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Jimmy Swaggart

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jimmy Swaggart
Rev. Jimmy Swaggart 01.jpg
Swaggart in 2009
Jimmy Lee Swaggart

(1935-03-15) March 15, 1935 (age 86)
OccupationEvangelist, singer, author, pastor, pianist
Years active1955–present
TelevisionThe Jimmy Swaggart Telecast (1971–present), SonLife Broadcasting Network (2007-present)
Frances Swaggart
(m. 1952)
ChildrenDonnie Swaggart
RelativesMickey Gilley (cousin)
Jerry Lee Lewis (cousin)

Jimmy Lee Swaggart (/ˈswæɡərt/; born March 15, 1935) is an American Pentecostal televangelist.

Swaggart's TV ministry, which began in 1971, has a viewing audience both in the U.S. and internationally. The weekly Jimmy Swaggart Telecast and A Study in the Word programs are broadcast throughout the U.S. and on 78 channels in 104 other countries, and over the Internet.[1] At its height in the 1980s, his telecast was transmitted to over 3,000 stations and cable systems each week.[2] He currently owns and operates the SonLife Broadcasting Network and Family Worship Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

Sexual scandals with prostitutes in the late 1980s and early 1990s led the Assemblies of God to defrock him. As a result of the scandals, Swaggart temporarily[timeframe?] stepped down as the head of Jimmy Swaggart Ministries.[3]

Early life

Jimmy Lee Swaggart was born on March 15, 1935, in Ferriday, Louisiana,[4] to fiddle player and Pentecostal preacher Willie Leon (known as "Sun" or "Son") Swaggart and Minnie Bell, daughter of sharecropper William Herron. They were related by marriage, as Willie's maternal uncle, Elmo Lewis, was married to Minnie's sister Mamie. The extended family had a complex network of interrelationships: "cousins and in-laws and other relatives married each other until the clan was entwined like a big, tight ball of rubber bands."[5][6][7] He is the cousin of rock'n'roll pioneer Jerry Lee Lewis and country music star Mickey Gilley.[8] He also had a sister, Jeanette Ensminger (1942–1999). With his parents, Swaggart attended a small, 25-member Assemblies of God church in Ferriday. In 1952, aged 17, Swaggart married 15-year-old Frances Anderson whom he met in church while he was playing music with his father. They have a son named Donnie. Swaggart worked several part-time odd jobs to support his young family and also began singing Southern Gospel music at various churches.

According to his autobiography, Swaggart, along with his wife and son, lived in poverty during the 1950s as he preached throughout rural Louisiana, struggling to survive on US$30 a week (equivalent to $280 in 2020). Being too poor to own a home, the Swaggarts lived in church basements, pastors' homes, and small motels. Sun Records producer Sam Phillips wanted to start a gospel line of music for the label (perhaps to remain in competition with RCA Victor and Columbia, who also had gospel lines at the time) and wanted Swaggart for Sun as the label's first gospel artist. Swaggart's cousin Jerry Lee Lewis, who had previously signed with Sun, was reportedly making $20,000 per week at the time. Although the offer meant a promise for significant income for him and his family, Swaggart turned Phillips down, stating that he was called to preach the gospel.[9]

Ordination and early career

Preaching from a flatbed trailer donated to him, Swaggart began full-time evangelistic work in 1955. He began developing a revival-meeting following throughout the American South. In 1960, he began recording gospel music record albums and transmitting on Christian radio stations. In 1961, Swaggart was ordained by the Assemblies of God; a year later he began his radio ministry. In the late 1960s, Swaggart founded what was then a small church named the Family Worship Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana; the church eventually became district-affiliated with the Assemblies of God.

In the late 1960s Swaggart began transmitting a weekly 30-minute telecast over various local television stations in Baton Rouge and also purchased a local AM radio station, WLUX (now WPFC). The station broadcast Christian feature stories, preaching and teaching to various fundamentalist and Pentecostal denominations and playing black gospel, Southern gospel, and inspirational music. As Contemporary Christian music became more prevalent, the station avoided playing it. Swaggart sold many of his radio stations gradually throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. Jimmy Swaggart Ministries still operates several radio stations that operate under the name Sonlife Radio.

