To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Cleveland, England

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cleveland
Non-metropolitan county of England
EnglandCleveland.png

The former administrative county of Cleveland shown within England
Area
 • 1974144,085 acres (583.09 km2)[1]
Population
 • 1973566,740[2]
 • 1981565,935
 • 1991541,333
History
 • OriginCounty Borough of Teesside
 • Created1974
 • Abolished1996
 • Succeeded byUnitary authorities:
ONS code14
GovernmentCleveland County Council
 • HQMiddlesbrough
Cleveland arms.png

Coat of arms of Cleveland County Council
Subdivisions
 • TypeNon-metropolitan districts
 • Units
EnglandClevelandNumbered.png

Cleveland /ˈklvlənd/ is an area in the north-east of England. Its name means literally "cliff-land", referring to its hilly southern areas, which rise to nearly 1,500 ft (460 m). Historically, Cleveland, as a geographic area within the North Riding of Yorkshire, was located entirely to the south of the River Tees and its largest town was Guisborough, until the rise of Middlesbrough in the 19th century.

A non-metropolitan county of Cleveland was created in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, named after the historic region, but not covering it all, and also including land north of the River Tees in County Durham. It was situated around the Teesside urban area and included Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees, Hartlepool and Redcar. The Bill as originally presented in November 1971 intended the administrative county to have been called "Teesside" and to have stretched further along the Yorkshire coast to include the town of Whitby.[3]

The administrative county was abolished in 1996[4] with its boroughs becoming unitary authorities and the Tees re-established as the border between North Yorkshire and County Durham.

Heritage

Cleveland has a significant industrial heritage arising from its central role in the 19th century iron boom that led to Middlesbrough growing from a hamlet into a major industrial town in only a few decades. The Cleveland Hills, in the southern part of the district, were key suppliers of the ironstone that was essential to the running of the blast furnaces alongside the River Tees. Middlesbrough's Teesport is still one of the United Kingdom's main ports and the area between Middlesbrough and Redcar is still populated by many heavy industrial plants, although this is much reduced from its 20th century peak.

Cleveland as a political entity

First

From 1885-1974, Cleveland, a parliament constituency which was roughly the Langbaugh Wapentake. Langbaugh, as a place, was not the biggest in the area after the Industrial Revolution had expanded other towns around it (notably Middlesbrough). Unlike the second it included much of the Cleveland Hills and covered the coast down including Whitby and the Whitby Rural District. This was counted as one of four divisions of a larger North Riding of Yorkshire, which had expanded into Durham’s historic county.

Second

On 1 April 1974, by the Local Government Act 1972, area was incorporated into a non-metropolitan county, from the short-lived County Borough of Teesside, Hartlepool, the urban districts of Guisborough, Loftus, Saltburn and Marske-by-the-Sea and Skelton and Brotton, along with parishes from Stokesley Rural District. [5]

Running

The Teesside area was partitioned between the boroughs of Hartlepool, Stockton-on-Tees, Middlesbrough and Langbaurgh-on-Tees, the latter of which took its name from the former Langbaugh wapentake. The wards were: Billingham East & West, Grangefield, Hartburn, Mile House, North End, Norton, Stockton South, Darlington, Thornaby East & West went to Stockton. The wards of Coatham, Eston Grange, Kirkleatham, Ormesby, Redcar and South Bank going to Langbaurgh; and the rest went to Middlesbrough. The county town was Middlesbrough, had a total area of 225 square miles (583 km2) and an estimated population of 567,600 in 2000. The administrative county bordered County Durham to the north and North Yorkshire to the south, and it faced the North Sea to the east.

Abolition

Cleveland was one of the areas in the first tranche of reviews conducted by the Banham Commission. The Commission's final recommendations, accepted by the government, were that each of the districts should be made a unitary authority, and additionally that the Tees should be re-established as a ceremonial border. This was fiercely contested by Cleveland County Council, who applied for judicial review over the decision. According to the Minister, David Curry, in the Commons debate on the order on 11 January 1995, this caused a delay from 1 April 1995 as the reorganisation date to 1 April 1996.

As the first of the Orders to be laid before Parliament, it was done in two stages. The Cleveland (Structural Change) Order 1995[6] had the main effect of abolishing the County Council, whilst the Cleveland (Further Provision) Order 1995[4] abolished the actual administrative county, creating four new (non-metropolitan) unitary authorities coterminous with each of the boroughs. A division was forced by the Opposition, on the first Order, with 310 in favour and 223 in opposition. Of Cleveland's 6 MPs, Mo Mowlam and Frank Cook (both Labour) voted against, with Tim Devlin and Michael Bates (both Conservative) voted for. Stuart Bell and Peter Mandelson (both Labour) were present at the debate but did not vote.

On 1 April 1996, the Orders came into force. The district of Langbaurgh-on-Tees was renamed Redcar and Cleveland, the County of Cleveland was abolished, and four unitary authorities created. The post of Lord Lieutenant of Cleveland was abolished, with the area being split between the ceremonial counties of Durham and North Yorkshire. However, Cleveland Police and other institutions covering the four boroughs, were retained. The area (sometimes excluding Hartlepool) is known as 'Teesside' for some purposes, and with the addition of Darlington, the term Tees Valley is sometimes used in media.

Other uses of the name

  • The official name of the ”CLEVELAND” (TS– code was formed from “TeeS“ or “Tees-Side”) postal county. It covers much of the former administrative county.[7] Cleveland was adopted by the Royal Mail as a postal county in 1974.

Geography

Roseberry Topping, one of the most enduring symbols of ancient Cleveland.
Roseberry Topping, one of the most enduring symbols of ancient Cleveland.

The area is extremely varied geographically. The Tees estuary is highly industrialised and urbanised. Much of the remainder of the lowland parts of Cleveland is farmland. East Cleveland marks the northern end of the chain of cliffs that runs along the North Yorkshire Heritage Coast. South Cleveland is extremely hilly, forming the escarpment of the North York Moors. One of the best known symbols of Cleveland is the distinctive hill of Roseberry Topping, which overlooks Newton under Roseberry on the Great Ayton to Guisborough road. Its original roughly conical form was undercut by extensive mining, giving it a jagged appearance that many have thought reminiscent of the Matterhorn mountain.

Geographical features

Towns and villages

Kirkleatham Free School of 1709, now Kirkleatham Old Hall Museum
Kirkleatham Free School of 1709, now Kirkleatham Old Hall Museum

Town twinning

Cleveland is twinned with:

Unlike many towns and cities in North America, Cleveland in Ohio is not named after its English namesake.

See also

References

  1. ^ Local government in England and Wales: A Guide to the New System. London: HMSO. 1974. p. 37. ISBN 0-11-750847-0.
  2. ^ Registrar General's annual estimated figure mid 1973
  3. ^ "Teesside: Town and country welcome Whitehall compromise". The Times. 21 March 1972.
  4. ^ a b OPSI - The Cleveland (Further Provision) Order 1995
  5. ^ "Cleveland County Council (Abolition) (Hansard, 17 June 1993)". api.parliament.uk. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  6. ^ OPSI - The Cleveland (Structural Change) Order 1995
  7. ^ Royal Mail, Address Management Guide Edition 4, (2004)
  8. ^ "Interactive City Directory". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on 5 October 2019. Retrieved 5 October 2019.

External links

This page was last edited on 18 October 2020, at 11:26
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.