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Demographics of Staten Island

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Staten Island
Borough of New York City
Richmond County
Location of Staten Island shown in orange.
Location of Staten Island shown in orange.
CountryUnited States
StateNew York
CountyRichmond
CityNew York City
Area
 • Total102.50 sq mi (265.5 km2)
 • Land58.48 sq mi (151.5 km2)
 • Water44.02 sq mi (114.0 km2)
Population
 • Total468,730
 • Density8,163.1/sq mi (3,151.8/km2)

Richmond County, also known as Staten Island is a borough of New York City, New York, United States. Staten Island is the least populated of the five boroughs with 468,730 people but is the third largest in area at 59 sq mi (153 km2).

According to the 2010 Census, there were 468,730 people living in Staten Island, which is an increase of 5.6% since the 2000 Census.[1]

Staten Island Population by year
Year Inhabitants
1900 67,021
1910 85,969
1920 116,531
1930 158,346
1940 174,441
1950 191,555
1960 221,991
1970 295,443
1980 352,029
1990 378,977
2000 443,728
2010 468,730

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  • ✪ Growth, Cities, and Immigration: Crash Course US History #25
  • ✪ 25 Fascinating Facts About New York City And Why It Is Called The Big Apple
  • ✪ 9 Best Things to Do in Queens, New York City!

