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Gustave Flaubert

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gustave Flaubert
Gustave Flaubert young.jpg
Born(1821-12-12)12 December 1821
Rouen, France
Died8 May 1880(1880-05-08) (aged 58)
Croisset (Canteleu), Rouen, France
GenreFictional prose
Literary movementRealism, romanticism

Gustave Flaubert (French: [ɡystav flobɛʁ]; 12 December 1821 – 8 May 1880) was a French novelist. Highly influential, he has been considered the leading exponent of literary realism in his country. He is known especially for his debut novel Madame Bovary (1857), his Correspondence, and his scrupulous devotion to his style and aesthetics. The celebrated short story writer Guy de Maupassant was a protégé of Flaubert.

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Gustave Flaubert was a great French 19th century novelist who deserves our love and sympathy as much for what he wrote as who he was. We can admire him for four reasons at least. Flaubert wrote arguably the single greatest tragic novel ever written, Madame Bovary, which he worked on for five years and published in 1857. The point of a tragedy is to allow us to experience a degree of sympathy for others' failures that's so much greater than what we ordinarily feel. It shakes us from our customary moralism and brittle superiority. It helps us empathize in the way the modern media usually prevents. In the summer of 1848, a terse item appeared in many newspapers across Normandy. A 27-year-old woman named Delphine Delamare, living in Ry, just outside Rouen, had become dissatisfied with the routines of married life. She'd run up huge debts on superfluous clothes and household goods and she'd committed suicide under emotional and financial pressure. Madame Delamare was leaving behind a young daughter and a distraught husband. One of those reading the newspaper was the 27-year-old aspiring novelist Gustave Flaubert who grew so fascinated by the story that he used it to provide him with the exact plot structure for his eventual novel Madame Bovary. One of the things that happened when Madame Delamare, the adulteress from Ry, turned into Madame Bovary, the adulteress from the fictional town of Yonville, was that her life ceased to bear the dimensions of a black and white morality tale. Readers of the novel saw how easy it is to have a thoroughly miserable marriage without being in any way a bad person. Flaubert's novel shows us the tensions and travails of married life without ever really taking sides. Emma gets bored with her husband Charles, loses interest in her child, runs up debts, has affairs and eventually kills herself. But by the time readers are taken in how she'd pushed arsenic into her mouth and been laid down in her bedroom to await her death, they would not be in a mood to judge. All they'd be able to feel was pity, the cruelty and senselessness of life. Flaubert seemed almost deliberately to enjoy unsettling the desire to find easy answers. No sooner had he presented Emma in a positive light than he would undercut her with an ironic remark. But then, just as readers were losing patience with her, he would draw them back to her, would tell them something about her sensitivity that would bring tears to the eyes. We end Flaubert's novel with fear and sadness that how we've been made to live before we begin to know how, that how limited our understanding of ourselves and others is, that how great and catastrophic are the consequences of our actions, that how pitiless and vengeful the upstanding members of the community can be in response to our errors. Tragedy inspires us to abandon ordinary life's simplified, judgmental perspective on failure and defeat rendering as generous towards the foolishness and errors that are endemic to our nature. A particular aspect of Madame Bovary's tragic end sticks out. Flaubert tells us in no uncertain terms that the reason Emma Bovary grew so dissatisfied unfairly so, with marriage, and therefore embarked on her disastrous affairs was because of the books she had read. Flaubert tells us that from a young age Emma used to read bad romantic novels that gave her an unrealistic, overly rosy picture of love and that meant that she was unprepared for the reality of marriage. Emma didn't know how boring it can be to have dinner with the same person every night and how difficult it is to keep a relationship alive after once had a baby. And therefore she responded to these situations with too greater degree of panic having multiple affairs to remind herself that she was still capable of passion and going shopping for far more than she could afford as an alternative to the sometimes tedious