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Parboiled rice

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Parboiled rice
Parboiled rice
Woman preparing parboiled rice in Nigeria
Woman preparing parboiled rice in Nigeria
Prepared parboiled rice
Prepared parboiled rice

Parboiled rice (also called converted rice and easy-cook rice[1]) is rice that has been partially boiled in the husk. The three basic steps of parboiling are soaking, steaming and drying.[2] These steps make the rice easier to process by hand, while also boosting its nutritional profile, changing its texture, and making it more resistant to weevils.[3] About 50% of the world's paddy production is parboiled.[citation needed] The treatment is practiced in many parts of the world such as India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Myanmar, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Guinea, South Africa, Italy, Spain, Nigeria, Thailand, Switzerland, USA and France.[4]

Rice is easier to polish by hand (removal of the bran layer) after parboiling but mechanical processing is harder since the bran becomes somewhat oily and tends to clog machinery. Most parboiled rice is milled in the same way as white rice.[citation needed]

Parboiling drives nutrients, especially thiamin, from the bran to the endosperm, hence parboiled white rice is mostly nutritionally similar to brown rice.[5] Because of this, parboiling was adopted by North American rice growers in the early 20th century.[citation needed]

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  • ✪ Nutrients in rice | Benefits of Rice types ( Brown Rice | Red Rice | White Rice | Parboiled Rice)

Transcription

hey everyone welcome to another health video today's topic is nutrients in rice the outer covering of rice is called the husk it is hardened not edible if we remove only the husk we get the whole grain rice the next layer bran is retained in whole grain rice it is usually brown in color that's how brown rice gets its name red rice is another type of whole grain rice which has gotten red due to high amounts of red compound called anthocyanin the major nutrients in the bran is fat but the fat in rice bran is mostly the unsaturated type unlike the saturated fat the unsaturated type lowers the cholesterol levels bran is also containing carbohydrates and proteins it is rich in vitamins like b1 b3 b5 b6 and also minerals like iron zinc manganese and phosphorus and thanks to its high fiber content rice bran further cuts down the cholesterol levels and the calorie intake like the bran the germ of the rice grain also contains fats carbohydrates proteins vitamins minerals and fibers since the bran and the germ is rich in fats it can become rancid quickly therefore whole grain rice is not very durable so to keep rice longer the manufacturers remove the bran and the germ by a process called polishing this is our typical white rice it is the remaining endosperm of the grain it lasts longer and easy to chew it is rich in starch but it lacks most of the other nutrients of the bran and the germ such as unsaturated fats proteins fibers vitamins and minerals there is a way to make white rice more nutritious that is parboiled rice it is made by boiling rice before the milling then the nutrients in the bran gets diffused into the endosperm of the white rice boiling also makes the rice bigger therefore small amounts are enough to make you feel full this makes parboiled rice an excellent meal for losing weight thanks for watching I hope you learned something I'll be making more videos about health and nutrition so I invite you to subscribe to this channel thanks again take care

Contents

Process and chemistry

The starches in parboiled rice become gelatinized, then retrograded after cooling. Through gelatinization, amylose molecules leach out of the starch granule network and diffuse into the surrounding aqueous medium outside the granules[6] which, when fully hydrated are at maximum viscosity.[7] The parboiled rice kernels should be translucent when wholly gelatinized. Cooling brings retrogradation whereby amylose molecules re-associate with each other and form a tightly packed structure. This increases the formation of type 3-resistant starch which can act as a prebiotic and benefit good health in humans.[8] However, this also makes the kernels harder and glassier. Parboiled rice takes less time to cook and is firmer and less sticky. In North America parboiled rice is either partially or fully precooked before sale. Minerals such as zinc or iron are added, increasing their potential bio-availability in the diet.

Huzenlaub Process

In older methods, clean paddy rice was soaked in cold water for 36–38 hours to give it a moisture content of 30–35%,[9] after which the rice was put in parboiling equipment with fresh cold water and boiled until it began to split. The rice was then dried on woven mats, cooled and milled.

