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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A puppet state, puppet régime or puppet government is a state that is de jure independent but de facto completely dependent upon an outside power and subject to its orders.[1] Puppet states have nominal sovereignty, but a foreign power effectively exercises control through means such as financial interests, economic, or military support.[2]

Puppet states are distinguished from allies, which choose their actions on their own or in accordance with treaties they voluntarily entered. Puppet states are forced into providing legal endorsement for actions already taken by a foreign power.

Characteristics

Map of the Finnish Democratic Republic (1939–40), a short-lived puppet state of the Soviet Union. Green indicates the area that the Soviet Union planned to cede to the Finnish Democratic Republic, and red the areas ceded by Democratic Finland to the Soviet Union.
Map of the Finnish Democratic Republic (1939–40), a short-lived puppet state of the Soviet Union. Green indicates the area that the Soviet Union planned to cede to the Finnish Democratic Republic, and red the areas ceded by Democratic Finland to the Soviet Union.

A puppet state preserves the external paraphernalia of independence (such as a name, flag, anthem, constitution, law codes, motto and government), but in reality it is an organ of another state which creates,[3] sponsors or otherwise controls the government of the puppet state (the "puppet government"). International law does not recognize occupied puppet states as legitimate.[4]

Puppet states can cease to be puppets through:

  • the military defeat of the "master" state (as in Europe and Asia in 1945),
  • absorption into the master state (as in the early Soviet Union),
  • revolution, notably occurring after withdrawal of foreign occupying forces (like Afghanistan in 1992), or
  • achievement of independence through state-building methods (especially through de-colonisation).

Terminology

The term is a metaphor which compares a state or government to a puppet controlled by a puppeteer using strings.[5] The first recorded use of the term "puppet government" is from 1884, in reference to the Khedivate of Egypt.[6]

In the Middle Ages vassal states existed which were based on delegation of rule of a country from a King to noble men of lower rank. Since the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 the concept of a nation came into existence where sovereignty was connected more to the people who inhabited the land than to the nobility who owned the land.

A similar concept mainly associated with pre-19th century political history is suzerainty, the control of the external affairs of one state by another.

Examples

19th century

First French Empire and French satellite states in 1812
First French Empire and French satellite states in 1812
Map of the British Indian Empire. The princely states are in yellow
Map of the British Indian Empire. The princely states are in yellow

The Batavian Republic was established in the Netherlands under French revolutionary protection. In Eastern Europe, France established a Polish client state of the Duchy of Warsaw.

In Italy, republics were created in the late 18th and early 19th centuries with the assistance and encouragement of Napoleonic France (see also French client republics).

In 1836 U.S. citizens allowed to live in the Mexican state of Texas revolted against the Mexican government to establish a U.S.-backed Republic of Texas, a country that existed less than 10 years (from May 14, 1836, to December 29, 1845) before it was annexed to the United States of America. However, in August 1837, Memucan Hunt, Jr., the Texan minister to the United States, submitted the first official annexation proposal to the Van Buren administration (the first American-led attempts to take over Mexican Texas by filibustering date back to 1819 and by separatist settlers since 1826).

In 1896 Britain established a state in Zanzibar.

World War I

Axis Powers of World War II

Imperial Japan

During Japan's imperial period, and particularly during the Pacific War (parts of which are considered the Pacific theatre of World War II), the Imperial Japanese regime established a number of dependent states.

Nominally sovereign states
Wang Jingwei receiving German diplomats while head of state in 1941
Wang Jingwei receiving German diplomats while head of state in 1941
Unrealized drafts for dependent states

Japan had made drafts for other dependent states. The Provisional Priamurye Government never got beyond the planning stages.[citation needed] In addition to the Japanese, the Germans supported the formation of this state.[citation needed]

In 1945, as the Second World War drew to a close, Japan planned to grant independence to the former Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). These plans ended when the Japanese surrendered on August 15, 1945.

Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy

German-occupied Europe at the height of the Axis conquests in 1942
German-occupied Europe at the height of the Axis conquests in 1942

Several European governments under the domination of Germany and Italy during World War II have been described as "puppet régimes". The formal means of control in occupied Europe varied greatly. These states fall into several categories.