business of bringing up a child. What might ultimately have saved Emma Bovary was to read the novel of which she is the heroine. It's a novel about love designed to cure us of the naive illusions about love created by bad novels. Flaubert couldn't stand newspapers. He belonged to a generation that had experienced the rise of mass circulation media at first hand and he believed that this was spreading a new kind of stupidity which he termed 'la bêtise' (stupidity) into every corner of France. Idiocy wasn't the same as ignorance for Flaubert because it was compatible with knowing a lot of things it just meant understanding nothing. The most loathsome character in Madame Bovary, the pharmacists Homais, is introduced early on as an avid consumer of news who sets aside a special hour every day to study 'le journal'. Flaubert keeps the word in italics throughout to send up the neo religious reverence in which this object is held. In the 1870s, Flaubert began keeping a record of what he judged to be the most idiotic patterns of thought promoted by the modern world in general and by newspapers in particular. Published posthumously as 'The Dictionary of Received Ideas' this collection of clichés organized by topic was described by its author as an « encyclopédie de la bêtise humaine » an encyclopedia of human stupidity. Here is a random sampling of its entries: Budget - never balanced. Catholicism - has had a very good influence on art. Christianity - freed the slaves. Crusades - benefited Venetian trade. Diamonds - to think that they're nothing but coal if we came across one in its natural state we wouldn't even bother to pick it up off the ground. Exercise - prevents all illnesses, to be recommended at all times. Photography - will make painting obsolete. It's worth noting how many of the dictionary's clichés touch on sophisticated disciplines like theology, science and politics without, however, going anywhere very clever with them. The modern idiot can routinely know what only geniuses had known in the past and yet he is still an idiot, a depressing combination of traits that previous eras had never had to worry about. The newspapers had, for Flaubert, armed stupidity and given authority to fools. Gustave Flaubert was a bourgeois, a middle-class Frenchman, and yet he loathed a great deal to do with his country and his class. For Flaubert, the French bourgeoisie could be a repository of the most extreme prudery, snobbery, smugness, racism and pomposity. "It's strange how the most banal utterances of the bourgeoisie sometimes make me marvel" he once complained and stifled rage, "there are gestures, sounds of people's voices that I just can't get over, silly remarks that almost give me vertigo the bourgeoisie is for me something unfathomable." Flaubert wrote that he had nothing but disdain for this good civilization that prided itself on having produced railways, poisons, cream tarts, royalty and the guillotine. What Flaubert hated above all was pomposity. This quote to his girlfriend, Louise Colet, written in 1846 gives us an insight. "What stops me from taking myself seriously, even though I'm essentially a serious person, is that I find myself extremely ridiculous. Not the kind of small-scale ridiculousness of slapstick comedy but rather a ridiculousness that seems intrinsic to human life and manifests itself in the simplest actions and most ordinary gestures. For example, I can never shave without starting to laugh, it seems so idiotic. All this is very difficult to explain. Flaubert in the end wanted to be a global citizen. "I'm no more modern than ancient, no more French than Chinese", he wrote, "and the idea of having a native country, that is to say, the imperative to live on one bit of ground marked red or blue on the map and to hate the other bits in green or black has always seemed to me narrow minded, blinked and profoundly stupid. I am a soul brother to everything that lives, to the giraffe and to the crocodile as much as to the man." In his "Dictionary of Received Ideas" there was an entry on 'French'. How proud one is to be French when one looks at the Colonne Vendôme. Paradoxically, one can perhaps be proudest to be French when one reads Gustave Flaubert. Foreside from hating a lot about his country, Flaubert also captures some of its best and wisest sides. We should read him for his earthiness, his humanity, his frankness and above all else his generosity of spirit. At the age of 17, in a somewhat melodramatic mood Flaubert wrote "Art is superior to everything, a book of poetry is worth more than a railway." It rarely is, but it might almost be worth giving up a railway line or two for the sake of Flaubert's works.



