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Gilbert and Ellice Islands

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony

Coat of arms
(1895-1908 & 1946-1976)
Ocean Island (1908-1942)
Funafuti (1942-1946)
Common languagesEnglish
Demonym(s)Gilbertese and Ellicean
GovernmentProtectorate of the United Kingdom (1892-1916)
Colony of the United Kingdom (1916-1976)
• 1892-1901
Queen Victoria (first)
• 1952-1976
Elizabeth II (last)
• 1892-1895
Charles Richard Swayne
• 1973-1976
John Hilary Smith
• Protectorate
• Colony
12 January 1916
• Separation
1 January 1976
• 1892
• 1936
• 1968
CurrencyPound sterling, Australian pound (1910), Australian dollar (1966)
Succeeded by
Gilbert Islands
Colony of Tuvalu
Today part of Kiribati

The Gilbert and Ellice Islands (GEIC as a colony) were a British protectorate from 1892 and colony, from 12 January 1916 until 1 January 1976, part of the British Empire. The history of the colony was mainly characterized by phosphate mining in Ocean Island. In October 1975, these islands were de jure divided into two separated colonies which became independent nations shortly thereafter, Tuvalu (1978) and Kiribati (1979).


Map of the Southern Gilbert Islands, Ellice Islands and Tokelau, 1884
Map of the Southern Gilbert Islands, Ellice Islands and Tokelau, 1884

The Gilbert Islands[1] (sometimes also known as Kingsmill Islands[2]) are a chain of sixteen atolls and coral islands in the western Pacific Ocean, which are traditionally part of the Micronesia subregion, but are part of Remote Oceania. The Gilbert Islands are the main part of what is now the Republic of Kiribati ("Kiribati" is the Gilbertese rendition of "Gilberts"[1]) The atolls of the Gilbert Islands are arranged in an approximate north-to-south line. In a geographical sense, the equator serves as the dividing line between the northern Gilbert Islands and the southern Gilbert Islands. The Ellice Islands are south of the Gilbert Islands.[3] The Ellice Islands comprises three reef islands and six true atolls spread out between the latitude of to 10° south and longitude of 176° to 180°, west of the International Date Line.[4] The Ellice Islands are midway between Hawaii and Australia. The Ellice Islands are part of the Polynesia subregion of Oceania.


Portrait of a native of the Makin islands, drawn by Alfred Thomas Agate (1841)
Portrait of a native of the Makin islands, drawn by Alfred Thomas Agate (1841)

In 1568, when Spanish navigator Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira was commanded to explore the South Pacific, he sailed between the Line Islands and the Phoenix Islands without sighting land, ultimately discovering "Isla de Jesús", probably Nui, amongst the Ellice group.[5]

In 1606, Pedro Fernandes de Queirós sighted Butaritari and Makin, which he named the Buen Viaje (‘good trip’ in Spanish) Islands.[6][7] The Gilbert Islands were named “îles Gilbert” (in French) in 1820 by a Russian Admiral, Johann von Krusenstern, after a British captain, Thomas Gilbert, who encountered the archipelago in 1788 while exploring with two ships of the First Fleet an outer passage route from Port Jackson to Canton. French captain Louis Duperrey was the first to map the whole Gilbert Islands archipelago. He commanded La Coquille on her circumnavigation of the Earth (1822–1825).[8]

Funafuti atoll was named Ellice's Island after Edward Ellice, a British politician and merchant, by Captain Arent de Peyster,[9] who sighted the islands in 1819 sailing on the ship Rebecca.[10] Ellice owned the cargo of the ship. The name Ellice was applied to all nine islands, of what is now Tuvalu, after the work of English hydrographer Alexander George Findlay.[11]

The Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony (GEIC) were formerly designated an ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code "GE" until 1977.

