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List of Polish photographers

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A list of notable photographers from Poland:

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  • ✪ 1. Instrumental Case / Polski z  Anią. 1. Narzędnik
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Transcription

Hi, I'm Ania. Today I will talk about the instrumental. The instrumental is a very simple case and this is great news. Look. You are already familiar with such structures as "To jest mój brat" (<i>This is my brother</i>). Sometimes we want to make a transformation (often we have to do it, because we don't want to say "To jest mój brat"). Sometimes we want to use a name, we want to change the subject, and then we use the instrumental. Look. I do not say "To jest dobry brat" (<i>This is a good brother</i>), <i>but I say "on" - it may be a name, e.g. Mariusz, Grzesiek,</i> Łukasz, Paweł - "jest dobrym" (I must add a suffix "-m", but look, we have the same ending in the question "dobrym" and here for a masculine I have to add a suffix "-em"): "On jest dobrym bratem" (<i>He is a good brother</i>) "On jest sympatycznym lekarzem" (<i>He is a nice doctor</i>). The same goes for every other masculine structure. But when an adjective or noun ends with "k" there is a transformation from "y" to "i": "On jest polskim muzykiem" (<i>He is a Polish musician</i>) (as in the question "kim?": "polskim", not "polskym") Note that the second "k" always needs "i", so "muzykiem". Not "muzykem", but "muzykiem" The same goes for the letter "g", for both adjectives and nouns. For example: "Ferrari jest drogim samochodem" (<i>Ferrari is an expensive car</i>) There was no "k" in "samochód" but if there was, for example: "On jest prawnikiem" (<i>He is a lawyer</i>) we would also have to add the letter "i". Feminine transformations are not complicated. When we have a sentence "To jest młoda Polka" (<i>This is a young Polish woman</i>) we only add "tails": "Ona jest młodą Polką" (<i>She is a young Polish woman.</i>) It can be a name: "Kasia jest młodą Polką" (<i>Kasia is a young Polish woman.</i>) We can have various transformations of the subject, but there is no word "to", but instead we use the instrumental. Now, when our object - attention, it is always the object (the object is masculine, the object is feminine and the object is neuter) - not the subject. It does not have to be neuter, it doesn't have to be a child, it can be masculine: Łukasz, but the object is neuter. We have some great news: the endings are the same as for the masculine, so when I remember: "On jest dobrym bratem" (<i>He is a good brother</i>), "On jest polskim muzykiem" (<i>He is a Polish musician</i>) for the neuter I use: "Łukasz jest głodnym (he wants to eat, <i>hungry</i>) - głodnym dzieckiem" (<i>Łukasz is a hungry child</i>), same as for "muzykiem". But when we have "auto" (<i>car</i>) we take away "o", "o" - goodbye! - "autem". This is not complicated, is it? Exactly! And yet it is even better when it comes to the plural. We only need to remember two endings, actually three, but they are letters. Look, when for the masculine I have "On jest dobrym" I copy it here, but we need a plural, so I add an extra letter "i": "You are - you, plural - ambitnymi, ambitnymi studentkami" (<i>You are ambitious female students</i>). I will say to the girls. feminine - "studentkami" But also for men, exactly the same. Of course, "k" requires a transformation from "y" to "i". So: "Oni - plural - są wysokimi fotografami" (<i>They are tall photographers </i>) The same ending! This is great news! But - note - when we make a description, we describe a person or an item, a thing and we do not use a noun to refer to an object but solely an adjective then the adjective does not take the instrumental form. For example: "On jest przystojny" (<i>He is handsome</i>) - not "przystojnym". Not "przystojnym" because there is no noun. "On jest przystojny, a ona jest brzydka" (<i>He is handsome, but she is ugly</i>) That's life. But neither here nor here do we have these transformations. But when we say: "On jest przystojnym chłopakiem, a ona jest brzydką dziewczyną" (<i>He is a handsome boy, but she is an ugly girl</i>), i.e. we have two elements: an adjective and a noun these transformations will be visible. And now when we know this really uncomplicated theory, we move on to talk about functions. Look, when we use these structures. Firstly, when we talk about identification. Identification has various objects of identification. For example we have: "Ona jest kobietą" (<i>She is a woman.