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Jak and Daxter

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jak and Daxter is a video game franchise created by Andy Gavin and Jason Rubin and owned by Sony Computer Entertainment. The series was developed by Naughty Dog with a number of installments being outsourced to Ready at Dawn and High Impact Games. The first game, released on December 3, 2001, was one of the earliest titles for the PlayStation 2, and is regarded as a defining franchise for the console.

The games are considered story-based platformers that feature a mixture of action, racing and puzzle solving. The series is set in a fictional universe that incorporates science fantasy elements, and centers on the eponymous characters as they try to uncover the secrets of their world, and unravel the mysteries left behind by an ancient race of Precursors.

The first three games in the series were re-released on the PlayStation 3 and PlayStation Vita as part of a remastered collection that includes support for the PlayStation Network and the PlayStation Suite.[1] The remastered collection was handled by Mass Media Inc. with Naughty Dog assisting with the conversion of the games. The series has also produced various forms of extended media and merchandise, and has sold over 12 million copies worldwide.

On April 3, 2017, PlayStation announced that the original three Jak and Daxter games, along with Jak X: Combat Racing, will be ported to the PlayStation 4. Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy was released on August 22 of the same year, alongside the release of Uncharted: The Lost Legacy. Later on December 6, Jak II, Jak 3 and Jak X: Combat Racing were released.


Naughty Dog began work on a new game shortly after the release of the sixth-generation of consoles. Only two programmers were originally allocated to the project, as the rest of the department was still developing Crash Team Racing. They began by building a new graphics engine that would be capable of rendering a seamlessly connected, open world environment. They then developed a fully articulated character to examine the engines efficiency, before presenting the idea to Sony Computer Entertainment following the completion of Crash Team Racing.[2] The aim of their new title was to break away from the linear approach taken in the Crash Bandicoot series, with minimal story and character development, and individually loaded levels.[3] In a behind the scenes special by Naughty Dog it was revealed that a new blend animation had been utilised for the game, allowing for a smoother frame rate and animation process.[4] The engine for Jak and Daxter was created from the ground-up specifically for the game. Unusually for most games, Naughty Dog invented a new programming language, GOAL, which was only ever used for the Jak and Daxter series.[5]

Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy was revealed at E3 in June 2001. The game had a budget of $14 million and a development cycle that lasted nearly three years.[6] In that time, they managed to create a fully interactive world and conceived a narrative that would allow for more meaningful character development. The two central characters also went through a rigid design process that took inspiration from both Manga and Disney animation. They had initially planned on introducing a third character who would evolve as the game progressed in a Tamogotchi-style fashion. However, this idea was scrapped as it led to several unnecessary complications. The game's soundtrack was recorded at Mutato Muzika Studios, and was produced by Mark Mothersbaugh with Josh Mancell composing the score.

Jak and Daxter: The Lost Frontier was originally planned as a PlayStation Portable exclusive and was in the process of being developed by Naughty Dog when it was cancelled.[7] Evan Wells revealed that they were unable to sustain the game's development alongside Uncharted: Drake's Fortune and made the decision to pass the project onto High Impact Games. Naughty Dog later acknowledged:

If we had had to do it all over again, we would have done some things differently in the execution of The Lost Frontier. I'm not happy with that being Jak's swan song. I think we could have done a lot better.

—Sam Thompson, producer at Naughty Dog and Sony Computer Entertainment.[7]


The Jak and Daxter series is primarily a story-based platformer presented in the third person perspective. The player can explore a multitude of different areas in an open world environment and can perform several melee attacks. A substance called Eco can also be manipulated to enhance the players abilities. Different coloured Eco has different effects. Red Eco enhances the damage dealt, Blue Eco makes Jak attract Precursor orbs and Eco, and lets him operate machines. Green Eco restores health, and Yellow Eco lets Jak shoot fire from his hands. A hover bike called a "Zoomer" and a large bird known as a "Flut-Flut" are also available for transportation and to gain access to hard to reach places. Power cells and Precursor orbs are required to advance the story in The Precursor Legacy, while completing story related missions unlock new locations in all subsequent entries.

Shooting elements are introduced in Jak II, which feature customisable weapons and other varied forms of combat. Several features from the previous game also expanded upon. An example is that Jak has many different gun mods. Each one is a certain colour, either Red, Blue, Yellow or Dark. Red gun mods, make the gun similar to a shotgun. Blue lets it fire as a machine-gun. Yellow mods are for long range shooting, and Dark mods are for utmost power. Daxter is also a playable character and features in several Crash Bandicoot-esque missions. Dark Eco powers also become available, which is countered by the introduction of Light Eco powers in Jak 3. Driving becomes a core ingredient and is further expanded upon in Jak 3. In The Lost Frontier aerial combat is integrated into the series. Precursor orbs can be collected in each game to unlock cheats.

