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James Middleton Cox
Cox c. 1920
46th and 48th Governor of Ohio
In office
January 8, 1917 – January 10, 1921
LieutenantEarl D. Bloom
Clarence J. Brown
Preceded byFrank B. Willis
Succeeded byHarry L. Davis
In office
January 13, 1913 – January 11, 1915
LieutenantW. A. Greenlund
Preceded byJudson Harmon
Succeeded byFrank B. Willis
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 3rd district
In office
March 4, 1909 – January 12, 1913
Preceded byJ. Eugene Harding
Succeeded byWarren Gard
Personal details
James Monroe Cox[1]

(1870-03-31)March 31, 1870
Jacksonburg, Ohio, U.S.
DiedJuly 15, 1957(1957-07-15) (aged 87)
Kettering, Ohio, U.S.
Resting placeWoodland Cemetery and Arboretum
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Mayme Simpson Harding
Margaretta Parker Blair
Children6, including James, Anne, and Barbara

James Middleton Cox (March 31, 1870 – July 15, 1957) was an American businessman and politician who served as the 46th and 48th governor of Ohio, and a two-term U.S. Representative from Ohio. As the Democratic nominee for President of the United States at the 1920 presidential election, he lost in a landslide to fellow Ohioan Warren G. Harding. His running mate was future president Franklin D. Roosevelt. He founded the chain of newspapers that continues today as Cox Enterprises, a media conglomerate.

Born and raised in Ohio, Cox began his career as a newspaper copy reader before becoming an assistant to Congressman Paul J. Sorg. As owner of the Dayton Daily News, Cox introduced several innovations and crusaded against the local Republican Party boss. He served in the United States House of Representatives from 1909 to 1913 before being elected as Governor of Ohio. As governor, Cox introduced a series of progressive reforms and supported Woodrow Wilson's handling of World War I and its aftermath.

He was chosen as the Democratic nominee for president on the forty-fourth ballot of the 1920 Democratic National Convention. Running on a ticket with future President Franklin D. Roosevelt as his vice presidential running mate, Cox suffered the worst popular vote defeat (a 26.17% margin) since the unopposed re-election of James Monroe in 1820.

Cox retired from public office after the 1920 presidential election to focus on his media conglomerate, which expanded into several cities. By 1939, his media empire extended from Dayton to Miami. He remained active in politics, supporting Roosevelt's campaigns and attending the 1933 London Economic Conference.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • Conversations with Coley - James Cox
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  • Brian Cox: Looking billions of years into the Earth’s past
  • Alex Taylor, Executive Vice President, Cox Enterprises