In the 1930s, British officials tried to choose a less cumbersome name for the GEIC. As said above, the Gilbert Islands were named after a British transporter of convicts from Australia to China, and the Ellice Islands after a British merchant and politician. Critics called the arbitrary collection of atolls scattered across the central Pacific the “Gilbert and Sullivans”, a reference to two musical comedy composers. One official offered the term Quateria, since the main inhabited archipelago extended north and south of the equator and east and west of the dateline. Indigenous names such as Tungaru and Tuvalu existed, but none of those labels encompassed the mostly uninhabited islands in the Phoenix and Line group, or Banaba (then Ocean Island), whose phosphate rocks provided half of the GEIC’s tax revenue. Even the Tokelau atolls were part of the colony for a decade (1916-1926), and a governor of Fiji, Sir J.B. Thurston, once suggested adding Rotuma in order to tidy up the administration of such a vast expanse of water. In 1969, after the issues that bring to the creation in 1965 of the Gilbertese National Party, the hybrid term Tungavalu was suggested, but it masked tensions between Tungaru and Tuvalu.[12]

Administration of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands

Protectorate administered as part of the British Western Pacific Territories

SS Tokelau: Government Steamer Gilbert & Ellice Islands Protectorates (30 April 1909)
SS Tokelau: Government Steamer Gilbert & Ellice Islands Protectorates (30 April 1909)

A protectorate was generally established over this area (but not specifically over these islands) by the Pacific Islanders Protection Act[13] of 1857 and then in 1877 for the British Western Pacific Territories. In 1886, an Anglo-German agreement partitioned the “unclaimed” central Pacific, leaving Nauru in the German sphere of influence, while Ocean Island and the future GEIC wound up in the British sphere of influence.

After its establishment of German New Guinea in 1884 and protectorates upon Marshall Islands (1885) and Nauru (1888), on the British side, and also to contrast the presence of the USA, especially on Butaritari,[14] the sixteen islands of the Gilbert Islands were also made a British Protectorate by Captain E.H.M. Davis R.N., of HMS Royalist between 27 May and 17 June 1892.[15] The Ellice Islands were declared a British Protectorate by Captain Gibson R.N., of HMS Curacoa, between 9 and 16 October of the same year.[16] There was an administrative convenience of joining of the Ellice Islands to the Gilberts, because the British governor in Fiji was given permission to appoint a Resident Commissioner at no cost. The governor visited the Gilberts to establish a local administration and to appoint local tax collectors[17] The British Western Pacific Territories (BWPT) were then administered by a High Commissioner resident in Fiji and later in the British Solomon Islands. The first Resident Commissioner, Charles Richard Swayne, was appointed by Sir John Bates Thurston for the Ellice Islands in 1892 and for the Gilbert Islands in 1893. He was succeeded by William Telfer Campbell in 1895, who established himself on Tarawa[18] and remained in office until 1908. Telfer Campbell was criticised for his legislative, judicial and administrative management (including forced labour alleged to be exacted from islanders) and an inquiry was held by Arthur William Mahaffy, a former District Officer in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (1896–1898),[19] resulting in a report in 1909.[20] In 1913 an anonymous correspondent to The New Age journal described the maladministration of Telfer Campbell, linked it to criticisms of the Pacific Phosphate Company which was operating on Ocean Island, and questioned the impartiality of Mahaffy.[21]

The headquarters of government was moved in 1908 to Ocean Island (now known as Banaba), which had been included rapidly in the protectorate in 1900, to take advantage of the improved shipping connections resulting from the Pacific Phosphate Company's activities, and the status of the islands was changed on 12 January 1916[22] to that of a Crown Colony.[16] The role of the British colonial authorities emphasised the procurement of labour for the Ocean Island phosphate mining and keeping order among the workers.

Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony (GIEC)

1939 stamp of the Gilbert and Ellice Island Colony
1939 stamp of the Gilbert and Ellice Island Colony

The islands became a Crown colony on 12 January 1916 by the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Order in Council, 1915.[23][24][Note 1]

During the year 1916, the Union Islands (Tokelau) were also annexed to the Gilbert and Ellice Islands colony. On 28 November 1919, Great Britain reasserted its claim to Christmas Island and annexed it to the colony.

On July 1920, the Pacific Phosphate Company was liquidated and its assets sold to the British Phosphate Commission (BPC), a consortium established by the governments of Great Britain, Australia and New Zealand. The mining of the phosphate on Ocean Island represented the main revenue of the colony until it ended in 1979.

On 1925, Great Britain asks New Zealand to accept responsibility for the administration of the Union Islands (Tokelau) and invites the United States to annex Swains Island. On 11 February 1926, an Order in Council transferred responsibility for administration of the Union Islands (Tokelau) to New Zealand which in turn places administration of the islands under its Western Samoan mandate.

