To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Paul F. Schenck

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Paul Fornshell Schenck
Paul F. Schenck 84th Congress 1955.jpg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 3rd district
In office
November 6, 1951 – January 3, 1965
Preceded byEdward G. Breen
Succeeded byRodney M. Love
Personal details
Born(1899-04-19)April 19, 1899
Miamisburg, Ohio
DiedNovember 30, 1968(1968-11-30) (aged 69)
Dayton, Ohio
Resting placeWoodland Cemetery
Political partyRepublican

Paul Fornshell Schenck (April 19, 1899 – November 30, 1968) was a U.S. Representative from Ohio.

Born in Miamisburg, Ohio, his family moved to Dayton, Ohio in 1908 where he graduated from Steele High School in 1917. He received two years of college training, and was a student teacher at Steele from 1917 to 1919. He then worked in the automotive service business from 1919 to 1923. After that practical training, he became an automotive training teacher and faculty manager of athletics at Roosevelt High School in Dayton from 1923 to 1929.

He was the director of recreation for the city of Dayton from 1929 to 1935. In September 1935, during the Great Depression, he established his own real estate, mortgage loan, and insurance business.

He began his public service career when he was elected to the Dayton Board of Education, serving from 1941 to 1950 and president for seven years. He was vice chairman of the Dayton Safety Council in 1946 and 1947 and president of the Dayton Real Estate Board 1947–1949.

He was nominated by the Republican party to run for Congress from Ohio's third congressional district in 1950, but was defeated by incumbent Edward G. Breen. Breen resigned in 1951 due to health concerns, and Schenck was subsequently elected in a special election to the 82nd Congress to fill the vacancy. He was reelected to the 83rd and to the five succeeding Congresses (November 6, 1951 – January 3, 1965) but was defeated in 1964 for reelection to the 89th Congress.

Schenck, a member of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, introduced a bill in 1957 that would have prohibited the sale of vehicles discharging hydrocarbons in levels found dangerous by the Surgeon General. The bill never made it through Congress in that form. Still, it was a prescient statement at the time about the growing national concern over auto pollution. In 1959, President Eisenhower signed a modified Schenck Act. That law directed the Surgeon General to study the relationship between auto pollution and public health.

Paul F. Schenck was a Freemason Knight Templar and member of the Shriners (Antioch Temple). He died in Dayton, Ohio and is interred in Woodland Cemetery.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/1
  • ✪ Cohen v. California |


- [Narrator] Supreme Court opinions are typically written in formal, genteel language. Justices write circumspectly, almost never resorting to distasteful language, graphic description, or obscenities. It can be entertaining to watch a justice delicately describe the lurid images in a pornographic movie when deciding whether the movie is either obscene or constitutionally protected. And in Cohen versus California, it's interesting to see how the justices managed to avoid uttering the vulgar phrase that got Mr. Cohen into such trouble. Instead of telling us what happened in its own words, the Supreme Court quoted the operative facts from the decision of the California Court of Appeal. In 1968, Mr. Cohen was seen in the Los Angeles County Courthouse, "wearing a jacket bearing the words, Fuck the Draft, which were plainly visible." He was arrested, convicted of disturbing the peace, and sentenced to 30 days in prison. The California Court of Appeal upheld his conviction and the California Supreme Court declined to hear the case. Cohen then appealed to the United States Supreme Court, which accepted the case to consider whether the conviction infringed on his First Amendment freedom of expression. Writing for the court, Justice John Harlan held that Cohen's conviction was unconstitutional. Cohen's conviction rested, in large part, on the fact that women and children could clearly see the message. In that day and age, the protection of women and children from such vulgarity was considered of valued social interest. But Harlan argued that protection of sensitive persons alone could not overcome Cohen's right to communicate his message, even by use of offensive language. Offended viewers could easily avert their eyes, if they didn't want to see it. Harlan considered the recognized exceptions to constitutionally protected expression and concluded that the phrase on Cohen's jacket didn't fit any of them. It wasn't obscene, because it didn't have any prurient or erotic component. It also didn't constitute fighting words, because, while distasteful, it wasn't likely to provoke a violent reaction, nor was it an insult directed toward any particular person. The court expressly rejected the notion that the State of California could justify Cohen's conviction, based on the state's duty to protect public morals. The court noted that Cohen didn't engage in any other offensive speech or conduct. Moreover, the fact that he displayed the phrase in a courthouse was also not germane, since California's disturbing the peace statute had no special provision for courthouses. The court argued that, in a society as diverse and populous as the United States, the free exchange of ideas, even offensively expressed ideas, is a virtue worthy of First Amendment protection. Allowing the state to prohibit the public display of one offensive word would open the floodgates to the state restricting even more language and, inevitably, to the state prohibiting the expression of certain ideas. This, the court said, was what the First Amendment was intended to prevent. So, without a more compelling reason to suppress Cohen's expression, the state could not prosecute Cohen for the public display of his message, even if that message contained an offensive word. Therefore, the court overturned Cohen's conviction. Justice Harry Blackmun dissented, joined by Justice Hugo Black and Chief Justice Warren Burger. First, Blackmun argued that Cohen's display constituted conduct, not speech. This brought it outside the First Amendment's protections and, thus, within the state's right to regulate. Second, a later California Supreme Court decision cast doubt on whether the underlying California Court of Appeal decision still represented good law in California. Noting this, Blackmun would have remanded the case back to the California courts for reconsideration. Justice Byron White joined the second part of Blackmun's dissent. Since Cohen, the court has addressed other situations where people have used suggestive, vulgar, or offensive language to express themselves, notably in schools and at military funerals. For the most part, the court has continued to uphold First Amendment protections for those who choose to express themselves offensively.


  • United States Congress. "Paul F. Schenck (id: S000117)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Edward G. Breen
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 3rd congressional district

Succeeded by
Rodney M. Love
This page was last edited on 17 April 2019, at 14:43
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.