>> Well hello! How you doing? >> Good morning Dr. Coley, I'm doing pretty good today. >> Good, good, good, yeah! I'm pleased be here. This is the first time I've been in the ASI offices. Well, I'm pleased to be able to come and, and visit, and connect. >> Well thank you for coming down here to talk to me today. I have a lot of students come into this office and ask a lot of questions and I think you're the right person to answer some of these. >> Okay, well I'm certainly going to give it my best try. >> Perfect, I know just the right location to get that started. >> Okay, alright, I'll follow you. Okay, good! >> Well, good morning, and thanks again for being here with me to ask some of these questions. So being ASI president, I get a lot of students in my office asking a ton of questions on many topics. And one of those topics is financial aid. So students of the campus want to know, as the in-person and phone wait can be very long, can we hire more employees to cover financial aid during peak times of the year when students need help the most? >> Well, first of all, thank you so much James for being available to have this conversation, and also thank you so much for providing me some tea. You know that I, I'm a tea drinker and I understand you're a tea drinker as well, so. Let me just say that we are very cognizant of the challenges the students have relative to trying to get the service that is, is needed. One of the things that you may not know is that 73 percent of our students, which represents about 16,000 students are on financial aid, and we are looking at ways, because, as you know, we're going from quarters to semesters, and we're really looking at ways to make those kinds of services more efficient and reduce the weight time for, for students. We also have a, in terms of questions that students may have about financial aid, we have an Ask Billy site, and I understand that Ask Billy answers about 10,000 questions a month, and so we are looking at staffing, we're looking at the services itself, how we can reduce the wait time, and so I want students to know that certainly this is something that we want to, that we're cognisant of and want to, to address, but staff also are very concerned about this as well. >> Thank you very much. I have another question for you from the students. Since we're an institution of higher learning, and we need all the resources possible to get those homework assignments in on time, students want to know, how can we extend the library hours? As the 24-hour computer library lab fills up pretty quickly at certain points in the quarter. >> Well let me just say, first of all, I applaud the students for really raising this desire with regards to extending the library hours. We have, in our, in the [inaudible] and looking at other issues, we have the longest hours that, of any of the CSU [phonetic], any of the CSU's in this immediate vicinity. But, that being said, what we have done is looked at ways to extend the hours during those critical crunch times. During final exams, during the study periods, and so that is, and I know that when I talk to the dean, he's very committed to making sure that he can tailor the, those hours to student's needs. We have a 24 hour study room, and so we want to continue to find ways to expand and I know that with the new ASI officers coming in, the new president, this may be something that the president might want to work with the dean and to do a survey of, of students and see what else we might be able to do. >> Thank you. Being in the technology age and students having gadgets of all types, there's other places on campus where students can study, but the problem is that power runs out. So students have another question for you, how can we prioritize additional locations for students to plug in a cell phone or a laptop charger, both inside and outside buildings, particularly in the library? >> Well we do have, in the library, quite a number of outlets, but as you're talking about other buildings, you know, I'm conducting these listening tours, and on the listening tours I've become very, you know, aware that many of our buildings, I mean, are 30-years-old, and so the buildings, when they were built at that time, were, were built to specifications that didn't imagine the kind of technology boom that we would, we would have today. And so it's, it's extremely challenging to try, and a very costly, to try and go back and rewire and, and also provide those kinds of outlets, but I know that technology, our technology division is very committed to working with all the units on the campus to try and continue to expand access so that students can study anytime, anywhere on the, on the campus, and it is certainly going to be one of our, one of the discussions that we will have as we undertake our planning process on campus, and as we look at the master plan for the, for the campus. >> Over the summer, I got a chance to meet a lot of the incoming freshman during orientation, and a lot of questions that I would see was that why is it mandated for students to live on campus when we do not offer enough spaces to accommodate all the student housing applications? >> You know, it's a good question, and, and I too, as I've had a chance to meet some of the, the students at orientation and their parents. First of all, we think, and, and data support this, that students having ability to have an on-campus residential experience is, is wonderful. It, it, it really provides students with a different sense of the campus, the way in which they live, work, and play with, with other students, providing opportunities for lifelong friendships, and so we have opened up more spaces for the freshman. I think in the wisdom, again, of, of the campus, there was a recognition that, when you think about student persistence, when you think about student retention, and even their overall success, that there is an, a greater likelihood of students who, that they will be successful if they, if they have this, at least a one-year experience. At the same time, we know that we need to do more in terms of providing housing and so you're probably aware that there are plans in the way for student housing, new student housing, and so we hope that that too will absorb and accommodate this. There is a waiver that students can attain relative to the requirement to live on, on campus their first year, but that's, I think it's a wonderful opportunity, but we need to do more to, to certainly make that accessible. >> Well I've had a number of student's contact me, just want to [inaudible] person know about their self-graduating and what they're going to do after graduation. I know we have a lot of students who are engineers and science majors, like myself, who kind of have a clear picture of what they want to do once they leave the campus, so I have another question for you. How can we create more career-centered