Early life and education

Flaubert was born on 12 December 1821, in Rouen, in the Seine-Maritime department of Upper Normandy, in northern France. He was the second son of Anne Justine Caroline (née Fleuriot; 1793–1872) and Achille-Cléophas Flaubert (1784–1846), director and senior surgeon of the major hospital in Rouen.[1] He began writing at an early age, as early as eight according to some sources.[2]

He was educated at the Lycée Pierre-Corneille in Rouen,[3] and did not leave until 1840, when he went to Paris to study law. In Paris, he was an indifferent student and found the city distasteful. He made a few acquaintances, including Victor Hugo. Toward the end of 1840, he travelled in the Pyrenees and Corsica. In 1846, after an attack of epilepsy, he left Paris and abandoned the study of law.

Personal life

From 1846 to 1854, Flaubert had a relationship with the poet Louise Colet; his letters to her have survived. After leaving Paris, he returned to Croisset, near the Seine, close to Rouen, and lived there for the rest of his life. He did however make occasional visits to Paris and England, where he apparently had a mistress.

Politically, Flaubert described himself as a "romantic and liberal old dunce" (vieille ganache romantique et libérale),[4] an "enraged liberal" (libéral enragé), a hater of all despotism, and someone who celebrated every protest of the individual against power and monopolies.[5][6]

With his lifelong friend Maxime Du Camp, he travelled in Brittany in 1846. In 1849–50 he went on a long journey to the Middle East, visiting Greece and Egypt. In Beirut he contracted syphilis. He spent five weeks in Istanbul in 1850. He visited Carthage in 1858 to conduct research for his novel Salammbô.

Flaubert never married and never had children. His reason for not having children is revealed in a letter he sent to Coulet, dated December 11, 1852. In it he revealed that he was opposed to childbirth, saying he would "transmit to no one the aggravations and the disgrace of existence."

Flaubert was very open about his sexual activities with prostitutes in his writings on his travels. He suspected that a chancre on his penis was from a Maronite or a Turkish girl.[7] He also engaged in intercourse with male prostitutes in Beirut and Egypt; in one of his letters, he describes a "pockmarked young rascal wearing a white turban".[8][9]

According to his biographer Émile Faguet, his affair with Louise Colet was his only serious romantic relationship.[10]

The house where Flaubert was born
The house where Flaubert was born

Flaubert was a tireless worker and often complained in his letters to friends about the strenuous nature of his work. He was close to his niece, Caroline Commanville, and had a close friendship and correspondence with George Sand. He occasionally visited Parisian acquaintances, including Émile Zola, Alphonse Daudet, Ivan Turgenev, and Edmond and Jules de Goncourt.

The 1870s were a difficult time for Flaubert. Prussian soldiers occupied his house during the War of 1870, and his mother died in 1872. After her death, he fell into financial difficulty due to business failures on the part of his niece's husband. Flaubert suffered from venereal diseases most of his life. His health declined and he died at Croisset of a cerebral hemorrhage in 1880 at the age of 58. He was buried in the family vault in the cemetery of Rouen. A monument to him by Henri Chapu was unveiled at the museum of Rouen.

As a devoted Spinozist, Flaubert was significantly influenced by Spinoza's thought.[11][12][13][14][15][16] He was also a pantheist.[17]

Writing career

Flaubert, photographed by Nadar
Flaubert, photographed by Nadar

His first finished work was November, a novella, which was completed in 1842.

In September 1849, Flaubert completed the first version of a novel, The Temptation of Saint Anthony. He read the novel aloud to Louis Bouilhet and Maxime Du Camp over the course of four days, not allowing them to interrupt or give any opinions. At the end of the reading, his friends told him to throw the manuscript in the fire, suggesting instead that he focus on day-to-day life rather than fantastic subjects.

In 1850, after returning from Egypt, Flaubert began work on Madame Bovary. The novel, which took five years to write, was serialized in the Revue de Paris in 1856. The government brought an action against the publisher and author on the charge of immorality, which was heard during the following year, but both were acquitted. When Madame Bovary appeared in book form, it met with a warm reception.

In 1858, Flaubert travelled to Carthage to gather material for his next novel, Salammbô. The novel was completed in 1862 after four years of work.

Drawing on his youth, Flaubert next wrote L'Éducation sentimentale (Sentimental Education), an effort that took seven years. This was his last complete novel, published in the year 1869.

He wrote an unsuccessful drama, Le Candidat, and published a reworked version of The Temptation of Saint Anthony, portions of which had been published as early as 1857. He devoted much of his time to an ongoing project, Les Deux Cloportes (The Two Woodlice), which later became Bouvard et Pécuchet, breaking the obsessive project only to write the Three Tales in 1877. This book comprises three stories: Un Cœur simple (A Simple Heart), La Légende de Saint-Julien l'Hospitalier (The Legend of St. Julian the Hospitaller), and Hérodias (Herodias). After the publication of the stories, he spent the remainder of his life toiling on the unfinished Bouvard et Pécuchet, which was posthumously printed in 1881. It was a grand satire on the futility of human knowledge and the ubiquity of mediocrity. He believed the work to be his masterpiece, though the posthumous version received lukewarm reviews. Flaubert was a prolific letter writer, and his letters have been collected in several publications.