However, he is known for his cover of Chuck Girard's song Sometimes Alleluia which Swaggart used as the theme to his weekly and flagship namesake program. Girard himself being one of the pioneers of contemporary Christian music.

Swaggart wrote a book "Religious Rock n Roll: A Wolf in Sheep's Clothing" in 1987.[10]

In Swaggart's magazine "The Evangelist" he wrote against worldliness in worship music, particularly referring to a Carman concert.[11]

He also mentioned in the article that Christian leaders were in "terrible opposition" with him for preaching the truth against contemporary Christian music and its artists.

Swaggart has often preached that God doesn't borrow from the world to reach the youth, but has since changed his position on contemporary Christian music and has integrated its sound and style in his worship services such as Hillsong.

Shifting to television

By 1975, Swaggart's television ministry had expanded to more stations around the U.S., and he began to use television as his primary preaching forum. In 1978, Swaggart's weekly telecast was increased to an hour.

In 1980, Swaggart began a daily weekday telecast featuring Bible study and music, and the weekend, hour-long telecast included a service from either Family Worship Center (Swaggart's church) or an on-location crusade in a major city. In the early 1980s, Swaggart's broadcasts expanded to major cities nationwide. By 1983, more than 250 television stations broadcast Swaggart's telecast.

Prostitution scandals

In 1988, Swaggart was implicated in a sex scandal involving a prostitute initially resulting in his suspension, and ultimately defrocking, by the Assemblies of God. Three years later Swaggart was implicated in another scandal involving a prostitute. As a result, Swaggart's ministry became nonaffiliated, nondenominational, and significantly smaller than it was in the ministry's pre-scandal years.[3][12][13]

Feud with Marvin Gorman

Swaggart's first exposure was in retaliation for an incident in 1986 when he exposed fellow Assemblies of God minister Marvin Gorman, whom he accused of having several affairs. Once he was exposed, Gorman was defrocked from the Assemblies of God, and his ministry was all but ended.[14] Gorman filed a successful lawsuit against Swaggart for defamation and conspiracy to ruin his reputation which led to the award of damages amounting to $10 million in 1991,[15] reduced after an appeal and an out-of-court settlement to $1.75 million.[16]

However, as a retaliatory measure, Gorman hired his son Randy and son-in-law Garland Bilbo to watch the Travel Inn on Airline Highway in Metairie, a suburb of New Orleans.[17] A camera with a telephoto lens was placed in the window of the motel's Room 12, and draped with a black cloth. When Swaggart arrived, he reportedly went into Room 7. Randy Gorman and Garland Bilbo let the air out of the tires on Swaggart's vehicle. They called Marvin Gorman, whose church was located nearby. Randy Gorman and Garland Bilbo had taken photos of Swaggart outside Room 7 with Debra Murphree,[12][18] a local prostitute. Gorman arrived at the Travel Inn a short while later and confronted Swaggart, although on details accounts from both sides differed.[19]

According to Swaggart: The Unauthorized Biography of an American Evangelist, by Ann Rowe Seaman, Gorman secured a promise from Swaggart that he would publicly apologize to Gorman and start the process of Gorman's reinstatement to the Assemblies of God. Gorman offered to remain silent if Swaggart would state publicly that he lied about Gorman's affairs. Gorman waited almost a year, then hand-delivered a note to Swaggart informing him his time was up; Swaggart did not respond. On February 16, 1988, Gorman contacted James Hamil, one of the 13-man Executive Presbytery of the Assemblies of God, who called G. Raymond Carlson, the Assemblies Superintendent. Carlson summoned Hamill and Gorman to fly to Assemblies of God headquarters in Springfield, Missouri, and arranged for an emergency meeting of the presbyters. He was shown photos of several men coming in and going out of Room 7 at the Travel Inn Motel in New Orleans. This was done to establish that the room was being used for prostitution. One of the men shown leaving Room 7 was Swaggart.[20] The presbytery leadership of the Assemblies of God decided that Swaggart should be suspended from broadcasting his television program for three months.[citation needed]

