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Oscar-class submarine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Oscar ll class
Томск в Вилючинске.jpg
K-150 Tomsk in Vilyuchinsk
Class overview
Name: Oscar class
Builders: Sevmash
Preceded by:
Succeeded by: Yasen class
Built: 1975–present
In commission: 1980–present
Planned: 20 (2 949, 18 949A)[1]
Completed: 14 (2 949, 11 949A, 1 09852)
Cancelled: 6 (2 incomplete, 4 never laid down)
Active: 6 (+2 on modernization to 949AM)[2]
Laid up: 2[3]
Lost: 1
Retired: 4
General characteristics
Type: Nuclear cruise missile submarine
  • 12,500/14,700 tonnes surfaced
  • 16,500/19,400 tonnes submerged[1]
Length: 155 m (508 ft 6 in)[1] maximum
Beam: 18.2 m (59 ft 9 in)
Draught: 9 m (29 ft 6 in)
Installed power: 2 × pressurized water cooled reactors
Propulsion: 2 × steam turbines delivering 73,070 kW (97,990 shp) to two shafts
  • 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph) surfaced
  • 32 knots (59 km/h; 37 mph) submerged[1]
Endurance: 120 days[1]
Test depth: 600 m
Complement: 94/107[1]
  • 4 × 533 mm (21.0 in) and 2 × 650 mm (26 in) torpedo tubes in bow
  • 28 × 533 mm and 650 mm weapons, including RPK-2 Vyuga (SS-N-15 Starfish) anti-submarine missiles with 15 kt nuclear warheads and RPK-6 Vodopad/RPK-7 Veter (SS-N-16) anti-submarine missiles with 200 kt nuclear warhead or Type 40 anti-submarine torpedo or 32 ground mines
  • 24 × P-700 Granit (SS-N-19 Shipwreck) cruise missiles with 750 kilograms (1,650 lb) HE or 4 × 100 Mt Poseidon drones

The Oscar class, Soviet designations Project 949 Granit and Project 949A Antey, (NATO reporting names Oscar I and Oscar II respectively), are a series of nuclear-powered cruise missile submarines designed in the Soviet Union for the Soviet Navy. They are currently in service with the Russian Navy with some of the vessels planned to be modernized as Project 949AM, to extend their service life and increase combat capabilities.

The Project 949 submarines were the largest cruise missile submarines in service until some Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines were converted to carry cruise missiles in 2007. They are the fourth largest class of submarines in displacement and length. Only the Soviet Typhoon-class, Russian Borei-class and American Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines are larger.


The first submarine of Project 949 was laid down in the mid-1970s and was commissioned in 1980. In 1982 an updated and larger version (Project 949A) replaced the earlier version. In total thirteen submarines were constructed. The Oscar class was designed to attack NATO carrier battle groups using long-range P-700 Granit (SS-N-19 "Shipwreck") anti-ship missiles and targeting data provided by the EORSAT satellite system (via the submarine's "Punch Bowl" antenna).[4][5][6] In the financial problems that followed the fall of the Soviet Union the Oscar class was prioritized by the Russian Navy and when many older submarine classes were retired the Oscar class remained active in both the Northern and Pacific Fleets.


The Rubin Design Bureau started working on Project 949A modernization in 2011, with Zvezdochka and Zvezda shipyards to carry out modernization of the vessels.[7] In September 2015, Russian Defence Minister Sergey Shoygu announced during his visit to Zvezda shipyard, that at least three Oscar-class submarines will undergo repair and modernization to extend their service life by 20 years.[8] The upgraded submarines will be known as "Project 949AM", according to the Russian officials. Modernization cost was estimated at RUB12 billion (US$182 million) per submarine.[9]

In September 2016, it was reported submarines K-132 Irkutsk and K-442 Chelyabinsk are currently being modernized to 949AM.[10] According to the Deputy Prime Minister of Russia Yury Borisov, Russia's Pacific Fleet may get four modernized Oscar II-class submarines armed with Kalibr cruise missiles by 2021.[11]


Project 949 Granit (Oscar I)