Transcription

Episode 25: Immigrant Cities Hi, I’m John Green, this is CrashCourse U.S. History and today we’re going to continue our extensive look at American capitalism. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, I’m sorry are you saying that I grow up to be a tool of the bourgeoisie… Oh not just a tool of the bourgeoise, Me from the Past, but a card-carrying member of it. I mean, you have employees whose labor you can exploit because you own the means of production, which in your case includes a chalkboard, a video camera, a desk, and a xenophobic globe. Meanwhile Stan, Danica, Raoul, and Meredith toil in crushing poverty--STAN, DID YOU WRITE THIS PART? THESE ARE ALL LIES. CUE THE INTRO. intro So, last week we saw how commercial farming transformed the American west and gave us mythical cowboys and unfortunately not-so-mythical Indian reservations. Today we leave the sticks and head for the cities--as so many Americans and immigrants have done throughout this nation’s history. I mean we may like to imagine that the history of America is all “Go west young man,” but in fact from Mark Twain to pretty much every hipster in Brooklyn, it’s the opposite. So, population was growing everywhere in America after 1850. Following a major economic downturn in the 1890s, farm prices made a comeback, and that drew more and more people out west to take part in what would eventually be called agriculture’s golden age. Although to be fair agriculture’s real golden age was in like 3000 BCE when Mesopotamians were like, “Dude, if we planted these in rows, we could have MORE OF IT THAN WE CAN EAT.” So it was really more of a second golden age. But anyway, more than a million land claims were filed under the Homestead Act in the 1890s. And between 1900 and 1910 the populations of Texas and Oklahoma together increased by almost 2 million people. And another 800,000 moved into Kansas, the Dakotas, and Nebraska. That’s right. People moved to Nebraska. Sorry, I just hadn’t yet offended Nebraskans. I’m looking to get through the list before the end of the year. But one of the central reasons that so many people moved out west was that the demand for agricultural products was increasing due to … the growth of cities. In 1880, 20% of the American population lived in cities and there were 12 cities with a population over 100,000 people. This rose to 18 cities in 1900 with the percentage of urban dwellers rising to 38%. And by 1920, 68% of Americans lived in cities and 26 cities had a population over 100,000. So in the 40 years around the turn of the 20th century, America became the world’s largest industrial power and went from being predominantly rural to largely urban. This is, to use a technical historian term, a really big deal. Because it didn’t just make cities possible, but also their products. It’s no coincidence that while all this was happening, we were getting cool stuff like electric lights and moving picture cameras. Neither of which were invented by Thomas Edison. I don’t know if you’ve noticed, but suddenly there are a lot more photographs in Crash Course U.S. History b-roll. So the city leading the way in this urban growth was New York, especially after Manhattan was consolidated with Brooklyn (and the Bronx, Queens and Staten Island) in 1898. At the turn of the century, the population of the 23 square miles of Manhattan Island was over 2 million and the combined 5 boroughs had a population over 4 million. But, while New York gets most of the attention in this time period, and all time periods since, it wasn’t alone in experiencing massive growth. Like, my old hometown of Chicago, after basically burning to the ground in 1871, became the second largest city in America by the 1890s. Also, they reversed the flow of the freaking Chicago River. Probably the second most impressive feat in Chicago at the time. The first being that the Cubs won two World Series. Even though I’m sorely tempted to chalk up the growth of these metropolises to a combination of better nutrition and a rise in skoodilypooping, I’m going to have to bow to stupid historical accuracy and tell you that much of the growth had to do with the phenomenon that this period is most known for: immigration. Of course, by the end of the 19th century, immigration was not a new phenomenon in the United States. After the first wave of colonization by English people, and Spanish people, and other Europeans, there was a new wave of Scandinavians, French people, and especially the Irish. Most of you probably know about the potato famine of the 1840s that led a million Irish men and women to flee. If you don’t know about it, it was awful. And the second largest wave of immigrants was made up of German speakers, including a number of liberals who left after the abortive revolutions of 1848. Alright, let’s go to the ThoughtBubble. The Irish had primarily been farmers in the motherland, but in America, they tended to stay in cities, like New York and Boston. Most of the men began their working lives as low-wage unskilled laborers, but over time they came to have much more varied job opportunities. Irish immigrant women worked too, some in factories or as domestic servants in the homes of the growing upper class. Many women actually preferred the freedom that factory labor provided and one Irish factory woman compared her life to that of a servant by saying: “Our day is ten hours long, but when it’s done, it’s done, and we can do what we like with the evenings. That’s what I’ve heard from every nice girl that’s tried service. You’re never sure that your soul is your own except when you’re out of the house.” [1] Most German speakers had been farmers in their home countries and would remain farmers in the U.S., but a number of skilled artisans also came. They tended to stay in cities and make a go of entrepreneurship. Bismarck himself saw emigration from Germany as a good thing saying, “The better it goes for us, the higher the volume of emigration.”[2] And that’s why we named a city in North Dakota after him. Although enough German immigrants came to New York that the lower east side of Manhattan came to be known for a time as Kleindeutschland (little Germany), many moved to the growing cities of the Midwest like Cincinnati and St. Louis. Some of the most famous German immigrants became brewers, and America is much richer for the arrival of men like Frederick Pabst, Joseph Schlitz, and Adolphus Busch. And by richer, I mean more drunker. Hey. Thanks for not ending on a downer, Thought Bubble. I mean, unless you count alcoholism. So but by the 1890s, over half of the 3.5 million immigrants who came to our shores came from southern and eastern Europe, in particular Italy and the Russian and Austro Hungarian empires. They were more likely than previous immigrants to be Jewish or Catholic, and while almost all of them were looking for work, many were also escaping political or religious persecution. And by the 1890s they also had to face new “scientific” theories, which I’m putting in air quotes to be clear because there was nothing scientific about them, which consigned them to different “races” whose low level of civilization was fit only for certain kinds of work and predisposed them to criminality. The Immigration Restriction League was founded in Boston in 1894 and lobbied for national legislation that would limit the numbers of immigrants, and one such law even passed Congress in 1897 only to be vetoed by President Grover Cleveland. Good work, Grover! You know, his first name was Stephen, but he called himself Grover. I would have made a different choice. But before you