Existing states in alliance with Germany and Italy
Existing states under German or Italian rule
New states formed to reflect national aspirations
States under control of Germany and Italy
Italian Social Republic
  • Italian Social Republic Italian Social Republic (1943–1945, known also as the Republic of Salò) – General Pietro Badoglio and King Victor Emmanuel III withdrew Italy from the Axis Powers and moved the government to southern Italy, already conquered by the Allies. In response, the Germans occupied northern Italy and founded the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) with Italian dictator Benito Mussolini as its "Head of State" and "Minister of Foreign Affairs". While the RSI government had some trappings of an independent state, it was completely dependent both economically and politically on Germany.

United Kingdom during and after World War II

The Axis demand for oil and the concern of the Allies that Germany would look to the oil-rich Middle East for a solution, caused the invasion of Iraq by the United Kingdom and the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. Pro-Axis governments in both Iraq and Iran were removed and replaced with Allied-dominated governments.

  • Kingdom of Iraq Kingdom of Iraq (1941–1947) – Iraq was important to the United Kingdom because of its position on the route to India. Iraq also could provide strategic oil reserves. But, due to the UK's weakness early in the war, Iraq backed away from the pre-war Anglo-Iraqi Alliance. On 1 April 1941, the Hashemite monarchy in Iraq was over-thrown and there was a pro-German coup d'état under Rashid Ali. The Rashid Ali regime began negotiations with the Axis powers and military aid was quickly sent to Mosul via Vichy French-controlled Syria. The Germans provided a squadron of twin engine fighters and a squadron of medium bombers. The Italians provided a squadron of biplane fighters. In mid-April 1941, a brigade of the 10th Indian Infantry Division landed at Basra (Operation Sabine). On 30 April, British forces at RAF Habbaniya were besieged by a numerically inferior Iraqi force. On 2 May, the British launched pre-emptive airstrikes against the Iraqis and the Anglo-Iraqi War began. By the end of May, the siege of RAF Habbaniya was lifted, Falluja was taken, Baghdad was surrounded by British forces, and the pro-German government of Rashid Ali collapsed. Rashid Ali and his supporters fled the country. The Hashemite monarchy (King Faisal II and Prime Minister Nuri al-Said) was restored. The UK then forced Iraq to declare war on the Axis in 1942. Commonwealth forces remained in Iraq until 26 October 1947.
  • Imperial State of Iran (1941–1943) – German workers in Iran caused the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union to question Iran's neutrality. In addition, Iran's geographical position was important to the Allies. So, in August 1941, the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran (Operation Countenance) was launched. In September 1941, Reza Shah Pahlavi was forced to abdicate his throne and went into exile. He was replaced by his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was willing to declare war on the Axis powers. By January 1942, the UK and the Soviet Union agreed to end their occupation of Iran six months after the end of the war.

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

As Soviet forces prevailed over the German Army on the Eastern Front during the Second World War, the Soviet Union supported the creation of communist governments throughout Eastern Europe. Specifically, the People's Republics in Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Albania were dominated by the Soviet Union. While all of these People's Republics did not "officially" take power until after World War II ended, they all have roots in pro-Communist war-time governments.

The Soviet Union established puppet communist governments in East Germany, Albania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Hungary, and Bulgaria. Yugoslavia was also a communist state closely linked to the Soviet Union, but Yugoslavia retained autonomy in its own lines. After the Tito-Stalin split, the relationship between the two countries deteriorated significantly. Yugoslavia was expelled from the international organizations of the Eastern bloc. After Stalin's death and his rejection of his policy by Khrushchev, peace was restored, bringing Yugoslavia back to the socialist brothers. However, the relationship between the two countries was never completely mended. Some other countries who were once Soviet puppet governments include Mongolia, North Korea, DRV (SRV), Cuba:

the aforementioned countries all have substantial Soviet dependence on economy, military, science and technology

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, most of the communist states were reformed towards democratization. Only Vietnam and Cuba remain one-party Communist states. In North Korea since 2009, connections to communism under Marx-Leninism have been Supreme People's Assembly has been removed from the constitution even though Juche is linked to Marxism-Leninism.

[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]

Decolonization

In some cases, the process of decolonization has been managed by the decolonizing power to create a neo-colony, that is a nominally independent state whose economy and politics permits continued foreign domination. Neo-colonies are not normally considered puppet states.