According to the Associated Press, Murphree, who claimed to have posed nude for Swaggart, failed a polygraph test administered by a New York City Police Department polygraph expert.[21] The test administrator concluded that Murphree had failed to tell the truth on all key questions concerning her statement. The test was administered after Murphree offered to sell the story to the National Enquirer for $100,000. Paul Levy, senior editor for the Enquirer, stated that the polygraph examiner had concluded Murphree was not truthful on six key questions, including one in which she was reportedly asked if she had fabricated the story. Levy stated that the Enquirer decided not to print her story due to the test results, her drug use, and the fact that she had arrest warrants in three states. Murphree failed questions about whether she was paid or promised money to "set up" Swaggart, and whether she made up the story to make money from it.[22]

Swaggart's confession and defrocking

Swaggart giving his "I have sinned" speech on February 21, 1988. This image of a crying Swaggart has become a symbolic illustration of the televangelist scandals of the late 1980s.
Swaggart giving his "I have sinned" speech on February 21, 1988. This image of a crying Swaggart has become a symbolic illustration of the televangelist scandals of the late 1980s.

On February 21, 1988, without giving any details regarding his transgressions, Swaggart gave his "I have sinned" speech on live television. He spoke tearfully to his family, congregation, TV audience, and finally said, "I have sinned against You, my Lord, and I would ask that Your Precious Blood ... would wash and cleanse every stain until it is in the seas of God's forgetfulness."[12][23]

The Louisiana presbytery of the Assemblies of God initially suspended Swaggart from the ministry for three months. The national presbytery of the Assemblies of God soon extended the suspension to their standard two-year suspension for sexual immorality. His return to the pulpit coincided with the end of a three-month suspension originally ordered by the denomination. Believing that Swaggart was not genuinely repentant in submitting to their authority, the hierarchy of the Assemblies of God defrocked him, removing his credentials and ministerial license.[24]

Swaggart then became an independent and non-denominational Pentecostal minister, establishing Jimmy Swaggart Ministries, based at the Family Worship Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and the Sonlife Broadcasting Network (SBN) which can be seen in the United States and other countries.[25]

1991 scandal

On October 11, 1991, Swaggart was found in the company of a prostitute for a second time. He was pulled over by a police officer in Indio, California, for driving on the wrong side of the road. With him in the vehicle was a woman named Rosemary Garcia. According to Garcia, Swaggart had stopped to propose sex to her on the side of the road. She later told reporters: "He asked me for sex. I mean, that's why he stopped me. That's what I do. I'm a prostitute."[26] This time, rather than confessing of his sins to his congregation, Swaggart told those at Family Worship Center, "The Lord told me it's flat none of your business."[27] Swaggart's son Donnie then announced to the audience that his father would be temporarily stepping down as head of Jimmy Swaggart Ministries for "a time of healing and counseling".[28]

In popular culture

The scandals inspired the Ozzy Osbourne song "Miracle Man" on Osbourne's 1988 album No Rest for the Wicked,[29] and a reference in the Iron Maiden song "Holy Smoke", a UK number three hit single, from the 1990 album No Prayer for the Dying.

During his 1988 concerts, Bruce Hornsby would begin his song "Defenders of the Flag" from Scenes from the Southside with a tongue-in-cheek dedication to Swaggart.[30]

Similarities were also noted between heel World Wrestling Federation character Brother Love and Swaggart's style of preaching.[31]

The Zodiac Mindwarp song "Airline Highway" is about Swaggart's hypocrisy, featuring the lyrics "Unoriginal sin led straight to my fall", and in the chorus, "Hey Jim, the crime's in your heart / You put love in a straitjacket, it tore you apart."

Swaggart was also referred to in several recorded live performances by Frank Zappa with a medley of Beatles' songs featuring rewritten lyrics referencing him.

Swaggart is heard throughout the 1988 Front 242 song "Welcome to Paradise".

In 1990, "the Jimmy Swaggart show" was included as part of a list of 64 disagreeable things read by Josie Jones and released as a spoken-word track under the name "Imperfect List" by "Big Hard Excellent Fish".

In 1999, rapper Eminem vaguely made reference to hypocritical preachers, most likely referring to many in the 1980s such as Swaggart and others in his song "Criminal" in the verse where he raps "...Oh, and please send me a brand new car//and a prostitute while my wife's sick in the hospital".