Project 949
Project 949

Two Project 949 Granit submarines were built at Severodvinsk between 1975 and 1982 and assigned to the Soviet Northern Fleet. K-525 was laid down in 1975 and K-206 was laid down in 1979. After the construction of the first two submarines, production continued with the improved project 949A Antey. Both submarines of the Project 949 were decommissioned in 1996[12] and scrapped in 2004.[13]

Project 949A Antei (Oscar II)

Project 949A
Project 949A

Eleven Project 949A Antey submarines were completed at Severodvinsk, of which five were assigned to the Soviet Northern Fleet. At one stage it had been planned to develop a new fourth-generation follow-on to the Project 949A, but this plan was later dropped. The external differences between the two classes were that the 949A class is about 10 metres (33 ft) longer than its predecessor (approximately 154 metres, 505 ft rather than 143 m, 469 ft), providing space and buoyancy for improved electronics and quieter propulsion.

Some sources speculate that the acoustic performance of the Oscar II class is superior to early Akula class but inferior to the Akula II class as well as subsequent (4th generation) designs.[14] It also has a larger fin, and its propellers have seven blades instead of four.[15]

Like all post-World War II Soviet designs, they are of double hull construction.[16] Similarly, like other Soviet submarine designs, Project 949 not only has a bridge open to the elements on top of the sail but, for use in inclement weather, there is an enclosed bridge forward and slightly below this station. A distinguishing mark is a slight bulge at the top of the fin. A large door on either side of the fin reaches this bulge. These are wider at the top than on the bottom, and are hinged on the bottom. The Federation of American Scientists[15] reports that this submarine carries an emergency crew escape capsule; it is possible that these doors cover it. The VSK escape capsule can accommodate 110 people.[17]

Project 949AM

Modernization of Project 949A submarines, first announced by the Russian Defence Ministry in 2011.[7] As part of the modernization, submarines will have their 24 P-700 Granit anti-ship missiles replaced with up to 72 newer 3M-54 Kalibr or P-800 Oniks anti-ship cruise missiles. The upgrade requires no design changes to the hull as the new missiles will fit into the existing launchers outside the pressure hull. The modernized boats will also get upgraded Omnibus-M combat information and Simfoniya-3.2 navigation systems, as well as new fire-control system, communications, sonar, radar, and electronic intercept equipment.[9] The modernization aims to bring the submarines up to the same technological level as Russia's next-generation Yasen-class nuclear-powered cruise missile submarines.[8]

Belgorod, Project 09852

In December 2012, construction began on a special purpose research and rescue submarine, designated Project 09852, and based on the incomplete Project 949A (Oscar II class) submarine Belgorod.[18][19][20] The submarine is reportedly designed to carry both manned (e.g. Project 18511 midget submarine) as well as unmanned (e.g. Klavesin-1R) underwater vessels.[19][21] However, while carrying smaller unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) would be possible as-is on an Oscar-class hull, the accommodation of a midget submarine such as Project 18511 Paltus or the even larger Project 10831 Losharik,[22] would probably require a major hull extension in order to accommodate a docking compartment. For example, the length of the submarine BS-64 Podmoskovye was increased by 9 metres (30 ft) even though the SLBM missile compartment was completely removed.[23][24]

Belgorod will be reportedly used as a carrier of the rumored Poseidon (NATO reporting name Kanyon) nuclear-powered, nuclear armed unmanned underwater device capable to carry a 100 Mt nuclear warhead, with at least four such devices being carried horizontally in place of the 24 P-700 Granit (SS-N-19 Shipwreck) launchers for a total yield of 600 megatonnes.[21][25][26][27]

It is estimated that Belgorod will be 184 metres (604 ft) long which would make it the longest submarine in the world.[21][28]

On 23 April 2019, Belgorod was floated out of a slipway during a ceremony at the Sevmash shipyard, watched by the Russian President Vladimir Putin via a TV-link. Further work will be completed afloat and the submarine is scheduled to start its factory and state trials in 2020 after it will be delivered to the Russian Navy.[29][30]


