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Yasen-class submarine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Yasen class
Graney class SSN.svg
Yasen class SSGN profile
К-560 «Северодвинск».jpg
K-560 Severodvinsk
Class overview
Name: Yasen class
Builders: Sevmash
Operators:  Russian Navy
Preceded by:
Succeeded by: Laika class
Cost: US$800 million[1]
Built: 1993–present
In commission: 2013–present
Planned: 10[2]
Building: 6
Completed: 3
Active: 1
General characteristics
Type: Nuclear cruise missile submarine
Displacement:
  • Surfaced: 8,600 tons
  • Submerged: 13,800 tons[3]
Length: Yasen:139.2 m (457 ft)[4][5][6]
Yasen-M: 130 m (430 ft)
Beam: 13 m (43 ft)[4][5][6]
Propulsion: OK-650KPM[7] pressurized water reactor 200 MWt turbines of 43,000 shp
Speed:
  • Surfaced: 20 kn (37 km/h; 23 mph)
  • Submerged (silent): 28 kn (52 km/h; 32 mph)
  • Submerged (max): 35 kn (65 km/h; 40 mph)[8]
Range: Unlimited
Endurance: Only limited by food and maintenance requirements
Test depth:
  • Safe depth: 1,475 feet (450m)
  • Never exceed depth: 1,804 feet (580m)
  • Crush depth: 2,160 feet (658m)
Complement: Yasen: 85[9]
Yasen-M: 64[10]
Sensors and
processing systems:
Rim Hat ESM/ECM Snoop Pair Surface Search Radar
Armament:

The Yasen class, Russian designations Project 885 Yasen and Project 885M Yasen-M (Russian: Ясень, lit. 'ash tree', NATO reporting name: Yasen), also referred to as Graney class, are a series of the newest nuclear-powered cruise missile submarines designed by Malakhit and being constructed by Sevmash for the Russian Navy.[18][19][20] Based on the Akula class and Alfa class designs, the Yasen class is projected to replace the Russian Navy's current Soviet-era nuclear attack submarines.

History

The Yasen-class submarines were designed by the Malakhit Central Design Bureau, which was formed by the combination of SKB-143 and TsKB-16. Work on the initial design was scheduled to start in 1977 and be completed in 1985.[21] Malakhit is one of the three Soviet/Russian submarine design centers, along with Rubin Design Bureau and Lazurit Central Design Bureau.

Construction on the first submarine started on 21 December 1993, with its launch slated for 1995 and its commissioning for 1998.[22] However, the project was delayed due to financial problems and it appeared during 1996 that work on the submarine had stopped completely. Some reports suggested that as of 1999 the submarine was less than 10 percent completed.[23] In 2003 the project then received additional funding and the work of finishing the submarine continued.

In 2004 it was reported that the work on the submarine was moving forward, but, due to the priority given to the new Borei class SSBNs, the lead unit of the class Severodvinsk would not be ready before 2010. In July 2006 the deputy chairman of the Military-Industrial Commission, Vladislav Putilin, stated that two Yasen-class submarines were to join the Russian Navy before 2015.[24]

On 24 July 2009, work commenced on a second submarine, named Kazan. On 26 July, the Russian navy command announced that starting in 2011, one multipurpose submarine would be laid down every year, although not necessarily of this class.[25]

An August 2009 report from the U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence estimated the Yasen-class submarines to be the quietest, or least detectable, of contemporaneous Russian and Chinese nuclear submarines, but said they were still not as quiet as contemporary U.S. Navy submarines (i.e. Seawolf and Virginia classes).[26][27]

In April 2010, it was reported that 7 May launch of the first boat had been postponed due to "technical reasons".[28][29] Then, the launch of the first submarine and the beginning of sea trials were scheduled for September 2011.[30]

Roll out ceremony of Russian submarine Severodvinsk.
Roll out ceremony of Russian submarine Severodvinsk.

K-329 Severodvinsk went on her first voyage in September 2011 in order to conduct sea trials.[citation needed]

On 9 November 2011, Russia signed a contract for another four Yasen-class submarines to be delivered by 2016.[citation needed]

On 26 July 2013 the third submarine, named Novosibirsk, was laid down.

On 30 December 2013, Severodvinsk was handed over to the Russian Navy. The flag-raising ceremony was held on 17 June 2014 marking its introduction into the Russian Navy.[31]

In October 2014, one of the U.S. Navy's top submarine officers, Rear Admiral Dave Johnson, the Naval Sea Systems Command's program executive officer (PEO) for submarines, said "We’ll be facing tough potential opponents. One only has to look at the Severodvinsk, Russia’s version of a nuclear guided missile submarine (SSGN). I am so impressed with this ship that I had Carderock build a model from unclassified data".[32]

According to 60 Minutes, unnamed Pentagon officials claimed that Severodvinsk on her maiden [33] deployment "slipped into the Atlantic Ocean and for weeks evaded all of the attempts to find her" in the summer 2018.[34]

Kazan was rumoured to be active, along with 5 other nuclear submarines in the northern Atlantic in Spring 2020.[35]

Design

The vessel's design is claimed to be state-of-the-art. The Yasen-class nuclear submarines are presumed to be armed with land-attack cruise missiles, anti-ship missiles, anti-submarine missiles including the P-800 Oniks SLCM, Kalibr family SLCM or 3M51 SLCM.[8] Kalibr-PL has several variants including the 3M54K (terminal-supersonic) and 3M54K1 (subsonic) anti-ship, 91R1 anti-submarine, and the 3M14K land-attack variant. In the future, there will be also an option to install the hypersonic 3M22 Zircon cruise missiles on upgraded 855M boats.[36] Each submarine can carry 32 Kalibr or 24 Oniks (other sources claim 40 Kalibr and 32 Oniks)[37] cruise missiles which are stored in eight (ten for 855M) vertical launchers (additional missiles may be carried in the torpedo room at the expense of torpedoes).[38][39][40] It will also have ten 533 mm tubes, as well as mines and anti-submarine missiles such as the RPK-7.[14][16]