events where students in preparation for their postgraduate life can learn about how to utilize their degrees? >> You know, that's one of the areas, and I'm also very interested in coming in as the new president, because I believe that our work is, goes beyond the students crossing the stage, but also helping to launch them into their first career, and, as well as graduate, graduate school. But with regards to the, the entry into the career, I know the career center works with colleges, there are career advisors that are connected to various colleges, and really encourage students to go early on to the career center, it's not too soon to become connected to the career center, so now waiting your senior year. We've had some tremendous, very successful job fairs. This year I think we had a record number of employers coming to the campus and being very excited about our, the caliber of our, of our students. We also have tools and resources in the career center that students can use. There's a class, it's a two unit class that focuses on personal and career exploration, and there's also a site that helps students explore their major in relation to career opportunities, and so I certainly encourage students to, you know, get connected with the career center early on and visit many times. >> Thank you. [Inaudible] questions, so the campus is growing and we're a very large campus, and I'd like to say we have one of the most beautiful campuses. >> I agree! I think it's one of the most beautiful. >> Students want to be outside in the California weather, so how can we add additional outside seating on campus? >> Right. Well, in fact, we, that's another...survey that we would like, and like to work with ASI around that topic, but let me just say that, as you know, as mentioned, we are looking at new student housing, but also the student affairs and the CLA building, will be replaced and part of the design includes open space for seating and, and having an opportunity for students to really, and faculty and staff, to really enjoy this campus environment. And so as we build and as we plan future growth and development of the campus, certainly that's going to be integrated into any planning that we, that we do because I think that's what makes this campus especially receptive and, and, and so enjoyable for people to, to come because it is open space and it's so, since the students can really get outside and, and commune with nature, and we want to, want to continue to have that option. >> Great. Since we're a campus that is vastly diverse, I have had a couple of students come to my office with certain concerns, and I have a question for you. Can the needs of undocumented students be addressed in a more focused manner with the resource center? >> Well let me just say that, you know, right now, while we may not have a particular location, we have dedicated staff and resources for these, these students, these undocumented students, and, and we want them to feel as much a part of campus life and the campus community as any other students. We have, through student affairs, identified a, an advisor, someone who can work with the students, but also I was so pleased to learn that there's a student club called, I think it's Dreamer's Ally, and they have, they're working with these students to make sure that they get the benefit of their experiences, of peer mentoring, and so I, I, I think that there is a clear recognition of both the unique needs, but also the common needs that we want students to, to have addressed, and so working with this student club, as well as the student affairs resources, we want to make sure that even though we don't have a specific location at this time, that certainly these students feel that they are being well-served. >> Thank you. Well, you know that on Tuesdays [inaudible], we have our traditional you hour, and there's a ton of student clubs and organizations out there selling food and all kinds of things for the students on campus, and all require you to pay cash. So a lot of students are around the plastic age, so we only carry our card. So we go to the ATM and we're looking to get money, but it might not be the bank we bank with, so we're looking at, oh, there's a fee, students do not like extra fees, so, what can we do to provide additional ATMs on campus? >> Well, you know, the ATMs that we do have, you know, they're connected with the Bronco Center, and ASI oversees, oversees that. And it's something certainly that we have to determine if there is, you know, the kind of demand that would attract banks and, and credit unions to, to the campus, because for those org, institutions, it's about whether or not they proceed if there's sufficient demand. And so certainly it's worth investigating whether or not we need to think about a different location, but that's not a decision that we can make because it is driven by, as you know, the, the bank and credit union's perceptions of, of the game for, for them. So, it's certainly something that we can put on the list of, of things to, to explore. >> Thank you. And this is our last question. Coming from a number of students on campus who [inaudible] experience being in certain areas of campus where the classroom might not have been as updated as other classrooms. So, are, there's, there are still classes that are lacking basic equipment that some others might consider in other rooms. So are there a plan to update some of these facilities? >> Well we've, this is an ongoing process, and we have been continually, every year, looking at what the resources that we have, and, as you know, the student success [inaudible] has, a large chunk of that is also dedicated to technological upgrades, and so we continue to have a, a yearly plan for upgrading the classrooms, providing the equipment that is, that's needed. And, in fact, I have...some information, or some data, that in 2014, there was a full rebuild of IT equipment in 8 classrooms, and there was replacement of 45 projectors, 20 lectern computers, 7 college labs, and 100, I mean 317 computers, and they're in the process of purchasing more, more equipment. But I too, again, as I mentioned with the listening tours, I've gone to different departments and we see that, you know, some departments have been able to acquire really up-to-date equipment and, and what we're trying to do is make sure that regardless of major, regardless of department, that, that we will have a, a fundamental base of technological and classroom support for, for students and, and faculty. >> Well, that seems to be the end of the list, and our time! Thank you so much for... >> Well thank you! >> ...coming here and answering questions and enjoying a cup of tea. >> Enjoying a cup of tea and best of luck to you, and, again, I appreciate your leadership, as ASI president, it's been great to, to know you and, and good luck to you! >> Thank you so much.