Fanning Island or Tabuaeran
Fanning Island or Tabuaeran

Fanning Island and Washington Island also became included in the colony together with the Union Islands (now known as Tokelau); Christmas Island was included in 1919 but was unofficially contested by the USA under its Guano Islands Act of 1856.[25] The Union Islands were transferred to New Zealand in 1926, but formally only in 1948.[26]

The Gilbert and Ellice Islands colony continued to be administered by a Resident Commissioner. In 1930 the Resident Commissioner, Arthur Grimble, issued revised laws, Regulations for the good Order and Cleanliness of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, which replaced laws created during the BWTP.[16]

On 31 December 1936, the population of the Crown Colony totalled 34,443 inhabitants, including 32,390 Gilbert and Ellice Islanders, 262 Europeans and 923 Chinese (Mongoloids). Henry Evans Maude, the land commissionner of the colony, considered then the colony overcrowded. The Phoenix Islands were added to the colony in 1937 with the view of a Phoenix Islands Settlement Scheme.[27] On 6 August 1936, a party from HMS Leith landed on Canton Island in the Phoenix Group and planted a sign asserting British sovereignty in the name of King Edward VIII. On 18 March 1937, Great Britain annexed the uninhabited Phoenix Islands (except Howland and Baker Islands) to the Gilbert and Ellice Islands colony.

Aichi D3A Japanese plane wrecked in Tarawa
Aichi D3A Japanese plane wrecked in Tarawa

Banaba (Ocean Island) remained the headquarters of the colony until the British evacuation in 1942 during the Pacific War when Ocean Island and the Gilbert Islands were occupied by the Japanese. The United States forces landed in Funafuti on 2 October 1942 and on Nanumea and Nukufetau in August 1943 and constructed an airfield on each island and other bases. The atolls of Tuvalu acted as a staging post during the preparation for the Battle of Tarawa and the Battle of Makin that commenced on 20 November 1943. Colonel Vivian Fox-Strangways, was the Resident Commissioner of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony in 1941, who was located on Funafuti.[28]

10 shillings note of the Japanese occupation currency, 1942
10 shillings note of the Japanese occupation currency, 1942

After World War II, the colony headquarters was re-established on Tarawa, first on Betio islet and subsequently on Bairiki islet.[27][29][30]

By the Tokelau Act of 1948, sovereignty over Tokelau was transferred to New Zealand. The five islands of the Central and Southern Line Islands were added to the colony in 1972.[27]

The Gilbertese initiated a cultural movement called Tungaru leaded by Reuben Uatioa and created the Gilbertese National Party in 1965, protesting that British rulers showed preference to Ellicean civil servants. The Elliceans (further Tuvaluans) were concerned about their minority status in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony. In 1974, ethnic differences within the colony caused the Polynesians of the Ellice Islands to vote for separation from the Gilbert Islands (later Kiribati). On 1 October 1975, the Ellice Islands became the separate British colony of Tuvalu, but the separation was completed on 1 January 1976.

Transition to self-determination

1956 stamps of the Gilbert and Ellice Island Colony
1956 stamps of the Gilbert and Ellice Island Colony

In 1946, Tarawa, in the Gilbert Islands, was made the administrative capital, replacing Ocean Island. The headquarters of the Colony were transferred from Betio to Bairiki. This development included establishing the King George V Secondary School for boys and the Elaine Bernacchi Secondary School for girls.[31]

A Colony Conference was organised at Marakei in 1956, which was attended by officials and representatives (magistrates) from each island in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony, conferences were held every two years until 1962. The development of administration continued with the creation in 1963 of an Advisory Council of five officials and 12 representatives who were appointed by the Resident Commissioner.[32][31] In 1964 an Executive Council was established with eight officials and eight representatives. The representative members were elected in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Advisory Council election held in 1964. The Resident Commissioner was now required to consult the Executive Council regarding the creation of laws to making decisions that affected the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony.[32]

1968 Gilbert & Ellice stamp, after A$ first introduction, representing the coat of arms of the colony (1937-1976)
1968 Gilbert & Ellice stamp, after A$ first introduction, representing the coat of arms of the colony (1937-1976)

A census in 1968 counted the population of the colony at 53,517 residents. 44,206 were in the Gilbert Islands, 5,782 in the Ellice Islands, 2,192 in Ocean Island and 1,180 in the Line Islands. From this total 7,465 were “Polynesians” (mostly from Tuvalu) and 1,155 “Others” (Europeans and Mongoloids).[33]