"Jesus He Knows Me", a 1991 song by Genesis, is a satire on televangelists, such as Swaggart, Robert Tilton, and Jim Bakker.

In November of 2021 multi-instrumentalist and songwriter Lingua Ignota released a compilation of readings called EPISTOLARY GRIEVING FOR JIMMY SWAGGART, made from letters she penned to Swaggart. This follows her sampling Swaggart's confession in her song "The Sacred Linament of Judgement" on her album Sinner Get Ready.


Swaggart's son, Donnie, preaching in Florida in 2018
Swaggart's son, Donnie, preaching in Florida in 2018

As of 2007 Jimmy Swaggart Ministries mainly comprised Family Worship Center, The Jimmy Swaggart Telecast,[32] radio and television programs called A Study in the Word, SonLife Radio Network,[33] a website (], and a 24/7 cable and satellite television network, SonLife Broadcasting Network (SBN).

Swaggart's wife Frances hosts a television program, Frances and Friends, shown daily on SBN.[34] Swaggart also hosts a daily Bible study program on SBN, The Message of the Cross. His son Donnie preaches at Family Worship Center and also preaches in churches across America and abroad.[35] Donnie's son Gabriel is the ministry's youth pastor who leads Crossfire, Family Worship Center's youth ministry.[36] SBN also delivers live broadcasts of all of its weekly services at Family Worship Center, as well as live broadcasts of all of its camp meetings.

Swaggart in 2011
Swaggart in 2011


Swaggart started SonLife Radio on the noncommercial FM band. Unlike his previous stations, SonLife was commercial-free and it did not sell time to outside ministries; the preaching and teaching were all produced in-house. The music which it played was primarily Southern Gospel. SonLife Radio is also streamed on the Internet.[37] Some controversy arose concerning the ministry raising money for stations that were never built.[citation needed]

List of radio stations

The network's flagship station is WJSM in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.[38]

Call sign Frequency City of license State Power
(m (ft))
Class FCC info
WJIK 89.7 FM Fulton Alabama 2,100 166 m (545 ft) A FCC
WQUA 102.1 FM Citronelle Alabama 15,000 130 m (430 ft) C3 FCC
KJSM-FM 97.7 FM Augusta Arkansas 100,000 189 m (620 ft) C1 FCC
KNHD 1450 AM Camden Arkansas 1,000 C FCC
KUUZ 95.9 FM Lake Village Arkansas 20,000 92 m (302 ft) C3 FCC
KSSW 96.9 FM Nashville Arkansas 6,000 100 m (330 ft) A FCC
KPSH 90.9 FM Coachella California 230 190 m (620 ft) A FCC
WGSG 89.5 FM Mayo Florida 20,000 76 m (249 ft) C3 FCC
WFFL 91.7 FM Panama City Florida 310 H
304 V
63 m (207 ft) A FCC
WBMF 88.1 FM Crete Illinois 90 114 m (374 ft) A FCC
WAWF 88.3 FM Kankakee Illinois 1,250 87 m (285 ft) A FCC
WWGN 88.9 FM Ottawa Illinois 4,100 H
1,400 V
148.4 m (487 ft) B1 FCC
KBDD 91.9 FM Winfield Kansas 48,000 150 m (490 ft) C2 FCC
KJGM 88.3 FM Bastrop Louisiana 63,000 82 m (269 ft) C1 FCC
WJFM[a] 88.5 FM Baton Rouge Louisiana 25,500 85 m (279 ft) C2 FCC
KTOC-FM 104.9 FM Jonesboro Louisiana 25,000 72 m (236 ft) C3 FCC
KCKR 91.9 FM Church Point Louisiana 12,500 141.9 m (466 ft) C3 FCC
KDJR 100.1 FM De Soto Missouri 2,000 106 m (348 ft) A FCC
WTGY 95.7 FM Charleston Mississippi 6,000 100 m (330 ft) A FCC
WJNS-FM 92.1 FM Bentonia Mississippi 4,800 111.3 m (365 ft) A FCC
KNBE 88.9 FM Beatrice Nebraska 7,500 146 m (479 ft) C3 FCC
KNFA 90.7 FM Grand Island Nebraska 1,300 58.3 m (191 ft) A FCC
WJCA 102.1 FM Albion New York 3,700 129 m (423 ft) A FCC
WYRR 88.9 FM Lakewood New York 420 102 m (335 ft) A FCC
WJYM 730 AM Bowling Green Ohio 1,000 day
359 night
KAJT 88.7 FM Ada Oklahoma 31,000 73 m (240 ft) C2 FCC
KMFS 1490 AM Guthrie Oklahoma 1,000 C FCC
KREK 104.9 FM Bristow Oklahoma 5,000 107 m (351 ft) A FCC
KSSO 89.3 FM Norman Oklahoma 5,600 50 m (160 ft) A FCC
WAYB-FM 95.7 FM Graysville Tennessee 6,000 100 m (330 ft) A FCC
KNRB 100.1 FM Atlanta Texas 50,000 150 m (490 ft) C2 FCC
KYTM 99.3 FM Corrigan Texas 6,000 86 m (282 ft) A FCC