Early life and career

Cox was born on a farm near the tiny Butler County, Ohio, village of Jacksonburg, the youngest son of Gilbert Cox and Eliza Andrew; he had six siblings.[2] Cox was named James Monroe Cox at birth; he was later known as James Middleton Cox, possibly because he spent part of his early years in Middletown, Ohio.[3][4] Cox was educated in a one-room school until the age sixteen.[5] After his parents divorced, he moved with his mother in 1886 to Middletown, where he started a journalistic apprenticeship at the Middletown Weekly Signal published by John Q. Baker.

In 1892 Cox received a job at the Cincinnati Enquirer as a copy reader on the telegraph desk, and later started to report on spot news including the railroad news. In 1894, Cox became an assistant to Middletown businessman Paul J. Sorg who was elected to U.S. Congress, and spent three formative years in Washington, D.C. Sorg helped Cox to acquire the struggling Dayton Evening News, and Cox, after renaming it into the Dayton Daily News, turned it by 1900 into a successful afternoon newspaper outperforming competing ventures. He refocused local news, increased national, international and sports news coverage based on Associated Press wire service, published timely market quotes with stock-exchange, grain and livestock tables, and introduced several innovations including photo-journalistic approach to news coverage, suburban columns, book serializations and McClure's Saturday magazine supplement inserts, among others. Cox started a crusade against Dayton's Republican boss, Joseph E. Lowes, who used his political clout to profit from government deals. He also confronted John H. Patterson, president of Dayton's National Cash Register Co., revealing facts of antitrust violations and bribery.[6] In 1905, foretelling his future media conglomerate, Cox acquired the Springfield Press-Republic published in Springfield, Ohio, and renamed it, the Springfield Daily News.


In 1908, he ran for Congress as a Democrat and was elected. Cox represented Ohio in the United States House of Representatives for two terms from 1909 to 1913, and resigned after winning election as Governor of Ohio.[5]

Governor of Ohio

Cox won the 1912 election for Governor of Ohio, in a three-way race gaining 41.5% of the vote. Cox served three terms; after winning the 1912 election, he served from 1913 to 1915; he lost reelection in 1914, but won the 1916 and 1918 elections, and served from 1917 to 1921. He presided over a wide range of measures such as laying the foundation of Ohio's unified highway system, creating no fault workers' compensation system and restricting child labor.[7] He introduced direct primaries and municipal home rule, started educational and prison reforms, and streamlined the budget and tax processes.[8]

During World War I, Cox encouraged voluntary cooperation between business, labor, and government bodies. In 1918, he welcomed constitutional amendments for Prohibition and women's suffrage.[5] Cox supported the internationalist policies of Woodrow Wilson and reluctantly supported U.S. entry into the League of Nations.[9][10]

In 1919, shortly after the Great War ended, Governor Cox backed the Ake Law, introduced by H. Ross Ake, which banned the German language from being taught until the eighth grade, even in private schools. Cox claimed that teaching German was "a distinct menace to Americanism, and part of a plot formed by the German government to make the school children loyal to it."[11] Legislation restricting the teaching of foreign languages was declared unconstitutional in Meyer v. Nebraska.