The Tungaru Association was created by Reuben Uatioa to “promote Gilbertese culture and interests,” and in 1965, the Gilbertese National Party, first political party of the colony, was established with the same leader, protesting about the lack of consideration that British rulers have towards Gilbertese, preferring somehow the Ellicean civil servants. A Constitution was introduced in 1967, which created a House of Representatives for the Gilbert and Ellice Islands colony that comprised seven appointed officials and 23 members elected by the islanders. Tuvalu elected four members of the House of Representatives. The 1967 Constitution also established the Governing Council. The House of Representatives only had the authority to recommend laws; the Governing Council had the authority to enact laws following a recommendation from the House of Representatives.[32]

A select committee of the House of Representatives was established to consider whether the constitution should be changed to give legislative power to the House of Representatives. It became apparent that the Elliceans were concerned about their minority status on the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony, and the Elliceans wanted equal representation to that of the Gilbertese. A new constitution was introduced in 1971, which provided that each of the Ellice Islands (except Niulakita) elected one representative. However, that did not end the Tuvaluan movement for separation.

In 1974 Ministerial government was introduced in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands colony through a change to the Constitution.[32]

Elections and the transition to parliamentary government

The 1967 constitution created a House of Representatives (parliament), whose members were elected in the following elections:

Separation of Tuvalu (Ellice Islands)

Areferendum was held in 1974 to determine whether the Gilbert Islands and Ellice Islands should each have their own administration.[35] As a consequence of the referendum, the Colony of Gilbert and Ellice Islands ceased to exist on 1 October 1975, when it was separated into the Colony of Gilbert Islands and Colony of Tuvalu, with the old administration and the separation officially started on 1 January 1976.[36][32][37]

Dissolution of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands colony

1911 stamp of the Gilbert and Ellice Island Protectorate
1911 stamp of the Gilbert and Ellice Island Protectorate

A referendum was held in Ellice Islands, including Elliceans living in Ocean Island and Tarawa, from July to September 1974, using a rolling ballot, to determine whether the Gilbert Islands and Ellice Islands should each have their own administration.[35] As a consequence of the 1974 Ellice Islands self-determination referendum, separation occurred in two stages. The Tuvaluan Order 1975 made by the Privy Council, which took effect on 1 October 1975, recognised Tuvalu as a separate British dependency with its own government. The second stage occurred on 1 January 1976 when two separate administrations were created out of the civil service of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony.[32] The British conducted a formal inquiry into Tuvaluan attitudes towards secession, and announced that a referendum was to be held, in which Tuvaluans could choose to remain with the Gilberts or secede. They were told that if they separated they would not receive royalties from the Ocean Island phosphate or other assets of the colony. Despite this, 3,799 Tuvaluans (92%) voted to secede, while 293 voted against separation. On 1 October 1975, legal separation from the Gilbert Islands (now Kiribati), took place. On 1 January 1976, full administration of the new colony was transferred from South Tarawa to Funafuti. Tuvalu became an independent constitutional monarchy and the 38th member of the Commonwealth of Nations on the 1 October 1978.[38] The Gilbert Islands attained independence on 12 July 1979 under the name Kiribati by the Kiribati Independence Order 1979, as a republic with Commonwealth membership. That day the colonial flag was lowered for the last time with a parade commemorating both the newly independent state and in memorial of the intense battles fought on Tarawa in World War II. The parade included many dignitaries from home and abroad. The name Kiribati (pronounced kʲiriˈbas) is the local writing rendition of "Gilberts".

Banaba, formerly rich in phosphates before becoming fully depleted in the latter colonial years, also sued for independence in 1979 and boycotted the Kiribati ceremonies. The Banabans wanted greater autonomy and reparations of around $250 million for revenue they had not received and for environmental destruction caused by phosphate mining practices similar to those on Nauru. The British authorities had relocated most of the population to Rabi Island, Fiji, after 1945, but by the 1970s some were returning to Banaba. The British rejected the Banaban independence proposal, and the island remained under the jurisdiction of Kiribati.

Postal history

The Gilbert and Ellice Islands used their own postage stamps from 1911.