Dutch East Indies

The Netherlands formed several puppet states in the former Dutch East Indies as part of the effort to quell the Indonesian National Revolutionː

Congo crisis

Following Belgian Congo's independence as the Congo-Leopoldville in 1960, Belgian interests supported the short-lived breakaway state of Katanga (1960–1963).

South Africa's Bantustans

During the 1970s and 1980s, four ethnic bantustans, called "homelands" by the government of the time (some of which were extremely fragmented) were carved out of South Africa and given nominal sovereignty. Mostly Xhosa people resided in the Ciskei and Transkei, Tswana people in Bophuthatswana and Venda people in the Venda Republic.

The principal purpose of these states was to remove the Xhosa, Tswana and Venda peoples from South African citizenship (and so to provide grounds for denying them democratic rights). All four bantustans were reincorporated into a democratic South Africa on 27 April 1994.

Post-Cold War

Republic of Kuwait

The Republic of Kuwait was a short-lived pro-Iraqi state in the Persian Gulf that only existed three weeks before it was annexed by Iraq in 1990.

Republic of Serbian Krajina

The Republic of Serbian Krajina was a self proclaimed and by Serbian forces ethnic cleansed territory during the Croatian War (1991–95). It was not recognized internationally. That regime was completely dependent to the Serbian regime of Slobodan Milošević.[28]

Current

China

  •  Wa State – The de facto independent Wa State in Myanmar is considered a puppet state that is linked with China.[29][30]

Russia

Abkhazian President Alexander Ankvab with Transnistrian President Yevgeny Shevchuk in 2013
Abkhazian President Alexander Ankvab with Transnistrian President Yevgeny Shevchuk in 2013
  •  Abkhazia is considered a puppet state that depends on Russia.[31][32] The economy of Abkhazia is heavily integrated with Russia and uses the Russian ruble as its currency. About half of Abkhazia's state budget is financed with aid money from Russia.[33] Most Abkhazians have Russian passports.[34] Russia maintains a 3,500-strong force in Abkhazia with its headquarters in Gudauta, a former Soviet military base on the Black Sea coast.[35] The borders of the Republic of Abkhazia are being protected by the Russian border guards.[36]
  •  Donetsk People's Republic – is considered to be a puppet state which is supported by Russia[37][38]
  •  Luhansk People's Republic – is considered to be a puppet state which is supported by Russia[37][38]
  •  South Ossetia has declared independence but its ability to maintain independence is solely based on Russian troops deployed on its territory. As South Ossetia is landlocked between Russia and Georgia, from which it seceded, it has to rely on Russia for economic and logistical support, as its entire exports and imports and air and road traffic is only between Russia. Former President of South Ossetia Eduard Kokoity claimed he would like South Ossetia eventually to become a part of the Russian Federation through reunification with North Ossetia.[39]

By limited opinion

Iran

Russia

  •  Transnistria – is sometimes considered a puppet state which is supported by Russia.[42]