get too excited about Grover Cleveland, Congress and the President were able to agree on one group of immigrants to discriminate against: the Chinese. Chinese immigrants, overwhelmingly male, had been coming to the United States, mostly to the West, since the 1850s to work in mines and on the railroads. They were viewed with suspicion because they looked different, spoke a different language, and they had “strange” habits, like regular bathing. By the time the Chinese Exclusion Act went into effect in 1882 there were 105,000 people of Chinese descent living in the United States, mainly in cities on the West Coast. San Francisco refused to educate Asians until the state Supreme Court ordered them to do so and even then the city responded by setting up segregated schools. The immigrants fought back through the courts. In 1886, in the case of Yick Wo v. Hopkins the United States Supreme court ordered San Francisco to grant Chinese-operated laundries licenses to operate. Then in 1898 in United States v. Wong Kim Ark, the Court ruled that American born children of Chinese immigrants were entitled to citizenship under the 14th Amendment, which should have been a duh but wasn’t. We’ve been hard on the Supreme Court here at Crash Course, but those were two good decisions. You go, Supreme Court! But despite these victories Asian immigrants continued to face discrimination in the form of vigilante-led riots like the one in Rock Springs, Wyoming that killed 26 people, and congressionally approved restrictions, many of which the Supreme Court did uphold, so meh. Also it’s important to remember that this large-scale immigration--and the fear of it--was part of a global phenomenon. At its peak between 1901 and the outbreak of World War 1 in 1914, 13 million immigrants came to the United States. In the entire period touched off by the industrialization from 1840 until 1914, a total of 40 million people came to the U.S. But at least 20 million people emigrated to other parts of the Western Hemisphere, including Brazil, the Caribbean, Canada (yes, Canada) and Argentina. As much as we have Italian immigrants to thank for things like pizza (and we do thank you), Argentina can be just as grateful for the immigrant ancestors of Leo Messi. Also the Pope, although he has never once won La Liga. And there was also extensive immigration from India to other parts of the British Empire like South Africa; Chinese immigration to South America and the Caribbean; I mean, the list goes on and on. In short, America is not as special as it fancies itself. Oh it’s time for the Mystery Document? The rules are simple. I guess the author of the Mystery Document. I get it wrong and then I get shocked with the shock pen. Sorry I don’t mean to sound defeatist, but I don’t have a good feeling about this. Alright. “The figure that challenged attention to the group was the tall, straight, father, with his earnest face and fine forehead, nervous hands eloquent in gesture, and a voice full of feeling. This foreigner, who brought his children to school as if it were an act of consecration, who regarded the teacher of the primer class with reverence, who spoke of visions, like a man inspired, in a common classroom...I think Miss Nixon guessed what my father’s best English could not convey. I think she divined that by the simple act of delivering our school certificates to her he took possession of America.”[3] Uhh, I don’t know. At first I thought it might be someone who worked with immigrants, like Jane Addams, but then at the end suddenly it’s her own father. Jane Addams’s father was not an immigrant. Mary Antin? Does she even have a Wikipedia page?! She does? Did you write it, Stan? Stan wrote her Wikipedia page. AH. So, this document, while it was written by someone who should not have a Wikipedia page, points out that most immigrants to America were coming for the most obvious reason: opportunity. Industrialization, both in manufacturing and agriculture, meant that there were jobs in America. There was so much work, in fact, that companies used labor recruiters who went to Europe to advertise opportunities. Plus, the passage was relatively cheap, provided you were only going to make it once in your life, and it was fast, taking only 8 to 12 days on the new steam powered ships. The Lower East Side of Manhattan became the magnet for waves of immigrants, first Germans then Eastern European Jews and Italians, who tended to re-create towns and neighborhoods within blocks and sometimes single buildings. Tenements, these 4, 5 and 6 story buildings that were designed to be apartments, sprang up in the second half of the 19th century and the earliest ones were so unsanitary and crowded that the city passed laws requiring a minimum of light and ventilation. And often these tenement apartments doubled as workspaces because many immigrant women and children took in piecework, especially in the garment industry. Despite laws mandating the occasional window and outlawing the presence of cows on public streets, conditions in these cities were pretty bad. Things got better with the construction of elevated railroads and later subways that helped relieve traffic congestion but they created a new problem: pickpockets. “Pickpockets take advantage of the confusion to ply their vocation… The foul, close, heated air is poisonous. A healthy person cannot ride a dozen blocks without a headache.” So that’s changed! This new transportation technology also enabled a greater degree of residential segregation in cities. Manhattan’s downtown area had at one time housed the very rich as well as the very poor but improved transportation meant that people no longer had to live and work in the same place. The wealthiest, like Cornelius Vanderbilt and J.P. Morgan, constructed lavish palaces for themselves and uptown townhouses were common.[4][5] But until then, one of the most notable feature of gilded age cities like New York was that the rich and the poor lived in such close proximity to each other. And this meant that with America’s growing urbanization, the growing distance between rich and poor was visible to both rich and poor. And much as we see in today’s megacity, this inability to look away from poverty and economic inequality became a source of concern. Now one way to alleviate concern is to create suburbs so you don’t have to look at poor people, but another response to urban problems was politics, which in cities like New York, became something of a contact sport. Another response was the so-called progressive reform movement. And in all these responses and in the issues that prompted them – urbanization, mechanization, capitalism, the distribution of resources throughout the social order -- we can see modern industrial America taking shape. And that is the America we live in today. Thank you for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller. The script supervisor is Meredith Danko. The show is written by my history teacher, Raoul Meyer, Rosianna Halse Rojas, and myself. Our associate producer is Danica Johnson. And our graphics team is Thought Café. Every week, there’s a new caption for the libertage. If you’d like to suggest one, you can do so in comments where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians. Thanks for watching Crash Course and as we say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome. Immigrant Cities - ________________ [1] Quoted in H.W. Brands, American Colossus: The Triumph of Capitalism 1865-1900. p. 265. [2] Ibid p. 267 [3] Quoted in Brands, American Colossus, p. 324 [4] Ibid p. 315 [5] quoted in Brands, American Colossus p. 320