  1. ^ The Gilbert and Ellice Islands Protectorate was annexed and made a colony by the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Order in Council, 1915 (S.R. & 0. 1915, TII, p. 315) ; see also Orders in Council, 27 January, 29 February 1916 (S.R. & 0. 1916, Nos. 99, 167) ; Order in Council, 1919 (S.R. 8; 0. 1919, No. 773)
  1. ^ a b Reilly Ridgell. Pacific Nations and Territories: The Islands of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. 3rd. Ed. Honolulu: Bess Press, 1995. p. 95.
  2. ^ Very often, this name applied only to the southern islands of the archipelago. Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary. Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam Webster, 1997. p. 594.
  3. ^ "Agreement between Tuvalu and Kiribati concerning their Maritime Boundary" (PDF). 29 August 2012.
  4. ^ "Maps of Tuvalu". Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  5. ^ Maude, pp 53–56.
  6. ^ Maude, H.E. (1959). "Spanish Discoveries in the Central Pacific: A Study in Identification". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. 68 (4): 284–326.
  7. ^ Kelly, Celsus, O.F.M. La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo. The Journal of Fray Martín de Munilla O.F.M. and other documents relating to the Voyage of Pedro Fernández de Quirós to the South Sea (1605-1606) and the Franciscan Missionary Plan (1617-1627) Cambridge, 1966, p.39, 62.
  8. ^ Chambers, Keith S.; Munro, Doug (1980). "The Mystery of Gran Cocal: European Discovery and Mis-Discovery in Tuvalu". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. 89 (2): 167–198.
  9. ^ Miscellanies: by an officer, Volume 1, Ch. LXXX By John Watts De Peyster, A.E. Chasmer & Co. (1888)
  10. ^ Laumua Kofe & Hugh Larcy (ed) (1983). "Chapter 15, Palagi and Pastors". Tuvalu: A History. University of the South Pacific/Government of Tuvalu. pp. 103–104.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Findlay Alexander George, A Directory for the Navigation of the Pacific Ocean: With Description of Its Coasts, Islands, Etc. from the Strait of Magalhaens to the Arctic Sea
  12. ^ David Chappell, Water Nations: Colonial Bordering, Exploitation, and Indigenous Nation-Building in Kiribati and Tuvalu, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, 2016, Pacific-Asia Inquiry (U. Guam), Vol. 7, No. 1 (Fall), 8-25.
  13. ^ Other acts on the same subject: Pacific Islanders Protection Act 1872; Pacific Islanders Protection Act 1875; Pacific Island Labourers Act 1880; Pearl-Shell and Bêche-de-mer Fishery Act 1881; Native Labourers Protection Act 1884
  14. ^ The Reluctant Empire Builders
  15. ^ Resture, Jane. "TUVALU HISTORY – 'The Davis Diaries' (H.M.S. Royalist, 1892 visit to Ellice Islands under Captain Davis)". Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  16. ^ a b c Noatia P. Teo, Hugh Larcy (ed) (1983). "Chapter 17, Colonial Rule". Tuvalu: A History. University of the South Pacific/Government of Tuvalu. pp. 127–139.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  17. ^ A History of Kiribati, Michael Ravell Walsh, 2020, p.170-171.
  18. ^ The main reason of the choice of Tarawa as the capital of the protectorate is because the lagoon has a large ship pass. Tarawa means « the pass » in Gilbertese language. The Precedence of Tarawa Atoll by H.E. Maude and Edwin Jr. Doran, First published: June 1966.
  19. ^ Lawrence, David Russell (October 2014). "Chapter 7 Expansion of the Protectorate 1898–1900" (PDF). The Naturalist and his "Beautiful Islands": Charles Morris Woodford in the Western Pacific. ANU Press. p. 200. ISBN 9781925022032.
  20. ^ Mahaffy, Arthur (1910). "(CO 225/86/26804)". Report by Mr. Arthur Mahaffy on a visit to the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. Great Britain, Colonial Office, High Commission for Western Pacific Islands (London: His Majesty's Stationery Office).
  21. ^ Correspondent (5 June 1913). "Modern buccaneers in the West Pacific" (PDF). New Age: 136–140.
  22. ^ Annexation of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands to his Majesty's dominions : at the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 10th day of November, 1915. Great Britain, Privy Council, Gilbert and Ellice Islands Order in Council, 1915 (Suva, Fiji : Government Printer). 1916.