Bid for presidency

Cox/Roosevelt electoral poster
Roosevelt (left) and Cox (right) at a campaign appearance in Washington, D.C., 1920

A capable and well-liked progressive reformer, Cox was nominated for the presidency by the Democratic Party at the 1920 Democratic convention in San Francisco defeating A. Mitchell Palmer and William Gibbs McAdoo on the 44th ballot.[12]

Cox conducted an activist campaign visiting 36 states and delivering 394 speeches mainly focusing on domestic issues, to the displeasure of the Wilsonians, who pictured the election "as a referendum on the League of Nations."[5] To fight unemployment and inflation, he suggested simultaneously lowering income and business profits taxes. He promised to introduce national collective bargaining legislation and pledged his support to the Volstead Act. Cox spoke in support of Americanization to increase the immigrant population's loyalty to the United States.

Despite all of his efforts, Cox was defeated in the 1920 presidential election by a fellow Ohioan and newspaperman, U.S. Senator Warren G. Harding of Marion. The public had grown weary of the turmoil of the Wilson years and eagerly accepted Harding's call for a "return to normalcy." Cox's running mate was future president, then-Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt. One of the better-known analyses of the 1920 election is in Irving Stone's book about defeated presidential candidates, They Also Ran. Stone rated Cox as superior in every way over Harding and claimed that Cox would have made a much better president. Stone argued that there was never a stronger case in the history of American presidential elections for the proposition that the better man lost. Of the four men on both tickets, all but Cox would ultimately become president: Harding won and was succeeded by his running mate, Calvin Coolidge, after Harding died in office, and Roosevelt would be elected president in 1932. Cox would, however, outlive all three men by several years.

Cox with FDR in Dayton, Ohio during 1920 presidential campaign

During the campaign, Cox recorded several times for The Nation's Forum, a record label that made voice recordings of American political and civic leaders in 1918-1920.[13][14] Among them was the campaign speech now preserved at the Library of Congress that accused the Republicans of failing to acknowledge that Wilson's successful prosecution of the Great War had, according to Cox, "saved civilization."[15]

Later years and death

After stepping down from public service, he concentrated on building a large media conglomerate, Cox Enterprises. In 1923 he acquired the Miami Daily News and the Canton Daily News. In December 1939, he purchased the Atlanta Georgian and Journal, just a week before that city hosted the premiere of Gone with the Wind.[16]: 389  This deal included radio station WSB, which joined his previous holdings, WHIO in Dayton and WIOD in Miami, to give him, "'air' from the Great Lakes on the north to Latin America on the south."[16]: 387 

He continued to be involved in politics, and in 1932, 1936, 1940, and 1944, Cox supported and campaigned for the presidential candidacies of his former running mate Franklin D. Roosevelt, unlike the other losing Democratic presidential candidates of the time John W. Davis and Al Smith. In 1933, Cox was appointed by Roosevelt to the U.S. delegation to the failed London Economic Conference.[17]

When he was seventy-six, Cox published his memoir, Journey through My Years (1946).

In 1915, Cox built a home near those of industrialists Charles Kettering and Edward Deeds in what later became Kettering, Ohio, where he lived for four decades. It was constructed in the classical French-Renaissance style with six bedrooms, six bathrooms, two tennis courts, a billiards room and an in-ground swimming pool.[18] Cox named the home Trailsend.


Cox died at Trailsend on July 15, 1957, after a series of strokes.[19] He is interred in the Woodland Cemetery and Arboretum, Dayton, Ohio.