Contents

Demographics

2010 census

According to the 2010 Census, 64.0% of the population was non-Hispanic White, 9.5%[1] non-Hispanic Black or African American, 0.0% non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native, 7.4% non-Hispanic Asian, 0.2% from some other race (non-Hispanic) and 2.6% of two or more races (non-Hispanic). 17.3% of Staten Island's population was of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin.

2009 American community survey

According to the 2009 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau,[2][3] Staten Island had a population 491,730, of which 48.7% were males and 51.3% were females. Approximately 6.0% of the population was under five years of age, and 76.9% of the populace was over eighteen years of age. One-eighth (12.5%) of the population was over sixty-five years of age. The median age was 38.4 years.

In terms of race, 98.1% of the population was of one race and 1.9% was of two or more races. The borough's population was 75.7% White (65.8% non-Hispanic White alone), 10.2% Black or African American (9.6% non-Hispanic Black or African American alone), 0.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 7.4% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 4.6% from Some other race, and 1.9% from Two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 15.9% of the population.

Whites are the racial majority in Staten Island. Of the borough's 491,000 people, over 382,000 are white, which is over three-quarters (75.7%) of the population. Over 323,000 non-Hispanic whites reside in the borough, and they make up 65.8% of the population. The Caucasian population is largely Italian and Irish. Sizable communities of Germans, Russians, Albanians and Poles are present. There are over 175,000 Italian Americans living in Staten Island, and they make up over one-third (35.7%) of the population. Roughly 65,000 Irish Americans live in the borough, and they make up over one-eighth (13.2%) of the population. People of German, Russian, and Polish descent make up 5.7, 3.8, and 3.4% of the population, respectively.

Compared to other New York City boroughs, Blacks are a relatively small percentage of Staten Island's residents. Only one out of every ten residents is Black compared to one out of every four residents in New York City overall. Of the borough's 50,000 Black residents, 47,000 are non-Hispanic, which is just under ten percent of the population. In addition, over 7,200 people identified themselves as "Sub-Saharan African" in the survey, which is equal to 1.5% of Staten Island's total population.

American Indians are a very small minority in Staten Island. Of the borough's 491,000 inhabitants, just over 900 are Native American. Overall, indigenous peoples make up only 0.2% of the population. People of mixed white and Native American ancestry & mixed black and Native American ancestry collectively outnumber people who are Native American alone. Over 630 people are of mixed Caucasian and Native American heritage, and over 410 people are of mixed African American and Native American heritage.

