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Cambodian–Spanish War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cambodian–Spanish War
Date1593-1597
Location
Result Cambodian victory
Belligerents
Flag of Cambodia (pre-1863).svg
Cambodia

Spanish Empire

Commanders and leaders
Preah Ram I 
Preah Ram II 
Luis Pérez Dasmariñas
Gregorio Vargas Machuca
Blas Ruiz de Hernán Gonzáles
Portugal Diogo Veloso
Strength
Cambodian, Malay, and Cham forces Spanish, Portuguese, and native Filipinos

The Cambodian–Spanish War (Spanish: Guerra Hispano-Camboyana; Filipino: Digmaang Kambodyano-Espanyol; Khmer: សង្គ្រាមអេស្បាញ-កម្ពុជា)[1] (1593-1597) was an attempt by the Spanish Empire to conquer Cambodia, establish their own king, and Christianize the population.[2] Along with the Spanish, Spanish Filipinos, native Filipinos and Japanese mercenaries participated in the invasion of Cambodia.[3]

Background

Each country that participated in the war possessed different motives for their invasion of Cambodia. Specifically, the Thai interference and the Spanish expedition was a result of a power struggle between rival factions in Cambodia's government.[4] In addition, both Spanish and Portuguese took part in the invasion of Cambodia because King Philip II ruled both Spain and Portugal.[5]

Path to war

In February 1593, Thai ruler Naresuen attacked Cambodia in order to fight the Burmese.[6] Later on, in May 1593, 100,000 Thai (Siamese) soldiers invaded Cambodia.[7] As a result of the Thai's invasion, Longvek was conquered in July 1594.

In 1593, the Spanish expedition led by Gregorio Vargas Machuca and Blas Ruiz de Hernán Gonzáles invaded Cambodia from the city of Manila in the Spanish East Indies.[8] Although the Spanish invasion of Cambodia (supported by Luis Pérez Dasmariñas) failed, Ruiz and Diogo Veloso succeeded in establishing king Barom Reachea II in May 1597.[9] The king granted the Spaniards territorial rights over two provinces on the east and west sides of the Mekong River.[10] Veloso later secured permission and financing to build a garrison. In 1599, he commanded four ships from Manila but two of these were ship-wrecked due to a storm.[10]

After Spain's brutal attack on Malay residences[11], private individuals of Muslim Malays, Chams, Cambodians retaliated by slaughtering the Spanish and Portuguese, including Diogo Veloso.[12][13] Only a few Filipinos and one Spaniard survived the massacre.[14] Because of the massacre, Spain's planned Christianization of Cambodia failed.[15] After the attack, Cambodia came under the dominance of the Thai in July 1599.[16]

See also

References

  1. ^ Tony Jaques (1 January 2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A-E. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. xxxvi–. ISBN 978-0-313-33537-2.
  2. ^ Daniel George Edward Hall (1981). History of South-East Asia. Macmillan Press. p. 281. ISBN 978-0-333-24163-9.
  3. ^ http://www.samuelhawley.com/imjinarticle3.html
  4. ^ Peter Church (3 February 2012). A Short History of South-East Asia. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 24–. ISBN 978-1-118-35044-7.
  5. ^ Arthur Cotterell (4 August 2011). Western Power in Asia: Its Slow Rise and Swift Fall, 1415 - 1999. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 35–. ISBN 978-1-118-16999-5.
  6. ^ Daniel George Edward Hall (1981). History of South-East Asia. Macmillan Press. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-333-24163-9.
  7. ^ George Childs Kohn (31 October 2013). Dictionary of Wars. Routledge. pp. 445–. ISBN 978-1-135-95494-9.
  8. ^ Daniel George Edward Hall (1981). History of South-East Asia. Macmillan Press. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-333-24163-9.
  9. ^ Daniel George Edward Hall (1981). History of South-East Asia. Macmillan Press. p. 282. ISBN 978-0-333-24163-9.
  10. ^ a b Smith, T. O. (2018). Cambodia and the West, 1500-2000. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-137-55531-1.
  11. ^ Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: P-Z. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 794. ISBN 0-313-33536-2.
  12. ^ Ben Kiernan (1 October 2008). Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. Yale University Press. pp. 139–. ISBN 978-0-300-13793-4.
  13. ^ Ainslie Thomas Embree; Robin Jeanne Lewis (1988). Encyclopedia of Asian history. Scribner. p. 185.
  14. ^ Arthur Cotterell (15 July 2014). A History of South East Asia. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. pp. 178–. ISBN 978-981-4634-70-0.
  15. ^ Milton Osborne (4 September 2008). Phnom Penh: A Cultural History. Oxford University Press. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-0-19-971173-4.
  16. ^ Donald F. Lach; Edwin J. Van Kley (1998). A Century of Advance. University of Chicago Press. pp. 1147–. ISBN 978-0-226-46768-9.
This page was last edited on 10 June 2020, at 20:20
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