Election history

President of the United States, 1920

Electoral results
Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
Running mate
Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote
Warren G. Harding Republican Ohio 16,144,093 60.32% 404 Calvin Coolidge Massachusetts 404
James M. Cox Democratic Ohio 9,139,661 34.15% 127 Franklin D. Roosevelt New York 127
Eugene V. Debs Socialist Indiana 913,693 3.41% 0 Seymour Stedman Illinois 0
Parley P. Christensen Farmer-Labor Illinois 265,398 0.99% 0 Max S. Hayes Ohio 0
Aaron S. Watkins Prohibition Indiana 188,787 0.71% 0 D. Leigh Colvin New York 0
James E. Ferguson American Texas 47,968 0.18% 0 William J. Hough New York 0
William Wesley Cox Socialist Labor Missouri 31,084 0.12% 0 August Gillhaus New York 0
Robert Colvin Macauley Single Tax Pennsylvania 5,750 0.02% 0 Richard C. Barnum Ohio 0
Other 28,746 0.11% Other
Total 26,765,180 100% 531 531
Needed to win 266 266

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. "1920 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved September 11, 2012.

Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 31, 2005.

Governor of Ohio

Year Democratic Republican Others
1918[20] James M. Cox : 486,403 Frank B. Willis : 474,459  
1916[21] James M. Cox : 568,218 Frank B. Willis : 561,602 Tom Clifford : 36,908
John H. Dickason : 7,347
1914[22] James M. Cox : 493,804 Frank B. Willis : 523,074 James R. Garfield (Progressive) : 60,904
Scott Wilkins (Socialist) : 51,441
1912[20] James M. Cox : 439,323 Robert B. Brown : 272,500  

United States House of Representatives

Ohio's 3rd Congressional District


  • James M. Cox (D), 31,539
  • George R. Young (R), 18,730
  • Harmon Evans (Socialist), 6,275
  • Richard E. O'Byrne (Prohibition), 286[23]


  • James M. Cox (D), 32,534 votes
  • William G. Frizell (R), 12,593
  • J. Eugene Harding (Independent), 19,306
  • Howard H. Caldwell (Socialist), 2,943
  • Henry A. Thompson (Prohibition), 267[24]


Cox was married twice. His first marriage to Mayme Simpson Harding lasted from 1893 to 1912, and ended in divorce.[5] He married Margaretta Parker Blair in 1917 and she survived him.[5][25] Cox had six children, three by Mayme Harding, sons James McMahon and John William and a daughter Helen Harding,[26][27][28] a son who died in infancy, and two daughters by Margaretta Blair: Anne Cox Chambers and Barbara Cox Anthony.[5][25] His son James M. Cox Jr., who took over the business after his death, was chairman of Cox Enterprises, Cox Communications, and Cox Media Group in Atlanta.[26][29] His daughter Helen died in 1921 and her husband Daniel Joseph Mahoney was president of Cox Newspapers. His descendants through Chambers and Anthony, including billionaires Blair Parry-Okeden, James C. Kennedy, James Cox Chambers, Katharine Rayner and Margaretta Taylor, are major shareholders in Cox Enterprises.


Cox practiced a variety of trades throughout his life, being a farmer, reporter, Congressional staff member, newspaper publisher and editor, politician, elected official and finally, a regional media magnate.[30]

In Ohio, Cox is remembered as a crusading publisher of the Dayton Daily News and progressive governor; the newspaper's editorial meeting room is still referred to as the Governor's Library. The James M. Cox Dayton International Airport, more commonly referenced simply as Dayton International Airport, was named for Cox as well.

Cox is credited with words, "If there is anything in the theory of reincarnation of the soul then in my next assignment, if I be given the right of choice, I will ask for the aroma of printers ink."[6]

The Cox Fine Arts Building at the Ohio Expo Center and State Fair in Columbus, Ohio, is named in honor of Cox.