Asians are a smaller minority group compared to blacks and Hispanics, but they are visible and growing. Over 36,600 Asians call Staten Island home, and they represent 7.4% of the borough's population. Chinese Americans and Indian Americans are the two main Asian ethnic groups. Over 12,100 Chinese Americans and 10,000 Indian Americans live in the conurbation. People of Chinese and Indian descent make up 2.5 and 2.0% of the population, respectively. Over 7,700 Filipinos reside here, making up 1.6% of the population. Staten Island is also home to the nations highest percentages of Sri Lankans. The Little Sri Lanka in the Tompkinsville neighborhood of Staten Island is one of the largest Sri Lankan communities outside of the country of Sri Lanka itself.[4][5]

Hispanics and Latinos are the largest minority group in Staten Island, and they're the second largest group after non-Hispanic whites. Over 78,000 Hispanics and Latinos live in the borough, and they make up 15.9% of the population. Puerto Ricans are the most numerous of the Hispanic subgroups; the borough's 35,600 Puerto Ricans make up 7.2% of its population. In addition, the borough's 15,300 Mexicans make up 3.1% of its population; over 1,200 Cubans form just 0.3% of Staten Island 's population. In addition, over 26,100 people are of other Hispanic and Latino ethnicities, such as Dominican, Salvadoran, Ecuadorian etc.

Approximately 80.0% of the population is native and 20.0% is foreign-born. About 78.2% of the population was born in the United States, and 1.8% was born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or abroad to American parents. The 98,000 foreign-born make up one-fifth of the population. Approximately 34.7% of the foreign-born population was born in Europe, 29.4% was born in Asia, 27.6% was born in Latin America, 7.8% was born in Africa, 0.4% was born in other parts of North America, and 0.1% was born in Oceania.

Approximately 71.4% of the population over five years of age spoke English only at home, so 28.6% of the population spoke non-English languages. In addition, 10.1% of the population spoke Spanish, and 12.1% spoke other Indo-European languages. Lastly, 4.6% of the populace spoke an Asian language.

2000 census

The 2000 census, there were 443,728 people, 156,341 households, and 114,052 families residing in the borough / county. The population density was 2,929.6/km² (7,587.9/mi²). There were 163,993 housing units at an average density of 1,082.7/km² (2,804.3/mi²). The racial makeup is 77.6% White, 9.7% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 5.7% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 4.1% from other races, and 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.1% of the population.

Staten Island Compared
2000 Census Staten Island NY City NY State
Total population 443,728 8,008,278 18,976,457
Population density 7,587.9/mi² 26,403/mi² 402/mi²
Median household income (1999) $55,039 $38,293 $43,393
Per capita income $23,905 $22,402 $23,389
Bachelor's degree or higher 27% 27% 24%
Foreign born 21% 36% 20%
White 78% 44% 62%
Black 10% 27% 16%
Hispanic (any race) 12% 27% 14%
Asian 6% 10% 6%

There were 156,341 households out of which 35.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.0% are married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.0% were non-families. 23.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.31.

The population is spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, and 11.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.6 males.

The median income for a household is $55,039, and the median income for a family was $64,333. Males had a median income of $50,081 versus $35,914 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $23,905. About 7.9% of families and 10.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.2% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over.

Since the 2000 census, a rather large Russian community has been growing in Staten Island, particularly in the South Beach and Great Kills area. The vast majority of the borough's African American and Hispanic residents live north of the Staten Island Expressway, or Interstate 278.

Major racial groups

Italian Americans

Staten Island has a higher percentage of Italian Americans than any other county in the United States, though it is 27th largest compared to other Italian American communities.[6]

About 35.7% of Staten Island's residents have Italian origin. The South Shore of Staten Island has the highest proportion of Italians. Nearly 80% of the South Shore reports Italian ancestry. Several neighborhoods in the southernmost portion of the island are over 90% Italian. [7]

A large number of Italian Americans and their descendants in Staten Island are transplants who migrated from Brooklyn in the 1960s following the construction of the Verrazzano Bridge. Only a few are Italian-born.

Asian Americans

According to the 2010 Census, Staten Island has a 7.4% non-Hispanic Asian population. The Asian population is mostly concentrated in the areas alongside the Staten Island Expressway. The area around Bradley Avenue has the highest concentration of Asians on Staten Island (Census tract 187.02 has a 24% Asian population, and census tract 189.02 has a 23% Asian population). Other areas with a small concentration of Asians are Graniteville, Willowbrook, Concord, Castleton Corners, Park Hill, Rosebank, South Beach, and Grasmere. There is also a small Asian concentration in Mariners' Harbor (Census Tract 231 is 13% Asian).[8]