In the 1910s German-British scientist Erich Gustav Huzenlaub (1888–1964) and the British scientist and chemist Francis Heron Rogers invented a form of parboiling which held more of the nutrients in rice, now known as the Huzenlaub Process. The whole grain is vacuum dried, then steamed, followed by another vacuum drying and husking. This also makes the rice more resistant to weevils and lessens cooking time.[10]

Modern methods

In even later methods the rice is soaked in hot water, then steamed for boiling which only takes 3 hours rather than the 20 hours of traditional methods. These methods also yield a yellowish color in the rice, which undergoes less breakage when milled.[11]

Other variations on parboiling include high-pressure steaming and various ways of drying (dry-heat, vacuum, etc.)[12][13]

Nutrition

Rice, brown, parboiled, dry, UNCLE BEN'S (#20042)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy370 kcal (1,500 kJ)
78.68 g
Sugars0.5 g
Dietary fiber3.5 g
2.75 g
7.60 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Thiamine (B1)
24%
0.277 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
8%
0.092 mg
Niacin (B3)
33%
4.973 mg
Vitamin B6
31%
0.407 mg
Folate (B9)
4%
14 μg
Vitamin K
1%
0.9 μg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
1%
8 mg
Iron
9%
1.16 mg
Magnesium
28%
98 mg
Phosphorus
39%
275 mg
Potassium
5%
219 mg
Sodium
0%
6 mg
Zinc
21%
1.96 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water9.82 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Compared to brown rice, parboiling of rice incurs losses of thiamin, niacin, biotin, and pantothenic acid by approximately 70%, 28%, 49% and 25%, respectively. Compared to normal milling, which causes a near 65% loss of all these micronutrients, parboiling preserves more of them.[5] The specific loss depend on the process used by individual manufacturers: for the USDA #20042 sample, much less loss in these nutrients is observed. Fortification is common for parboiled rice in the United States.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.riceassociation.org.uk/content/1/10/varieties.html
  2. ^ Miah, M., Haque, A., Douglass, M., & Clarke, B. (2002). Parboiling of rice. Part II: Effect of hot soaking time on the degree of starch gelatinization. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 37(5), 539-545. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2621.2002.00611.x
  3. ^ M.C. Kik and R.R. Williams, "The Nutritional Improvement of White Rice", Bulletin of the National Research Council 112 (June 1945) p. 61ff
  4. ^ Pillaiyar, P. (1981). Household parboiling of parboiled rice. Kishan World, 8, 20–21.
  5. ^ a b Kyritsi, A.; Tzia, C.; Karathanos, V.T. (January 2011). "Vitamin fortified rice grain using spraying and soaking methods". LWT - Food Science and Technology. 44 (1): 312–320. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2010.06.001.
  6. ^ Hermansson, Anne-Marie; Svegmark, Karin (November 1996). "Developments in the understanding of starch functionality". Trends in Food Science & Technology. 7 (11): 345–353. doi:10.1016/S0924-2244(96)10036-4.
  7. ^ Eliasson, A.C. (1986). Viscoelastic behaviour during the gelatinization of starch. Journal of Texture Studies, 17, 253–265. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4603.1986.tb00551.x
  8. ^ Helbig E, Días AR, Tavares RA, Schirmer MA, Elias MC (June 2008). "Arroz parboilizado efeito na glicemia de ratos Wistar" [The effect of parboiled rice on glycemia in Wistar rats]. Archivos latinoamericanos de nutricion (in Portuguese). 58 (2): 149–55. PMID 18833992.
  9. ^ Ali, Z. S. and Ojha, T. P. (1975). Soaking characteristics of paddy. Journal of Agric.Engineering. Res. (20) 4, 353.
  10. ^ US patent 2358251, Huzenlaub Erich GustavRogers Francis Heron, "Process for the treatment of rice and other cereals", issued 1944-09-12 
  11. ^ Ituen, E.U.U.; Ukpakha, A.C. (2011). "Improved method of parboiling paddy for better quality rice". World Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 3 (1): 31–40.
  12. ^ Müller-Fischer, Nadina (2013). "Nutrient-focused Processing of Rice". Agricultural sustainability: progress and prospects in crop research. Academic Press. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-404560-6.00010-1. ISBN 9780124045606.
  13. ^ Arendt, Elke K.; Zannini, Emanuele (2013). "Rice processing". Cereal grains for the food and beverage industries. Woodhead Pub. doi:10.1533/9780857098924.114. ISBN 9780857094131.
This page was last edited on 8 January 2020, at 19:22
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