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Spanish conquest of Oran (1509)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Conquest of Oran
Cisneros en la Toma de Oran Juan De Borgoña 1514.jpeg

Cisneros entering Oran, by Juan de Borgoña.
DateMay 1509
Location
Result Spanish victory
Belligerents
Crown of Castile Spanish Empire Kingdom of Tlemcen
Commanders and leaders
Cardinal Cisneros
Pedro Navarro
Strength
8,000-12,000 infantrymen
3,000-4,000 cavalrymen
80 ships
10 galleys
12,000
Casualties and losses
Less than 30 4,000

The conquest of Oran by the Spanish Empire took place on May 1509, when an army led by Pedro Navarro on behalf of the Cardinal Cisneros seized the North-African city, which was controlled by the Kingdom of Tlemcen.

Background

The Spanish captured the city of Mers-El-Kébir after a successful expedition against the local Algerian dynasty, the Zayyanids. In 1507, the Zayyanids ambushed the city of Mers-el-Kébir, with about 11,000 cavalry, gaining a decisive victory against the Spanish forces.[1]

The siege

Preparations for the expedition began in September 1508. The Crown invested 39.6 million maravedis in the expedition. In comparison, the armada to Castilla del Oro in 1514 would cost 14 million and the armada of Maluco led by Hernando de Magallanes cost 8.35 million.[2]

A fleet left port from Cartagena on 16 May and sailed towards Mers el-Kebir, a city located near Oran and already (since 1505) under Spanish control.[3] The fleet had 80 naos and 10 galleys, plus additional small boats. They carried around 8000-12,000 infantry-men and 3000-4000 cavalry-men.[3] The army spent the night of 17 May in Mers el Kebir.[3] The Christians stormed the city of Oran, then part of the Kingdom of Tlemcen, combining the use of the fleet with a ground assault on 18 May. After breaking through the walls of the city the casualties numbered less than 30 on the assaulting side, while the 12,000 defenders suffered 4,000 casualties.[4]

On 20 May, Cisneros entered the city, already conquered.[5]

The city remained a part of the Spanish Empire until 1708, when it was seized by the Ottoman Dey of Algiers taking advantage of the War of the Spanish Succession. The city was conquered again by the Spanish in 1732. After the 1790 earthquake, they abandoned Oran and Mers el-Kebir in 1792.

References

  1. ^ Fernández Duro 1895, p. 75.
  2. ^ Ladero Quesada, Miguel Ángel (2008). Las Indias de Castilla en sus primeros años: cuentas de la Casa de Contratación (1503-1521) (in Spanish). Dykinson. p. 172. ISBN 978-84-9849-611-6. OCLC 964680146.
  3. ^ a b c Fernández Duro 1895, p. 73.
  4. ^ Fernández Duro 1895, pp. 73–74.
  5. ^ Sánchez Doncel 1991, p. 536.

Bibliography

This page was last edited on 23 May 2021, at 22:47
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