No Name Project Laid down Launched Commissioned Fleet Status
K-525 Arkhangelsk
(ex-Minskiy Komsomolets)
949 25 July 1975 3 May 1980 30 December 1980 Northern Decommissioned 1996,[12] scrapped in 2004[13]
K-206 Murmansk 949 22 April 1979 10 December 1982 30 November 1983 Northern Decommissioned 1996,[12] scrapped in 2004[13]
K-148 Krasnodar 949A 22 July 1982 3 March 1985 30 September 1986 Northern Retired, scrapping began in late 2012[31]
K-173 Krasnoyarsk 949A 4 August 1983 27 March 1986 31 December 1986 Pacific Inactive, caught fire during scrapping[32]
K-132 Irkutsk [ru] 949A 8 May 1985 27 December 1987 30 December 1988 Pacific Projected to remain in refit until 2023;[33] Currently being modernized to 949AM at Zvezda shipyard[34][35][36]
K-119 Voronezh [ru] 949A 25 February 1986 16 December 1988 29 December 1989 Northern Active, after overhaul completed in November 2011[37]
K-410 Smolensk [ru] 949A 9 December 1986 20 January 1990 22 December 1990 Northern Active, after overhaul completed in December 2013[38][39]
K-442 Chelyabinsk 949A 21 May 1987 18 June 1990 28 December 1990 Pacific Currently being modernized to 949AM at Zvezda shipyard[35][36]
K-456 Tver
949A 9 February 1988 28 June 1991 18 August 1992 Pacific Active
K-266 Orel
949AM 19 January 1989 22 May 1992 30 December 1992 Northern Active, after overhaul completed in April 2017[40][41]
K-186 Omsk [ru] 949A 13 July 1989 10 May 1993 15 December 1993 Pacific Active, after overhaul completed in 2008[42][43][44]
K-150 Tomsk [ru] 949A 27 August 1991 20 July 1996 30 December 1996 Pacific Active, after overhaul completed in 2019[45][46][47]
K-141 Kursk 949A 22 March 1992 16 May 1994 30 December 1994 Northern Lost on 12 August 2000
K-329 Belgorod 09852 24 July 1992 23 April 2019[29] 2020 Main Directorate of Deep Sea Research in Northern Fleet area of operations[48] Floated out/fitting out, converted for special missions[citation needed]
K-135 <i>Volgograd</i> 949A 2 September 1993 Unfinished, parts used in the construction of newer submarines[49]
Construction may be restarted[3]
K-165 <i>Barnaul</i> 949A April 1994 Unfinished, parts used in the construction of newer submarines[49]
Construction may be restarted[3]


See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f Podvodnye Lodki, Yu.V. Apalkov, Sankt Peterburg, 2002, ISBN 5-8172-0069-4
  2. ^ "ЦАМТО / Новости / До 2025 года Минобороны РФ намерено модернизировать 4 атомные подлодки для ТОФ". Archived from the original on 2017-06-09. Retrieved 2017-07-12.
  3. ^ a b c "Russia to Complete and Modernize Antei-class Subs". Archived from the original on 2012-05-14. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  4. ^ Siddiqi, Asif (November 1999). "Staring at the Sea: The Soviet RORSAT and EORSAT Programmes" (PDF). Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. 52 (11): 397–416. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-01-03. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
  5. ^ "data" (JPG). Archived from the original on 2016-08-26. Retrieved 2016-08-13.
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  9. ^ a b "Russia initiates multiyear plan to modernise Oscar II SSGNs". Archived from the original on 2016-05-21. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  10. ^ "Russia to upgrade only part of nuclear-powered Antey submarines". TASS. 29 September 2016. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  11. ^ "Russia's Pacific Fleet to get four upgraded nuclear subs by 2021". TASS. 6 February 2018. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  12. ^ a b c "Oscar 1 class". Military Today. Archived from the original on 2012-05-10. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
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  23. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-02-12. Retrieved 2016-12-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ "Barentsobserver". Barentsobserver. Archived from the original on 2015-08-22. Retrieved 2016-12-26.
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  37. ^ ЦС "Звездочка" завершил ремонт атомного подводного ракетного крейсера К-119 "Воронеж" [CA "Star" completed the renovation of nuclear submarine K-119 "Voronezh"]. (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2012-04-24. Retrieved 2012-01-01.
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  • The Encyclopedia Of Warships, From World War Two To The Present Day, General Editor Robert Jackson.

External links

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