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Province of South Carolina

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

South Carolina
Province of Great Britain
1712–1776
Colonial SC.png

An orthographic projection of the world, highlighting South Carolina (green).
CapitalCharlestown
Area
 • Coordinates33°55′00.8″N 80°53′47.0″W / 33.916889°N 80.896389°W / 33.916889; -80.896389
Government
 • TypeConstitutional monarchy
Monarch 
• 1712–1714
Anne
• 1714–1727
George I
• 1727–1760
George II
• 1760–1776
George III
Governor 
• 1712
Robert Gibbes (first)
• 1775–1776
Lord William Campbell (last)
LegislatureGeneral Assembly
• Upper house
Council
• Lower house
Assembly
Historical eraGeorgian era
• Partition of Carolina
January 24, 1712
• Charter of Georgia
June 9, 1732
July 4, 1776
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Province of Carolina
South Carolina
Today part of United States

South Carolina, originally known as Clarendon Province, was a province of Great Britain that existed in North America from 1712 to 1776. It was one of the five Southern colonies and one of the thirteen American colonies. The monarch of Great Britain was represented by the Governor of South Carolina, until the colonies declared independence on July 4, 1776.

Etymology

"Carolina" is taken from the Latin word for "Charles" (Carolus), honoring King Charles II, and was first named in the 1663 Royal Charter granting to Edward, Earl of Clarendon; George, Duke of Albemarle; William, Lord Craven; John, Lord Berkeley; Anthony, Lord Ashley; Sir George Carteret, Sir William Berkeley, and Sir John Colleton the right to settle lands in the present-day U.S. states of North Carolina, Tennessee, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida.[1]

History

The Province of Carolina before and after the split into north and south
The Province of Carolina before and after the split into north and south

Charlestown was the first settlement, established in 1670. King Charles II had given the land to a group of eight nobles called the lords proprietor; they planned for a Christian colony. Originally a single proprietary colony, the northern and southern sections grew apart over time, due partly to neglect by the legal heirs of the original lords proprietor. Dissent over the governance of the province led to the appointment of a deputy governor to administer the northern half of the Province of Carolina in 1691. The partition of the province into North and South Carolina became complete in 1712.[2]

The Yamasee War (1715–1717) ravaged the back-country of the province. Complaints that the proprietors had not done enough to protect the provincials against either the Indians or the neighboring Spanish, during Queen Anne's War (1702–1713), convinced many residents of the necessity of ending proprietary rule. A rebellion broke out against the proprietors in 1719. Acting on a petition of residents, King George I appointed the governor of South Carolina in 1720 (the governors of North Carolina would continue to be appointed by the lords proprietor until 1729). After nearly a decade in which the British monarchy sought to locate and buy out the lords, both North and South Carolina became royal colonies in 1729.

Government

The Court of King's Bench and Common Pleas was founded c.1725, based in Charles Towne. List of Chief Justices:[3]

Incumbent Tenure Notes
Took office Left office
Edmund Bohun 1698 1699 died in office of fever
Nicholas Trott c.1702 1718 dismissed from office after uprising
Richard Alleyn 1719 not sure
Robert Wright 1730 1739 died in office
Thomas Dale 17 Oct 1739 November 1739 not sure
Benjamin Whitaker 7 Nov 1739 1749 removed from office due to paralysis
James Graeme 6 Jul 1749 29 August 1752[4] died in office[5]
Charles Pinckney 1752 1753
Peter Leigh 1753
James Michie 1 Sep 1759 16 July 1760 died in office, London, England
William Simpson 24 Jan 1761
Charles Skinner 1762
Thomas Knox Gordon 13 May 1771
William Henry Drayton 13 Apr 1776
John Rutledge 16 Feb 1791 1795 resigned and afterwards Chief Justice of the United States
after 1791 no further Chief Justices were appointed.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
172017,048—    
173030,000+76.0%
174045,000+50.0%
175064,000+42.2%
176094,074+47.0%
1769125,000+32.9%
1770124,244−0.6%
1775150,000+20.7%
Source: 1720–1760;[6] 1769–1775[7] 1770–1775[8]

References

  1. ^ Poore, Ben. Perley, ed. (1877). The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the United States, Volume II. Washington: Government Printing Office. pp. 1382–1390. OCLC 958743486 – via Internet Archive.
  2. ^ D.J. McCord (1839). The Statutes at Large of South Carolina. 6. A.S. Johnston. p. 616. ISBN 978-5-87571-708-6.
  3. ^ The Statutes at Large of South Carolina. 1. A.S. Johnston. 1836. p. 439.
  4. ^ Salley, Alexander Samuel; Webber, Mabel L. (March 21, 2012). Death Notices in the South-Carolina Gazette 1732-1775/Death Notices in the South Carolina Gazette, 1766-1774. Genealogical Publishing Com. ISBN 978-0-8063-4656-4.
  5. ^ Anderson, Dorothy Middleton; Eastman, Margaret Middleton Rivers (May 4, 2015). St. Philip's Church of Charleston: An Early History of the Oldest Parish in South Carolina. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-1-62585-407-0.
  6. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. pp. 128–129. ISBN 978-0816025275.
  7. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1995). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Revolutionary America 1763 to 1800. New York: Facts on File. p. 171. ISBN 978-0816025282.
  8. ^ "Colonial and Pre-Federal Statistics" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. p. 1168.

Further reading

  • Coclanis, Peter A., "Global Perspectives on the Early Economic History of South Carolina," South Carolina Historical Magazine, 106 (April–July 2005), 130–46.
  • Crane, Verner W. The Southern Frontier, 1670-1732 (1956)
  • Edgar, Walter. South Carolina: A History, (1998) the standard scholarly history
  • Edgar, Walter, ed. The South Carolina Encyclopedia, (University of South Carolina Press, 2006) ISBN 1-57003-598-9, the most comprehensive scholarly guide
  • Feeser, Andrea. Red, White, and Black Make Blue: Indigo in the Fabric of Colonial South Carolina Life (University of Georgia Press; 2013) 140 pages; scholarly study explains how the plant's popularity as a dye bound together local and transatlantic communities, slave and free, in the 18th century.
  • Smith, Warren B. White Servitude in Colonial South Carolina (1961)
  • Tuten, James H. Lowcountry Time and Tide: The Fall of the South Carolina Rice Kingdom (University of South Carolina Press, 2010) 178 pp.
  • Wallace, David Duncan. South Carolina: A Short History, 1520-1948 (1951) online standard scholarly history
  • Wright, Louis B. South Carolina: A Bicentennial History' (1976) online, popular survey
  • Wood, Peter H. Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 Through the Stono Rebellion (1996)

External links

This page was last edited on 3 May 2021, at 12:16
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