Hispanic Americans

Staten Island's Hispanic population was 17.3% as of the 2010 census. While Hispanics can be found in most Staten Island neighborhoods, their concentrations are highest north of the Staten Island Expressway. Roughly half of Staten Island's Hispanics are of Puerto Rican descent. However, the majority of the Hispanics residing in the Port Richmond area are Mexican:[9]

There are 2 census tracts with a Hispanic majority. Census tract 207 in northern Port Richmond is 53% Hispanic, and census tract 133.02 in northern West Brighton is 51% Hispanic. Census tract 213 in Port Richmond is 45% Hispanic, though the Hispanic percentage is brought down due to the area east of Port Richmond Avenue being majority White (though with a noticeable Hispanic presence). Other neighborhoods with a large Hispanic population include Mariners' Harbor, Arlington, Elm Park, Graniteville, New Brighton, St. George, Ward Hill, Stapleton, Park Hill, and Rosebank.

Hispanics are the fastest growing ethnic group on Staten Island. The Hispanic population has increased 51% between the 2000 & 2010 census.

African Americans

Staten Island has the lowest percentage of Black residents as of the 2010 census, at only 9.5%. Most African Americans reside north of the Staten Island Expressway. The only census tracts to have a Black majority are tracts 319.01, 319.02, and 133.01. Tract 133.01 is the West Brighton Houses (though a few residential homes along Alaska Street are also included), and census tracts 319.01 & 319.02 are in the western portion of Mariners' Harbor (Tract 319.02 is often referred to as Arlington). Back in 2000, tracts 4 & 29 in Park Hill/Stapleton had a Black majority, but that is no longer the case, due to an increasing Hispanic and Asian population in the area.

Some other areas have a noticeable Black presence, although Blacks do not make up the majority (or even a plurality in most cases). These neighborhoods include Mariners' Harbor, Elm Park, Port Richmond, West New Brighton, New Brighton, St. George, Tompkinsville, Stapleton, Ward Hill, Park Hill & Sandy Ground as well as a growing population in Graniteville.

While many African Americans living on Staten Island are descendants of Southern-born migrants of The Great Migration, a small contingent of free African Americans settled in Sandy Ground in the 1830s. Aside from this, others are American-born transplants from other boroughs and Southern and Midwestern states. Others are immigrants, or descendants of immigrants, from West Africa and the Caribbean.

Languages

As of 2010, 70.39% (306,310) of Staten Island residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 10.02% (43,587) spoke Spanish, 3.14% (13,665) Russian, 3.11% (13,542) Italian, 2.39% (10,412) Chinese, 1.81% (7,867) other Indo-European languages, 1.38% (5,990) Arabic, 1.01% (4,390) Polish, 0.88% (3,812) Korean, 0.80% (3,500) Tagalog, 0.76% (3,308) other Asian languages, 0.62% (2,717) Urdu, 0.57% (2,479) other Indic languages, and African languages were spoken as a main language by 0.56% (2,458) of the population over the age of five. In total, 29.61% (128,827) of Staten Island's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.[10]

Religion

In terms of religion, the population is largely Roman Catholic, and the Catholic Church exerts strong influence on many aspects of the island's social and cultural life. The Jewish community is large enough that it would be significant in most other parts of the country, but it is slightly less numerous compared to other parts of the New York Metropolitan Area.

References

  1. ^ a b "United State Census Quick Facts: Richmond County, New York". Census.gov. Archived from the original on April 24, 2015. Retrieved May 24, 2012.
  2. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov.
  3. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov.
  4. ^ Harrison Peck. "NYC The Official Guide - Must-See Little Sri Lanka: 7 Great Things to See and Do". © 2006–2011 NYC & Company, Inc. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2011-11-27.
  5. ^ Amy Zavatto (August 5, 2010). "Frommer's - New York City: Exploring Staten Island's Little Sri Lanka". © 2000-2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved 2011-11-27.
  6. ^ "Ancestry Map of Italian Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved August 18, 2008.
  7. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov.
  8. ^ "Mapping America: Every City, Every Block". The New York Times.
  9. ^ "Zip Code 10302 - 2010 Census for Staten Island, NY". www.zip-codes.com.
  10. ^ "Richmond County, New York". Modern Language Association. Archived from the original on August 15, 2013. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
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