At the time of his death, he may have been working on a further historical novel, based on the Battle of Thermopylae.[18]

Perfectionist style

Flaubert famously avoided the inexact, the abstract and the vaguely inapt expression, and scrupulously eschewed the cliché.[19] In a letter to George Sand he said that he spends his time "trying to write harmonious sentences, avoiding assonances."[20][21]

Flaubert believed in and pursued the principle of finding "le mot juste" ("the right word"), which he considered as the key means to achieve quality in literary art.[22] He worked in sullen solitude, sometimes occupying a week in the completion of one page, never satisfied with what he had composed.[19] In Flaubert's correspondence he intimates this, explaining correct prose did not flow out of him and that his style was achieved through work and revision.[19]

This painstaking style of writing is also evident when one compares Flaubert's output over a lifetime to that of his peers (for example Balzac or Zola). Flaubert published much less prolifically than was the norm for his time and never got near the pace of a novel a year, as his peers often achieved during their peaks of activity. Walter Pater famously called Flaubert the "martyr of style."[22][23][24][25]


In the assessment of critic James Wood:[26]

Novelists should thank Flaubert the way poets thank spring; it all begins again with him. There really is a time before Flaubert and a time after him. Flaubert decisively established what most readers and writers think of as modern realist narration, and his influence is almost too familiar to be visible. We hardly remark of good prose that it favors the telling and brilliant detail; that it privileges a high degree of visual noticing; that it maintains an unsentimental composure and knows how to withdraw, like a good valet, from superfluous commentary; that it judges good and bad neutrally; that it seeks out the truth, even at the cost of repelling us; and that the author's fingerprints on all this are paradoxically, traceable but not visible. You can find some of this in Defoe or Austen or Balzac, but not all of it until Flaubert.

As a writer, other than a pure stylist, Flaubert was nearly equal parts romantic and realist.[19] Hence, members of various schools, especially realists and formalists, have traced their origins to his work. The exactitude with which he adapts his expressions to his purpose can be seen in all parts of his work, especially in the portraits he draws of the figures in his principal romances. The degree to which Flaubert's fame has extended since his death presents an interesting chapter of literary history in itself. He is also credited with spreading the popularity of the color Tuscany Cypress, a color often mentioned in his chef-d'œuvre Madame Bovary.

Portrait by Eugène Giraud
Portrait by Eugène Giraud

Flaubert's lean and precise writing style has had a large influence on 20th-century writers such as Franz Kafka and J. M. Coetzee. As Vladimir Nabokov discussed in his famous lecture series:[27]

The greatest literary influence upon Kafka was Flaubert's. Flaubert who loathed pretty-pretty prose would have applauded Kafka's attitude towards his tool. Kafka liked to draw his terms from the language of law and science, giving them a kind of ironic precision, with no intrusion of the author's private sentiments; this was exactly Flaubert's method through which he achieved a singular poetic effect. The legacy of his work habits can best be described, therefore, as paving the way towards a slower and more introspective manner of writing.

The publication of Madame Bovary in 1856 was followed by more scandal than admiration; it was not understood at first that this novel was the beginning of something new: the scrupulously truthful portraiture of life. Gradually, this aspect of his genius was accepted, and it began to crowd out all others. At the time of his death, he was widely regarded as the most influential French Realist. Under this aspect Flaubert exercised an extraordinary influence over Guy de Maupassant, Edmond de Goncourt, Alphonse Daudet, and Zola. Even after the decline of the Realist school, Flaubert did not lose prestige in the literary community; he continues to appeal to other writers because of his deep commitment to aesthetic principles, his devotion to style, and his indefatigable pursuit of the perfect expression.

His Œuvres Complètes (8 vols., 1885) were printed from the original manuscripts, and included, besides the works mentioned already, the two plays Le Candidat and Le Château des cœurs. Another edition (10 vols.) appeared in 1873–85. Flaubert's correspondence with George Sand was published in 1884 with an introduction by Guy de Maupassant.