Saudi Arabia

Turkey

United Arab Emirates

United States

See also

References

  1. ^ Compare: Marek, Krystyna (1954). Identity and Continuity of States in Public International Law. Library Droz. p. 178. ISBN 9782600040440. [...] an allegedly independent, but 'actually' dependent, i.e. puppet State [...].
  2. ^ McNeely, Connie L. (1995). Constructing the Nation-state: International Organization and Prescriptive Action. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-313-29398-6. Retrieved 13 September 2017. The term 'puppet state' is used to describe nominal sovereigns under effective foreign control...
  3. ^ Raič, David (2002). Statehood and the Law of Self-Determination. Kluwer Law International. p. 81. ISBN 90-411-1890-X. Retrieved 13 September 2017. In most cases, puppet States are created by the occupant during occupation of a State, for the purpose of circumventing the former's international responsibility regarding the violation of the rights of the occupied State.
  4. ^ Lemkin, Raphaël (2008) [1944]. Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation, Analysis of Government, Proposals for Redress. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-58477-901-8. Retrieved 30 June 2019. The creation of puppet states or of puppet governments does not give them any special status under international law in the occupied territory. Therefore the puppet governments and puppet states have no greater rights in the occupied territory than the occupant himself. Their actions should be considered as actions of the occupant and hence subject to the limitations of the Hague Regulations.
  5. ^ Shapiro, Stephen (2003). Ultra Hush-hush. Annick Press. p. 38. ISBN 1-55037-778-7. Puppet state: a country whose government is being controlled by the government of another country, much as a puppeteer controls the strings on a marionette
  6. ^ Harper, Douglas. "puppet (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  7. ^ Şirin, İbrahim (February 2014). "İki Hükümet Bir Teşkilat: Garbî Trakya Hükümet-i Muvakkatesi'nden Cenub-î Garbî Kafkas Hükümeti Muvakkate- î Milliyesi'ne" [Two Governments One Organisation: From the Provisional Government of Western Thrace to the Provisional Government of South-Western Caucasia] (PDF). History Studies (in Turkish). historystudies.net. 6 (2): 125–142. doi:10.9737/historys1130. ISSN 1309-4688: See translated abstract on page 125CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  8. ^ Jowett, Phillip S., Rays of The Rising Sun, Armed Forces of Japan’s Asian Allies 1931–45, Volume I: China & Manchuria, 2004. Helion & Co. Ltd., 26 Willow Rd., Solihull, West Midlands, England, pg.7–36.
  9. ^ Jowett, Phillip S., Rays of The Rising Sun, Armed Forces of Japan’s Asian Allies 1931–45, Volume I: China & Manchuria, 2004. Helion & Co. Ltd., 26 Willow Rd., Solihull, West Midlands, England, pg.49–57,88–89.
  10. ^ Jowett, Phillip S., Rays of The Rising Sun, Armed Forces of Japan’s Asian Allies 1931–45, Volume I: China & Manchuria, 2004. Helion & Co. Ltd., 26 Willow Rd., Solihull, West Midlands, England, pg.44–47,85–87.
  11. ^ Jowett, Phillip S., Rays of The Rising Sun, Armed Forces of Japan’s Asian Allies 1931–45, Volume I: China & Manchuria, 2004. Helion & Co. Ltd., 26 Willow Rd., Solihull, West Midlands, England, pg.63–89.
  12. ^ ...managed to see the puppet Greek Prime Minister Ioannis Rallis through @ Sephardi Jewry: A History of the Judeo-Spanish Community, 14th–20th Centuries – Page 168
  13. ^ Serbia also had a Nazi puppet regime headed by Milan Nedic @ The Balkanization of the West: The Confluence of Postmodernism and Postcommunism – Page 198
  14. ^ Arfa, Hassan. "Reza Shah Pahlavi: Shah of Iran: Policies as Shah". Encyclopædia Britannica online. Britannica.com. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  15. ^ a b c The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (Postcommunist States and Nations) David J. Smith from Front Matter ISBN 0-415-28580-1
  16. ^ a b c Mälksoo, Lauri (2003). Illegal Annexation and State Continuity: The Case of the Incorporation of the Baltic States by the USSR. Leiden – Boston: Brill. ISBN 90-411-2177-3.
  17. ^ Estonia: Identity and Independence: Translated into English (On the Boundary of Two Worlds: Identity, Freedom, and Moral Imagination in the Baltics) Jean-Jacques Subrenat, David Cousins, Alexander Harding, Richard C. Waterhouse on Page 246. ISBN 90-420-0890-3
  18. ^ "[2021] Hiện nay có bao nhiêu nước xã hội chủ nghĩa trên thế giới?". 10 May 2021.
  19. ^ "Key events in Soviet control of Eastern Europe - Soviet policy in Eastern Europe - Higher History Revision".
  20. ^ "The Eastern bloc in the throes of change and the implosion of the Soviet Union - Subject files - CVCE Website".
  21. ^ "Soviet invasion of Afghanistan | Summary & Facts".
  22. ^ Elving, Ron (12 June 2021). "Biden's Summit with Putin Follows a Harrowing History of U.S. Meetings with Russia". NPR.