  23. ^ “This process started on 10 November 1915 when, by Order in Council, the protectorate became the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony. To this was added Ocean Island on 27 January 1916, along with the northern Line Islands that had been annexed in 1888, which included Washington (Teraina) and Fanning (Tabuaeran), where a trans-Pacific cable station was to be built. Later in 1916, the Tokelau group was added; Christmas Island (Kiritimati) followed in 1919. The new Crown Colony, known in Whitehallspeak as GEIC, then sprawled over 5,000,000 km2 of ocean.” W. David McIntyre: Winding up the British Empire in the Pacific Islands, Oxford History of the British Empire Companion Series (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2014), p. 15.
  24. ^ (Imperial). (1875). "Pacific Islanders Protection Act, ss. 6-11". Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  25. ^ "FORMERLY DISPUTED ISLANDS". U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Insular Affairs. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  26. ^ The Union Islands (Revocation) Order in Council, 1948, after reciting the agreement by the governments of the United Kingdom and New Zealand that the islands should become part of New Zealand, revoked the Union Islands (No. 2) Order in Council, 1925, with effect from a date fixed by the Governor-General of New Zealand.
  27. ^ a b c Macdonald, B. K. (1982). Cinderellas of the Empire: Towards a History of Kiribati and Tuvalu, Australian National University Press, Canberra.
  28. ^ Lifuka, Neli (1978). "War Years In Funafuti" (PDF). In Klaus-Friedrich Koch (ed.). Logs in the current of the sea : Neli Lifuka's story of Kioa and the Vaitupu colonists. Australian National University Press/Press of the Langdon Associates. ISBN 0708103626.
  29. ^ Maude, H. E., & Doran, E., Jr. (1966). The precedence of Tarawa Atoll. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 56, 269-289.
  30. ^ Williams, M., & Macdonald, B. K. (1985). The phosphateers: A history of the British Phosphate Commissioners and the Christmas Island Phosphate Commission. Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Vic.
  31. ^ a b Enele Sapoaga, Hugh Larcy (ed) (1983). "Chapter 19, Post-War Development". Tuvalu: A History. University of the South Pacific/Government of Tuvalu. pp. 146–152.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  32. ^ a b c d e f Tito Isala & Hugh Larcy (ed) (1983). "Chapter 20, Secession and Independence". Tuvalu: A History. University of the South Pacific/Government of Tuvalu. pp. 153–177.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  33. ^ Barrie Macdonald, Policy and Practice in an Atoll Territory: British Rule in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, 1882-1970. Canberra, May 1971.
  34. ^ General election, 1974 : report / Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony. Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony. Tarawa: Central Government Office. 1974.
  35. ^ a b Nohlen, D, Grotz, F & Hartmann, C (2001) Elections in Asia: A data handbook, Volume II, p. 831, ISBN 0-19-924959-8
  36. ^ W. David McIntyre. "The Partition of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands" (PDF). Island Studies Journal, Vol. 7, No.1, 2012. pp. 135–146. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  37. ^ McIntyre, W. David (2012). "The Partition of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands" (PDF). Island Studies Journal. 7 (1): 135–146.
  38. ^ "Tuvalu History". Retrieved 2 April 2018.

Further reading

  • Barrie Macdonald, Cinderellas of the Empire: towards a history of Kiribati and Tuvalu, Suva, Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific, 2001. ISBN 982-02-0335-X (Australian National University Press, first published 1982).
  • Kiribati. Aspects of History, by Alaima Talu (ed.) and 24 others authors. 1979
  • Henry Evans Maude: The Gilbert Islands observed. A source book of European contacts with, and observations of, the Gilbert Islands and the Gilbertese, from 1537 to 1873. Compiled by H. E. Maude. Homa Press, Adelaide 2006.
  • A Pattern of Islands (US title: We Chose the Islands) by Sir Arthur Grimble, John Murray & Co, London, 1952 (A Pattern of Islands republished 2011 by Eland, London, ISBN 978-1-906011-45-1)
  • Return to the Islands by Sir Arthur Grimble, John Murray & Co, London, 1957 ISBN 978-0719505706
  • John Smith, An Island in the Autumn: How the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Gained Independence, 2011, ISBN 9781906775261. Publisher: Librario Publishing.
  • Ghost Stories and Other Island Tales by I.E. Butler, published by Tom Butler, 2014, ISBN 978-1500505929 An account of the life of a young colonial officer in the 1950s in the Gilbert Islands.

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