Low-powered translators

Call sign Frequency
City of license State Class ERP
FCC info
W209CN 89.7 Andalusia Alabama D 10 FCC
W205BX 88.9 Eufaula Alabama D 13 FCC
K250BQ 97.9 Camden Arkansas D 250 FCC
K209DT 89.7 El Dorado Arkansas D 38 FCC
K219AO 91.7 Fairmont California D 89 FCC
W213BF 90.5 Key West Florida D 50 FCC
W215BM 90.9 Dublin Georgia D 13 FCC
W212BL 90.3 LaGrange Georgia D 10 FCC
W214BG 90.7 Waycross Georgia D 38 FCC
W206AN 89.1 Carlinville Illinois D 80 FCC
W204BG 88.7 Effingham Illinois D 19 FCC
W217BJ 91.3 Freeport Illinois D 55 FCC
W201BL 88.1 Jacksonville Illinois D 27 FCC
K208DW 89.5 DeSoto Parish Louisiana D 20 FCC
K220ID 91.9 Grayson Louisiana D 10 FCC
K232FN 94.3 Many Louisiana D 250 FCC
K216EX 91.1 Minden Louisiana D 38 FCC
K218EY 91.5 Morgan City Louisiana D 160 FCC
K211DY 90.1 Natchitoches Louisiana D 10 FCC
K219FA 91.7 Alexandria Minnesota D 50 FCC
K213DN 90.5 Morris Minnesota D 27 FCC
K201GD 88.1 Kirksville Missouri D 10 FCC
K219FD 91.7 Mountain Grove Missouri D 50 FCC
K207DG 89.3 Rosati Missouri D 140 FCC
K218DC 91.5 Springfield Missouri D 250 FCC
K213DK 90.5 Willow Springs Missouri D 50 FCC
W202BS 88.3 Columbia Mississippi D 13 FCC
W208BC 89.5 Corning New York D 10 FCC
W220DD 91.9 Morehead City North Carolina D 50 FCC
W202BR 88.3 Rockingham North Carolina D 10 FCC
W209BN 89.7 Chambersburg Pennsylvania D 10 FCC
W212BK 90.3 Franklin Pennsylvania D 10 FCC
W207BM 89.3 Lock Haven Pennsylvania D 55 FCC
W218BN 91.5 Mansfield Pennsylvania D 10 FCC
W204BQ 88.7 Andrews South Carolina D 55 FCC
W202CG 88.3 Clinton South Carolina D 27 FCC
W204BR 88.7 Manning South Carolina D 50 FCC
W215CK 90.9 Winnsboro South Carolina D 10 FCC
K209DX 89.7 Brookings South Dakota D 250 FCC
K207EW 89.3 Mitchell South Dakota D 250 FCC
K211EC 90.1 Watertown South Dakota D 100 FCC
K214FC 90.7 Yankton South Dakota D 92 FCC
W217BG 91.3 Pikeville Tennessee D 10 FCC
K216DN 91.1 Bonham Texas D 45 FCC
K216FD 91.1 Columbus Texas D 40 FCC
K219FH 91.7 Midland Texas D 50 FCC
K216FC 91.1 Palestine Texas D 170 FCC

Singers and Musicians

Note: This is not a complete list of all personnel who have come and gone, and the timeline is only from 1993 to present.