  23. ^ "Stalin in Tallinn: Life in Soviet Estonia".
  24. ^ Narangoa, Li; Cribb, Robert B (2003). Imperial Japan and National Identities in Asia: 1895–1945. pp. 13, 66. ISBN 978-0-7007-1482-7.
  25. ^ Langley 2006, p. 30
  26. ^ Merkl 2004, p. 53
  27. ^ Rajagopal 2003, p. 75
  28. ^ Shattuck, John (30 June 2009). Freedom on Fire. ISBN 9780674043480. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  29. ^ Slodkowski, Antoni; Lee, Yimou (28 December 2016). "Through reclusive Wa, China's reach extends into Suu Kyi's Myanmar". Reuters. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  30. ^ Linter, Bertil (18 September 2019). "Why Myanmar's Wa always get what they want". Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  31. ^ Coffey, Luke (1 June 2012). "Georgia and Russia: The occupation too many have forgotten". thecommentator.com. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  32. ^ Francis, Céline (2011). Conflict Resolution and Status: The Case of Georgia and Abkhazia (1989-2008). VUBPRESS Brussels University Press. pp. 92–97. ISBN 978-90-5487-899-5. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  33. ^ Nikolaus von Twickel (26 August 2011). "No Clear Frontrunner as Abkhazia Goes to Poll". The Moscow Times.
  34. ^ "BBC News – Regions and territories: Abkhazia". BBC News. London: BBC. 22 November 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
  35. ^ "Russian Troops in Abkhazia to Get Air-Conditioned APCs". RIA Novosti. 19 April 2013.
  36. ^ "Abkhazian border to be guarded by Russian troops". The Voice of Russia. 15 September 2009.
  37. ^ a b Jones, Sam (27 January 2015). "Ukraine fighting points to Russia designs for puppet state". Financial Times. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  38. ^ a b "Russia marches on uninhibited in eastern Ukraine". The Washington Post. 18 February 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  39. ^ McLaughlin, Daniel (12 September 2008). "Russia insists it has no imperial ambitions for ex-Soviet neighbours". The Irish Times. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  40. ^ Reuters Staff (28 March 2015). "Yemen president calls Houthis 'Iran's puppet'". Reuters. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  41. ^ Juneau, Thomas (16 May 2016). "No, Yemen's Houthis actually aren't Iranian puppets". Washington Post. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  42. ^ Robertson, Dylan C. (5 March 2014). "Is Transnistria the ghost of Crimea's future?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  43. ^ "ANALYSIS: Saudi Arabia plays puppet master as Yemen slowly breaks apart". Middle East Eye. 2 February 2018.
  44. ^ Milano, Enrico (2006). Unlawful Territorial Situations in International Law: Reconciling Effectiveness, Legality And Legitimacy. p. 146. ISBN 9004149392.
  45. ^ Terry.D., Gill (2016). Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law 2015. p. 58. ISBN 9789462651418.
  46. ^ James, A. Sovereign statehood: The basis of international society. p. 142 [1]. Taylor and Francis, 1986, 288 pages. ISBN 0-04-320191-1.
  47. ^ Kurtulus, E. State sovereignty: concept, phenomenon and ramifications. p. 136 [2]. Macmillan, 2005, 232 pages. ISBN 1-4039-6988-4.
  48. ^ Kaczorowska, A. Public International Law. p. 190 [3]. Taylor and Francis, 2010, 944 pages. ISBN 0-415-56685-1.
  49. ^ Bartmann, Barry (2004). Bahcheli, Tozun; Bartmann, Barry; Srebrnik, Henry (eds.). De Facto States: The Quest for Sovereignty. Routledge. p. 24. ISBN 9781135771218.
  50. ^ Dodd, Clement Henry (1993). The political, social and economic development of Northern Cyprus. Eothen Press. p. 377. ISBN 9780906719183. In short, the electorate of Northern Cyprus votes freely for its political leaders and gives them substantial support. Nor is Northern Cyprus a Turkish puppet state. Mr Denktas and the Turkish-Cypriot case have a powerful following in Turkey...
  51. ^ Browning, Noah (11 May 2018). "UAE extends military reach in Yemen and Somalia". reuters.com.
  52. ^ "Yemen on the brink: how the UAE is profiting from the chaos of civil war". The Guardian. 21 December 2018. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  53. ^ "U.S. Struggles to Counter Taliban Propaganda". The Mercury News. 1 October 2010. Archived from the original on 4 May 2017.
  54. ^ Jordan, Roger; Clayton, James (6 September 2021). "Canadian imperialism shaken by US debacle in Afghanistan". International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI). Archived from the original on 6 September 2021.
  55. ^ Day, Michael (17 August 2021). "Joe Biden's Afghanistan blunders – and how they allowed the Taliban back into power". inews. Archived from the original on 17 August 2021.

Further reading

  • James Crawford. The creation of states in international law (1979)
This page was last edited on 16 November 2021, at 11:08
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