See also


  1. ^ Democratic Campaign Handbook. Washington, DC: Democratic National Committee. 1920. p. 103 – via Google Books.
  2. ^ Goodman, Rebecca (2005). This Day in Ohio History. Emmis Books. p. 217. ISBN 9781578601912. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
  3. ^ Pietrusza, David Pietrusza (2008). 1920: The Year of the Six Presidents. New York, NY: Basic Books. p. 462. ISBN 978-0-7867-3213-5 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ Morris, Charles E. (1920). Progressive Democracy of James M. Cox. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill Company. pp. 14–15. ISBN 9781421904047 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Cebula, James. "Cox, James Middleton". American National Biography Online. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 29 December 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  6. ^ a b "Dayton Daily News history: James M. Cox". Retrieved Aug 14, 2019.
  7. ^ Stockwell, Mary (2001). Ohio Adventure. Layton, Utah: Gibbs Smith. pp. 156–157. ISBN 9781423623823. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  8. ^ James M. Cox, Ohio History Central
  9. ^ "James M. Cox's Stance on the Issues Facing Democrats in 1920 Election". Wall Street Journal. 2007-09-20. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2020-10-11.
  10. ^ "Prevention of war". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2020-10-11.
  11. ^ Persecution of the German Language in Cincinnati and the Ake Law in Ohio, 1917-1919. Archived.
  12. ^ James M. Cox, Democratic Candidate for President, Library of Congress
  13. ^ Nation's Forum Recordings: 1918-1920,
  14. ^ American leaders speak, Library of Congress
  15. ^ Governor James M. Cox. The World War, Library of Congress sound recording
  16. ^ a b Cox, James M. (2004). Journey through my years. Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press.
  17. ^ "The Free Lance-Star - Google News Archive Search". Retrieved Aug 14, 2019.
  18. ^ Former Cox mansion sold in cash deal, Dayton Daily News, April 27, 2015.
  19. ^ James M. Cox obituary, The New York Times, 16 July 1957.
  20. ^ a b Exner, Rich (Nov 1, 2010). "Ohio gubernatorial election results: Republicans dominate recent elections". Retrieved Aug 14, 2019.
  21. ^ Journal of the House of Representatives of the Eighty Second General Assembly of the State of Ohio. 1917. p. 26.
  22. ^ Hildebrant, Charles Q. (1916). Ohio general statistics for the period commencing November 16, 1914 and ending June 30, 1915. Vol. 1. Ohio Secretary of State. p. 20.
  23. ^ Langland, James (1911). The Chicago Daily News Almanac and Year Book for 1912. Vol. 28. Chicago, IL: Chicago Daily News Company. p. 444.
  24. ^ Thompson, Carmi (1910). Annual Report of the Ohio Secretary of State, 1909. Springfield, OH: Springfield Publishing Company. p. 255.
  25. ^ a b "James M. Cox". NNDB. Soylent Communications. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
  26. ^ a b "James M. Cox Jr. Is Dead at 71; Led News, Broadcasting Chain". The New York Times. 28 October 1974.
  27. ^ "Presidential campaign advertisement for the Democratic team of James..." Getty Images. Retrieved Aug 14, 2019.
  28. ^ "Presidential campaign advertisement for the Democratic team of James..." Getty Images. Retrieved Aug 14, 2019.
  29. ^ "In Memoriam: James M. Cox Jr". Retrieved Aug 14, 2019.
  30. ^ History of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, Ohio. Cincinnati: S. B. Nelson & Company. 1894. p. 590. Retrieved 1 October 2015.

Further reading

Secondary sources

  • Bagby, Wesley M. The Road to Normalcy: The Presidential Campaign and Election of 1920. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1962.
  • Brake, Robert J. "The porch and the stump: Campaign strategies in the 1920 presidential election." Quarterly Journal of Speech 55.3 (1969): 256-267.
  • Cebula, James E. James M. Cox: Journalist and Politician. New York: Garland, 1985.
  • Morris, Charles E. The Progressive Democracy of James M. Cox. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1920. (From Project Gutenberg, full text.)
  • Warner, Hoyt L. Progressivism in Ohio, 1897-1917. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1964.

Primary sources

External links

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