Vol. 1–6 (rev. ed.). Bloomington, IL.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  • Thompson, S.; Roberts, W. (1960). Types of Indic Oral Tales. Helsinki, FI: Folklore Fellows Communications 180.
  • Esterābādī, Solṭān-Moḥammad ibn Tāj al-Dīn Ḥasan (n.d.). Toḥfat al-majāles. Tehran, IR.[full citation needed]
  • Nünlist, Tobias (2015). Dämonenglaube im Islam. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4.
  • Ṭūsī, Moḥammad b. Maḥmūd (1966). Sotūda, M. (ed.). Ajāyeb al-makhlūqāt va gharā'eb al-mawjūdāt. Tehran, IR.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)

Further reading

  • Asad, Muhammad (1980). "Appendix III: On the term and concept of jinn". The Message of the Qu'rán. Gibraltar, Spain: Dar al-Andalus Limited. ISBN 1-904510-00-0.
  • Crapanzano, V. (1973). The Hamadsha: A study in Moroccan ethnopsychiatry. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  • Dibi, Tofik (2021). Djinn. Queer Politics and Cultures. Translated by Barr, Nicolaas P. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. ISBN 9781438481302.
  • Drijvers, H.J.W. (1976). The Religion of Palmyra. Leiden, NL: Brill.
  • el-Zein, Amira (2009). Islam, Arabs, and the intelligent world of the Jinn. Contemporary Issues in the Middle East. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-3200-9.
  • El-Zein, Amira (2006). "Jinn". In Meri, J.F. (ed.). Medieval Islamic Civilization – an Encyclopedia. New York, NY & Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 420–421.
  • Goodman, L.E. (1978). The case of the animals versus man before the king of the jinn: A tenth-century ecological fable of the pure brethren of Basra. Library of Classical Arabic Literature. Vol. 3. Boston, MA: Twayne.
  • Maarouf, M. (2007). Jinn Eviction as a Discourse of Power: A multidisciplinary approach to Moroccan magical beliefs and practices. Leiden: Brill.
  • Peterson, Mark Allen (2007). "From Jinn to Genies: Intertextuality, media, and the making of global folklore". In Sherman, Sharon R.; Koven, Mikel J. (eds.). Folklore/Cinema: Popular film as vernacular culture. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press – via Utah State U. digital commons.
  • Taneja, Anand V. (2017). Jinnealogy: Time, Islam, and ecological thought in the medieval ruins of Delhi. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-1-5036-0393-6.
  • Zbinden, E. (1953). Die Djinn des Islam und der altorientalische Geisterglaube [The Djinn of Islam and Ancient Eastern Spiritual Belief] (in German). Bern, CH: Haupt.

External links

This page was last edited on 11 April 2024, at 16:14
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.