Jak X deviates from the series more traditional style of gameplay, adapting into the racing genre, and is based on the driving mechanics developed for Jak 3. Several extras can be unlocked for Jak X and Daxter by linking up the save files from the two respective games, and several player skins can be unlocked if the player has save files from The Precursor Legacy, Jak II, Jak 3 and Insomniac Games Ratchet: Deadlocked.

Common elements


Jak and Daxter is set in a fictional universe. The first game takes place in a world brimming with various natural environments that are encompassed by village settlements, and ancient Precursors ruins can be found dotted throughout the landscape. An elemental substance called Eco is prominent throughout the game and is considered the world's life source. Eco comes in several forms, Red Eco, Blue Eco, Yellow Eco, Green Eco, Light Eco and Dark Eco, each with different prospective effects. Subsequent entries are set in a future setting that has witnessed large advancements in both society and technology. There are many distinct and differing environments available to discover and explore.


The two main characters of the series.
The two main characters of the series.

The Jak and Daxter universe is populated primarily by a humanoid elf-like species. Jak is the main protagonist of the series, and is playable in every game with the exception of Daxter. In The Precursor Legacy, he accidentally turns Daxter from a human into an ottsel (a fictional hybrid of an otter and weasel) and sets out to undo the transformation. In Jak II, he is infused with Dark Eco due to experimentation's performed by Baron Praxis, and in Jak 3 he is blessed with Light Eco by the Precursors. In Jak X, he is forced to race in the Kras City Grand Championship in order to save his life. He later travels to The Brink to investigate the Eco shortage that is ravaging his world in The Lost Frontier.

Daxter is Jak's sidekick, and is often found getting into trouble. Daxter was once human but fell into a pit of Dark Eco in the opening cutscene of the first game in the series, which turned him into an ottsel. He rescues Jak at the beginning of Jak II, and becomes playable intermittently for the first time in the series. In Jak 3 his role is expanded, and he gets a pair of pants as a reward for his efforts, as was an ongoing gag in the game. In Daxter, he details his adventures in the two-year time span before he managed to break Jak out of prison. In Jak X, he accompanies Jak and his friends to Kras City, and assists them as they compete in the Kras City Grand Championship. He later travels with Jak and Keira to The Brink in The Lost Frontier.


Title Details

Original release date(s):
  • JP: December 20, 2001
  • EU: December 7, 2001
  • NA: December 3, 2001
Release years by system:
2001 – PlayStation 2
2012 – PlayStation 3
2013 – PlayStation Vita
2017 – PlayStation 4
  • Developed by Naughty Dog and published by Sony Computer Entertainment.
  • Re-released as part of a high-definition collection.

Original release date(s):
  • JP: March 11, 2004
  • EU: October 17, 2003
  • NA: October 14, 2003
Release years by system:
2003 – PlayStation 2
2012 – PlayStation 3
2013 – PlayStation Vita
2017 – PlayStation 4
  • Developed by Naughty Dog and published by Sony Computer Entertainment.
  • Re-released as part of a high-definition collection.
  • Released as Jak II: Renegade in Europe.

Original release date(s):
  • EU: November 26, 2004
  • NA: November 9, 2004
Release years by system:
2004 – PlayStation 2
2012 – PlayStation 3
2013 – PlayStation Vita
2017 – PlayStation 4
  • Developed by Naughty Dog and published by Sony Computer Entertainment.
  • Re-released as part of a high-definition collection.
  • The game was not released in Japan.

Original release date(s):
  • EU: November 4, 2005
  • NA: October 18, 2005
Release years by system:
2005 – PlayStation 2
2017 – PlayStation 4
  • Developed by Naughty Dog and published by Sony Computer Entertainment.
  • Released as Jak X in Europe and Africa.
  • The game was not released in Japan.

Original release date(s):
  • EU: April 13, 2006
  • NA: March 14, 2006
Release years by system:
2006 – PlayStation Portable
  • Developed by Ready at Dawn and published by Sony Computer Entertainment.
  • The game was not released in Japan.

Original release date(s):
  • JP: November 19, 2009
  • EU: November 20, 2009
  • NA: November 3, 2009
Release years by system:
2009 – PlayStation Portable
2009 – PlayStation 2
  • Originally developed by High Impact Games and published by Sony Computer Entertainment for the PSP.
  • Also released for the PlayStation 2.

Original release date(s):
  • EU: February 22, 2012
  • NA: February 7, 2012
Release years by system:
2012 – PlayStation 3
2013 – PlayStation Vita
  • Developed by Naughty Dog and published by Sony Computer Entertainment.
  • The port was handled by Mass Media Inc.
  • The game was not released in Japan.
  • Known as The Jak and Daxter Trilogy in Europe.