In 1973, Swaggart proposed to television producers in Nashville, Tennessee a television program including a fairly large music segment, a short sermon, and time for talking about current ministry projects, after two faltering attempts to tape the half-hour program in Baton Rouge and New Orleans. They accepted, and within weeks the Jimmy Swaggart Telecast was being broadcast around the United States.

In 1981, Swaggart launched a daily television program titled A Study in the Word. From the beginning, the primary cable channels which the program was aired on were CBN Cable (now Freeform), TBN, and the old PTL Network (now the Inspiration Network).

In 1988, Swaggart lost some of his broadcast and merchandise rights following his first prostitution scandal.[19][39] In 1991, Swaggart's career as standard televangelist came to an end after more local TV stations cancelled their contracts with him following a second prostitution scandal.[40][41][42]

In 2010, Jimmy Swaggart Ministries launched a 24 hour-a-day television network entitled the Sonlife Broadcasting Network (SBN), on DirecTV channel 344, Dish Network channel 257, Glorystar channel 125, AT&T U-verse, Verizon Fios, and various cable TV providers and broadcast stations.[43]

SBN is available in the U.S. through Free To Air (FTA) satellite television.[44][45][46] It is also available in Australia and New Zealand.

SBN is also available 24 hours a day in the United Kingdom on SKY (Channel 593), Freesat (Channel 695) and Freeview (Channel 239). It is also shown on DSTV channel 345 for African viewers

Jimmy Swaggart Bible College

In autumn 1984, Swaggart opened Jimmy Swaggart Bible College (JSBC). The college originally provided education and communication degrees. It flourished during the 1980s. In the fall of 1987 enrollment peaked at 1,450 students.

JSBC enrollment dropped drastically in 1988 when students left as a result of Swaggart's scandal with Debra Murphree, followed by accreditation issues. In 1988 the enrollment at the Bible college was projected to drop 72% that year but the school was planning to proceed with plans to open a theological seminary. Enrollment in August 1988 was projected to be about 400 students, compared to 1,451 students last year in 1987. The estimate was based on the number of students who had registered and the inquiries from potential students.[47] In July 1988 the college dormitories were re-branded and listed as apartments.

In 1991, JSBC was renamed to World Evangelism Bible College and enrollment dropped to 370 students. The college shut down programs in music, physical education, secretarial science, and communications that October and disbanded its basketball team. In November "the college laid off three Bible professors and an English professor, effective at the end of the fall semester."[48]

In 2019, JSBC offered Associate of Arts and Bachelor of Arts degrees, both in Biblical Studies.[49] The College was not accredited but was seeking accreditation at that time.[50]

In 2021, Gabriel Swaggart, grandson of Jimmy Swaggart, is the President of JSBC. JSBC stopped offering online classes around 2020 in one of many steps to seek accreditation.[51] JSBC lists a total of six faculty/staff members.[52]


Swaggart has written about 50 Christian books offered through his ministry.[53] He is the author of the Expositor's Study Bible,[54] 13 study guides and 38 commentaries on the Bible. The ministry also publishes a monthly magazine, The Evangelist.


Since October 10, 1952, Swaggart has been married to Frances Swaggart (née Anderson, born August 9, 1937). They have one son, Donnie (born October 18, 1954), named after Jimmy Swaggart's brother who died in infancy. He has three grandchildren and ten great-grandchildren Abby, Caroline, Mackenzie, Samantha, Zack, Ryder, and many more .[1]

Donnie and his son Gabriel are also preachers, making three generations of the Swaggart family to have become involved in ministerial work.[55][56]

Family Christian Academy

In 1982, Swaggart founded Family Christian Academy (FCA). The school was originally run by Swaggart, but is now run by Carolyn Richards, Swaggart's grandson's mother-in-law. Family Christian Academy is one of the most athletic schools in Baton Rouge.[citation needed]