It is the first Russian submarine class to be equipped with a spherical sonar, designated as MGK-600 Irtysh-Amfora.[41] The device (allegedly the Irtysh/Amfora sonar system) was tested on a modified Yankee-class submarine.[42] The sonar system consists of a spherical bow array, flank arrays and a towed array. Due to the large size of this spherical array, the torpedo tubes are slanted.[21] In other words, the torpedo tube outer doors are not located in the immediate bow as in the previous Akula class[43] but moved aft.[44] The hull is constructed from low-magnetic steel.[45] Unlike previous Russian submarines which have a double hull, Yasen-class submarines mostly have a single hull.[46] The Yasen class has a crew of 85 on project 885 and 64 on project 885M,[9] suggesting a high degree of automation in the submarine's different systems. The newest U.S. Virginia-class submarines, has a crew of 134 in comparison.[47]

Yasen-class submarines are the first to be equipped with a fourth generation nuclear reactor.[48][49] The reactor, built by Afrikantov OKBM,[50][51] will allegedly have a 25-30-year core life and will not have to be refueled.[52] Steam turbines are supplied by Kaluga Turbine Works.[53] The inclusion of new generation KTP-6 reactor on the Yasen-M boats is thought to significantly reduce their noise level: the reactor's primary cooling loop facilitates natural circulation of water and thus doesn't require continuous operation of the main circulation pumps, which are the key noise factor on a nuclear submarine.[54] The only other submarine classes in service with such reactor design are USN' Ohio and Virginia, employing the S8G and S9G reactors respectively.[55][56]

A VSK rescue pod is carried in the sail.[21]

According to Admiral Foggo, the commander of the US Naval Forces Europe, the Yasen class submarines are "very quiet, which is the most important thing in submarine warfare".[34] It's claimed that Severodvinsk is far quieter than previous Russian SSNs, capable of 20 knots while running quiet, which is equal to the Seawolf class[57] and inferior only to Virginia (25 knots).[58][59] Other sources claim that Severodvinsk is capable of even 28 knots in silent mode.[60]

Costs

Initial estimates regarding the cost of the first Yasen-class submarine ranged from US$1 billion[61] to US$2 billion.[62][63] In 2011, it was reported that the cost of first-of-class, Severodvinsk, was 50 billion rubles (roughly US$1.6 billion)[64] while the second unit, Kazan, will cost an estimated 47 billion rubles (US$725 million, in 2019 RUB/USD exchange rate).[65] In 2011, then Defense Minister Anatoliy Serdyukov criticized the ever increasing cost of the Borei and Yasen classes. The Minister described the massive increase in cost between the first and the second Yasen-class submarine as "incomprehensible". However, he insisted that the Russian Defence Ministry and Sevmash would resolve the issue. Officials from the United Shipbuilding Corporation replied that work done in Sevmash accounts for only 30% of the submarine's completion cost, the remaining 70% being linked to suppliers/contractors.[66]

Successor/supplement

Due to the high cost of each Yasen class submarine, some sources believe that a next generation of SSNs would be of smaller dimensions[67][68] with a reduced armament/payload.[69] The successor/supplement to the Yasen class is in development[70][71][72] and dubbed "Husky class" by media.[73] The final design of the submarine is yet to be completed and may feature a more conventional layout with bow-mounted torpedo tubes (as opposed to the midship torpedo tubes on Yasen class) and a smaller chin-mounted sonar, i.e. the sonar will be mounted below the torpedo tubes (as opposed to a large spherical sonar on Yasen class).[74] The first submarine is expected to be delivered to the Russian Navy by 2027.[75]

Units

Italics indicate estimates

# Name Project Laid down Launched Commissioned Fleet Status Notes
K-560 Severodvinsk 885 21 December 1993[76] 15 June 2010[77][78] 30 December 2013[79] Northern Active
K-561 Kazan 885M 24 July 2009[4] 31 March 2017[80] 2021[81] Northern In sea trials[82]
K-573 <i>Novosibirsk</i> 885M 26 July 2013[83] 25 December 2019[84] 2021?[85][86] Pacific In sea trials On 21 August 2014, it has successfully completed hydraulic pressure hull tests.[87][88] Sea trials were reportedly underway as of June 2020.[89]
K-571 <i>Krasnoyarsk</i> 885M 27 July 2014[90][91] 2021[92] 2021?[85] Pacific Under construction On 23 January 2017, it has successfully completed hydraulic pressure hull tests.[93]
K-564 <i>Arkhangelsk</i> 885M 19 March 2015[94] By 2021?[95] 2022[85] Northern Under construction
K-xxx <i>Perm</i> 885M 29 July 2016[96] By 2021?[95] 2023[85] Pacific Under construction
K-xxx <i>Ulyanovsk</i> 885M 28 July 2017[97] 2024[85] Northern Under construction
K-xxx <i>Voronezh</i> 885M 20 July 2020[98] 2027[99] Northern Under construction[98] To be equipped with 4,500 km capable Kalibr-M cruise missiles.[100]
K-xxx <i>Vladivostok</i> 885M 20 July 2020[98] 2027[99] Pacific Under construction[98] To be equipped with 4,500 km capable Kalibr-M cruise missiles.[100]

See also

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