Aggregate review scores
Game Metacritic
Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy (PS2) 90[8]
Jak II (PS2) 87[9]
Jak 3 (PS2) 84[10]
Jak X: Combat Racing (PS2) 76[11]
Daxter (PSP) 85[12]
Jak and Daxter: The Lost Frontier (PSP) 71[13]
(PS2) 72[14]

The series received critical acclaim from critics, some called it "the best action platformers of [that] generation".[15]

IGN gave praise to the "huge worlds, memorable characters, action packed stories, and great gameplay."[15]

GameSpot gave similar high praise, saying "its tight execution and heavy action elements ensure that things never become dull", and that "it manages to provide a rewarding gameplay experience that shouldn't be missed."[16]

Game Informer noted "the series was driven by a restless sense of innovation", praising "Naughty Dog's work in this franchise (for creating) great characters, finely tuned gameplay, and a unceasing inventiveness", and felt "the Jak games stand up as epic adventures."[17]

Eurogamer stated that "the Jak and Daxter series may not be as solid a platformer as Sly Cooper and its gunplay isn't as refined as Ratchet & Clank's – but in terms of ambition, invention and grandiosity, it remains leagues above its last-gen platforming brethren". They further stated : "The Jak and Daxter series remains a fascinating document of the evolution of the action adventure; its heroes are unstuck in time, without a genre to call home. No series has been so willing to switch gameplay styles with such reckless abandon, and The Jak and Daxter Trilogy represents a shining example of what happens when a capable developer takes a huge risk."[18]

The series has sold over 12 million copies worldwide and holds seven world records in the Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition 2008 including the First Seamless 3D World in a Console Game.[4][19]


Naughty Dog have released various forms of merchandise since the series inception. These include strategy guides for each game, several forms of clothing and collectible figures[20] A limited edition Precursor orb was also released to celebrate the series' 10th anniversary.[21]

Miscellaneous media

The Jak and Daxter series has been featured in a variety of other media since its inception.


Evan Wells revealed that they had explored the idea of making a new game extensively before the development began on The Last of Us.[22] Creative director Neil Druckmann later unveiled several illustrations for the abandoned game at a conference for The Last of Us. He explained that they had planned on making a reboot of the series and had spent a long time exploring various concepts.[23]

In response to an alleged concept art leak in 2016, Naughty Dog's Director of Communication Arne Meyer stated that nothing was currently being worked on.[24]


  1. ^ Eddie Makuch. "Jak and Daxter Collection hits PS3 February 7". Gamespot. Archived from the original on April 12, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
  2. ^ Stephen White. "Postmortem: Naughty Dog's Jak and Daxter: the Precursor Legacy". Gamasutra. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
  3. ^ Arnold K (SolidSnake). "Interview with Naughty Dog staff". PSXemtreme. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
  4. ^ a b Ziff Davis. "Naughty Dog – 30 Year Timeline". IGN. Archived from the original on August 13, 2015. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  5. ^ "Behind the Classics: Jak & Daxter". SCEE. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  6. ^ Colin Moriarty. "Rising to Greatness: The History of Naughty Dog Page 9". IGN. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
  7. ^ a b Colin Moriarty. "Rising to Greatness: The History of Naughty Dog Page 13". IGN. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
  8. ^ "Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy Reviews". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 2011-04-03. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
  9. ^ "Jak II Reviews". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 2010-10-22. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
  10. ^ "Jak 3 Reviews". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 2010-08-23. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
  11. ^ "Jak X: Combat Racing Reviews". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 2011-05-04. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
  12. ^ "Daxter Reviews". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 2010-08-16. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
  13. ^ "Jak and Daxter: The Lost Frontier Reviews". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 2010-08-26. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
  14. ^ "Jak and Daxter: The Lost Frontier Reviews". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 2010-08-25. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
  15. ^ a b Jack DeVries. "Jak and Daxter Collection Review – PlayStation 3 Review at IGN". Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  16. ^ Satterfield, Shane (December 7, 2001). "Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy Review, Page 2 -". Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  17. ^ "Jak and Daxter Review". GameInformer. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
  18. ^ "Jak and Daxter Trilogy Review". EuroGamer. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
  19. ^ Wells, Evan (21 November 2011). "Jak And Daxter Collection Delivers The Original Trilogy To PS3 In HD". PlayStation.Blog. Sony Computer Entertainment. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  20. ^ "Check out this sweet new Jak and Daxter statue". Destructoid. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
  21. ^ "Sony sends orb to celebrate Jak & Daxter's 10th birthday". Destructoid. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
  22. ^ Robert Purchese. "Naughty Dog: A new Jak & Daxter would do everyone a disservice". EuroGamer. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
  23. ^ Leon Hurley. "Naughty Dog's Jak & Daxter reboot". PlayStation Official Magazine. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
  24. ^ "Naughty Dog shoots down Jak and Daxter 4 after concept art leaks |". 2016-04-26. Retrieved 2016-05-04.
This page was last edited on 20 February 2019, at 02:42
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