He has been admired or written about by almost every major literary personality of the 20th century, including philosophers and sociologists such as Michel Foucault, Roland Barthes, Pierre Bourdieu and Jean-Paul Sartre whose partially psychoanalytic portrait of Flaubert in The Family Idiot was published in 1971. Georges Perec named Sentimental Education as one of his favourite novels. The Peruvian novelist Mario Vargas Llosa is another great admirer of Flaubert. Apart from Perpetual Orgy, which is solely devoted to Flaubert's art, one can find lucid discussions in Vargas Llosa's Letters to a Young Novelist (published 2003). In public lecture on May 1966 at the Kaufmann Art Gallery in New York, Marshall McLuhan claimed that "I derived all my knowledge of media from people like Flaubert and Rimbaud and Baudelaire."[28]


Major works


Correspondence (in English)

  • Selections:
  • Flaubert in Egypt: A Sensibility on Tour (1972)
  • Flaubert and Turgenev, a Friendship in Letters: The Complete Correspondence (ed. Barbara Beaumont, 1985)
  • Correspondence with George Sand:
    • The George Sand–Gustave Flaubert Letters, translated by Aimée G. Leffingwell McKenzie (A. L. McKenzie), introduced by Stuart Sherman (1921), available at the Gutenberg website as E-text N° 5115
    • Flaubert–Sand: The Correspondence (1993)

Biographical and other related publications

  • Allen, James Sloan, Worldly Wisdom: Great Books and the Meanings of Life, Frederic C. Beil, 2008. ISBN 978-1-929490-35-6
  • Brown, Frederick, Flaubert: a Biography, Little, Brown; 2006. ISBN 0-316-11878-8
  • Hennequin, Émile, Quelques écrivains français Flaubert, Zola, Hugo, Goncourt, Huysmans, etc., available at the Gutenberg website as E-text N° 12289
  • Barnes, Julian, Flaubert's Parrot, London: J. Cape; 1984 ISBN 0-330-28976-4
  • Fleming, Bruce, Saving Madame Bovary: Being Happy With What We Have, Frederic C. Beil, 2017. ISBN 978-1-929490-53-0
  • Steegmuller, Francis, Flaubert and Madame Bovary: a Double Portrait, New York: Viking Press; 1939.
  • Tooke, Adrianne, Flaubert and the Pictorial Arts: from image to text, Oxford University Press; 2000. ISBN 0-19-815918-8
  • Wall, Geoffrey, Flaubert: a Life, Faber and Faber; 2001. ISBN 0-571-21239-5
  • Various authors, The Public vs. M. Gustave Flaubert, available at the Gutenberg website as E-text N° 10666.
  • Sartre, Jean-Paul. The Family Idiot: Gustave Flaubert, 1821–1857, Volumes 1–5. University of Chicago Press, 1987.
  • Patton, Susannah, A Journey into Flaubert's Normandy, Roaring Forties Press, 2007. ISBN 0-9766706-8-2