  1. ^ a b About Jimmy Swaggart Ministries Retrieved July 31, 2013.
  2. ^ "Jimmy Swaggart Ministries". Retrieved March 15, 2012.
  3. ^ a b Djupe, Paul A.; Olson, Laura R. (2008). Encyclopedia of American religion and politics. Checkmark Books. p. 430. ISBN 978-0-8160-7555-3. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
  4. ^ Curtis, Ian (June 2006). Jesus: Myth or Reality?. ISBN 9780595397648.
  5. ^ Saved by Song- A History of Gospel and Christian Music, Don Cusic, University of Mississippi Press, 2012, p. 321
  6. ^ Roots of the Rich and Famous, Robert R. Davenport, Taylor Publishing, 1998, p. 131
  7. ^ Swaggart: The Unauthorized Biography of an American Evangelist, Ann Rowe Seaman, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2001, pp. 33-35
  8. ^ Unconquered: The Saga of Cousins Jerry Lee Lewis, Jimmy Swaggart, and Mickey Gilley 488 pages Brown Books Publishing Group (May 1, 2012), English ISBN 978-1612540412
  9. ^ Jimmy Swaggart; Robert Paul Lamb (1984). To cross a river (3rd ed.). Baton Rouge, La.: Jimmy Swaggart Ministries. ISBN 978-0-88270-221-6.
  10. ^
  11. ^ "E2a".
  12. ^ a b c Kaufman, Joanne (March 7, 1988). "The Fall of Jimmy Swaggart". People. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
  13. ^ "Jimmy Swaggart | Biography, Ministries, & Scandals". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  14. ^ Andrews, Travis M. (January 9, 2017). "The Rev. Marvin Gorman, who prompted Jimmy Swaggart's downfall in the '80s, dies at 83". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  15. ^ Marcus, Frances Frank (September 13, 1991). "Swaggart Found Liable For Defaming Minister". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  16. ^ "A Fair, Sympathetic Account of the Rise and Fall of Televangelist Jimmy Swaggart". Chicago Tribune. December 26, 1999. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  17. ^ Seaman, Ann Rowe (1999). Swaggart: The Unauthorized Biography of an American Evangelist. New York City: Continuum. p. 331. ISBN 9781441136459.
  18. ^ Applebome, Peter (February 25, 1988). "Scandal Spurs Interest in Swaggart Finances". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
  19. ^ a b Harris, Art (February 25, 1988). "Jimmy Swaggart and the Snare of Sin". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  20. ^ Seaman, p.337
  21. ^ Associated Press. Ocala Star-Banner, February 27, 1988.[full citation needed]
  22. ^ Toronto Star, February 27, 1988.[full citation needed]
  23. ^ Swaggart, Jimmy. "Reverend Jimmy Swaggart: Apology Sermon". Retrieved January 25, 2007.
  24. ^ King, Peter H. (April 9, 1988). "Swaggart Rejects Terms of Penance, Is Defrocked". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  25. ^ Dept., JSM Web. "Family Worship Center – Jimmy Swaggart Ministries – Baton Rouge". Retrieved April 15, 2017.
  26. ^ "Prostitute Says Swaggart Picked Her Up For Sex". Associated Press. October 12, 1991. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  27. ^ "Swaggart: God Says 'It's None Of Your Business'". Seattle Times. Associated Press. October 17, 1991. Archived from the original on February 19, 2020.
  28. ^ "Swaggart Plans to Step Down". The New York Times. Associated Press. October 15, 1991. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  29. ^ Häger, Andreas, ed. (September 6, 2018). "Biblical Language in Ozzy Osbourne's Solo Albums". Religion and Popular Music: Artists, Fans, and Cultures. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-350-00371-2.
  30. ^ "HORNSBY'S MUSICIANSHIP WINS OVER MIAMI CROWD". Retrieved November 8, 2020.
  31. ^ "Wrestlers having grudge match". Lakeland Ledger. October 28, 1988. Retrieved December 2, 2021.
  32. ^ "Jimmy Swaggart Ministries – TV Programming". Archived from the original on January 23, 2007. Retrieved January 28, 2007.
  33. ^ "Jimmy Swaggart Ministries – SonLife Radio". Archived from the original on February 2, 2007. Retrieved February 22, 2007.
  34. ^ "Frances and Friends".
  35. ^ "Donnie Swaggart".
  36. ^ "CrossFire".
  37. ^ "SonLife Broadcasting Network | SBN | Jimmy Swaggart Ministries". Retrieved March 28, 2019.
  38. ^ WJFM Accessed September 6, 2016
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External links

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