  1. ^ "Gustave Flaubert's Life", Madame Bovary, Alma Classics edition, page 309, publ 2010, ISBN 978-1-84749-322-4
  2. ^ Gustave Flaubert, The Letters of Gustave Flaubert 1830–1857 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980) ISBN 0-674-52636-8
  3. ^ Lycée Pierre Corneille de Rouen – History
  4. ^ The George Sand-Gustave Flaubert Letters. Boni and Liveright. 1921. p. 284.
  5. ^ Weisberg, Richard H. (1984). The Failure of the Word: The Protagonist as Lawyer in Modern Fiction. Yale University Press. p. 89.
  6. ^ Séginger, Gisèle (2005). "Le Roman de la Momie et Salammbô. Deux romans archéologiques contre l'Histoire". Bulletin de l'Association Guillaume Budé. 2: 135–151.
  7. ^ Laurence M. Porter, Eugène F. Gray (2002). Gustave Flaubert's Madame Bovary: a reference guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. xxiii. ISBN 0-313-31916-2. Retrieved 2010-08-07.
  8. ^ Gustave Flaubert, Francis Steegmüller (1996). Flaubert in Egypt: a sensibility on tour : a narrative drawn from Gustave Flaubert's travel notes & letters. Penguin Classics. p. 203. ISBN 0-14-043582-4. Retrieved 2010-08-07.
  9. ^ Gustave Flaubert, Francis Steegmüller (1980). The Letters of Gustave Flaubert: 1830–1857. Harvard University Press. p. 121. ISBN 0-674-52636-8. Retrieved 2010-08-07.
  10. ^ Flaubert, Gustave (2005). The desert and the dancing girls. Penguin books. pp. 10–12. ISBN 0-14-102223-X.
  11. ^
    • Flaubert: "...Yes, you must read Spinoza. Those who accuse him of atheism are asses. Goethe said, 'When I am upset or troubled I reread the Ethics.' Perhaps like Goethe you will find calm in the reading of this great book. Ten years ago I lost the friend I had loved more than any other, Alfred Le Poittevin. Fatally ill, he spent his last nights reading Spinoza." (in his letter to Marie-Sophie Leroyer de Chantepie, 1857) [original in French]
    • Flaubert: "...If only I do not make a failure also of Saint-Antoine. I am going to start working on it again in a week, when I have finished with Kant and Hegel. These two great men are helping to stupefy me, and when I leave them I fall with eagerness upon my old and thrice great Spinoza. What genius, how fine a work the Ethics is! (...) I knew Spinoza's Ethics, but not the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. The book astounds me; I am dazzled, and transported with admiration. My God, what a man! what an intellect! what learning and what a mind!" (in his letters to George Sand, 1870–72) [original in French]
    • Jacques Derrida: "The most terrifying affirmations, like that of Clement of Alexandria who declares that "Matter is eternal," are drawn from a treasury of the philosophical propositions that most tantalized Flaubert, above all those of Spinoza, for whom his admiration was unlimited, the Spinoza of the Ethics and particularly of the Tractatus Theologico-politicus. (...) In a moment, I will venture a hypothesis on the privileged place of Spinoza in Flaubert's library or philosophical dictionary, as well as in his company of philosophers, for his first impulse is always one of admiration for Spinoza the man ("My God, what a man! what an intellect! what learning and what a mind!" "What a genius!")." (Psyche: Inventions of the Other, Stanford University Press, 2007) [original in French]
  12. ^ Derrida, Jacques (1984), 'Une idée de Flaubert: La lettre de Platon,'. In: Psyché: Inventions de l'autre (Paris: Galilée, 1987), p. 305–325
  13. ^ Gyergai, Albert (1971), 'Flaubert et Spinoza,'. Les Amis de Flaubert 39: 11–22
  14. ^ Brown, Andrew (1996). '"Un Assez Vague Spinozisme": Flaubert and Spinoza,'. The Modern Language Review 91(4): 848–865
  15. ^ Brombert, Victor H.: The Novels of Flaubert: A Study of Themes and Techniques. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1966), pp. 201–2
  16. ^ Macherey, Pierre: The Object of Literature. Translated from the French by David Macey. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995)
  17. ^ Unwin, Timothy (1981), 'Flaubert and Pantheism,'. French Studies 35(4): 394–406. doi:10.1093/fs/XXXV.4.394
  18. ^ Otto Patzer: "Unwritten Works of Flaubert" Modern Language Notes 41:1: January 1926: 24–29:
  19. ^ a b c d Edmund Gosse (1911) Flaubert, Gustave entry in Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Volume 10, Slice 4
  20. ^ The Letters of Gustave Flaubert: 1857-1880 By Gustave Flaubert, Francis Steegmuller p.89
  21. ^ Angraj Chaudhary (1991) Comparative aesthetics, East and West p.157
  22. ^ a b Chandler, Edmund (1958), Pater on style: an examination of the essay on "Style" and the textual history of "Marius the Epicurean", p. 17, Pater then digress into a discussion of Flaubert and the monumental labours that have earned him the title of the 'martyr' of style. Pater quotes a French critic describing Flaubert's principle of 'le mot juste', which, he believed, was the means to the quality of the literary art (that is, 'truth') that lies beyond incidental and ornamental beauty. Flaubert's obsession with the thought that there exists the precise word or phrase for everything to be expressed shows, Pater suggests, the influence of a philosophical idea—those exact correlations between the world of ideas and the world of words can be found.
  23. ^ Menand, Louis (2007), Discovering modernism: T.S. Eliot and his context, p. 59, This difficult virtue of "restraint" Pater thought exemplified by Flaubert, whom he made not the hero (for style has no heroes) but the martyr of style.
  24. ^ Conlon, John J. "The Martyr of Style: Gustave Flaubert," in Walter Pater and the French Tradition, 1982
  25. ^ Magill, Frank Northen (1987), Critical survey of literary theory, 3, p. 1089, in a discussion of style in which he glorifies Gustave Flaubert as "the martyr of style," he extols Flaubert's workmanship as a model for all writers, including English.
  26. ^ Wood, James (2008). How Fiction Works. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 29. ISBN 0-374-17340-0.
  27. ^ Nabokov (1980) Lectures on literature, Volume 1, p.256
  28. ^ Mcluhan, Herbert Marshall (2010-06-25). Understanding Me: Lectures and Interviews. McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 9781551994161.


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