</i>). Note: "mężczyzna" (<i>a man</i>): 'a' at the end, not a consonant. We say, "On jest mężczyzną", "On jest kolegą", "On jest poetą," but "On jest chłopakiem", "On jest studentem" because "chłopak" and "student" have a consonant at the end. Another kind of identification is nationality: "Ona jest Polką" (<i>She is a Polish woman</i>), "Ona jest mamą" (<i>She is a mother</i>), i.e. identification of family relationships. "Ona jest tancerką" (<i>She is a dancer</i>) - so a profession - "zawód" means "profession" - "Ona jest tancerką, ja jestem nauczycielką" (<i>She is a dancer, I'm a teacher</i>). "Ona jest - another kind of relation - moją koleżanką" (<i>She is my friend</i>). The same for the masculine, for example: "On jest studentem" (<i>He is a student</i>) "On jest Polakiem" (<i>He is a Pole</i>), "One jest" - note, it is formal! - ojcem" (<i>He is a father)</i> Informal: " tatą" (<i>dad</i>). "On jest tancerzem" (<i>He is a dancer</i>) and "On jest (note, "kolega" looks like feminine) kolegą" (<i>He is a friend</i>), but the adjective is masculine: "On jest dobrym kolegą" (<i>He is a good friend</i>). And the same goes for the neuter. Another function is transport. But before I say something about transport, one more very important piece of information. Once, I remember "jest + instrumental" Attention! Yes, but not when I have "to". When I have "to": "To jest "kobieta", "Polka", "mama", "tancerka", "koleżanka" - we use a nominative. "To" dominates constructions with the nominative. When there is no "to" but we have "jest" then we use the instrumental. We're going back to transport. Think, instrumental. Instrumental - this is my instrument. When there is a distance I need a tool, an instrument, to reach (to get to, to arrive) from point A to point B. So, for example my instrument is a bus: "autobus" is masculine and ends with a consonant, - I remember "On jest bratem" - so: "Jadę autobusem" (<i>I'm going by bus</i>). The same construction - a new function. Feminine: "taksówka" - "Jadę taksówką" (<i>I'm going by taxi</i>). It is similar to: "Ona jest mamą" And for the neuter: "metro". Note: when I have a neuter like "metro" I say goodbye to "o" and add an ending "em": "Jadę metrem" (<i>"I'm going by underground</i>), "Lecę samolotem" (<i>I'm going by plane</i>), "Płynę statkiem" (<i>I'm going by boat</i>), and so on and so forth. Another category: tools. Instrumental, i.e. instruments, but not musical. For example: I write, and look, this is my instrument. "Piszę markerem" ("I write with a marker pen"). It is similar to "Jadę autobusem", similar to "On jest lekarzem". Now, "Jem zupę" (<i>I eat soup</i>) "Zupę jem" - "łyżka" is feminine, (so grammatically like "kobieta") "Zupę jem łyżką" (<i>I eat soup with a spoon</i>). And now the neuter: "mydło" (<i>soap</i>) so "mydło": "Myję się mydłem" (<i>I wash myself with soap</i>), as for "metro": we say goodbye to "o", reduction: "I wash with soap." The next function is connected with time of the day and time of the night. For example: "wieczorem". - When? - "Wieczorem" spotykam się z koleżanką" (<i>In the evening I'm going to meet a friend</i>). And seasons, for example: "Zimą jestem w Warszawie" (<i>In winter I am in Warsaw</i>), "Latem jestem w Sopocie" (<i>In summer I am in Sopot</i>) "Jesienią", "wiosną" and so on and so forth. When I talk about the seasons as the time when something happens, I use structures with the instrumental. We have a lot of verbs which always collocate with the instrumental. Here are just a few, for example: "interesować się" (<i>to be interested in sth</i>), "Interesuję się sportem" (<i>"I'm interested in sport</i>) "matematyka" - "matematyką" (<i>in mathematics</i>) "sztuka" - "sztuką" (<i>in art</i>), and so on and so forth. Other: "zajmować się" (<i>to deal with sth</i>) "stresować się" (<i>to be stressed by sth</i>). Now at university there is an exam session. "Studenci stresują się - plural - egzaminami" (<i>The students are stressed by the exams</i>) Well, "kierować" (<i>to lead sth, to head sth</i>), for example: "Dyrektor kieruje instytutem" (<i>The director leads an institute</i>), because "instytut" is like "brat": "instytutem". "bawić się" (<i>play with sth</i>) - "Dziecko bawi się zabawką" (<i>A child plays with a toy</i>) for example. And we still have a whole group of prepositions after which we will always have the instrumental. The first preposition "z" - but beware because when I say "Jestem z Polski" (<i>I'm from Poland</i>). this is not a "z" I'm talking about. I'm talking about "z" that means that I have some element plus some other element. For example: "Poproszę kawę z (coffee - one element, milk - second) "kawę z mlekiem" (<i>coffee with milk</i>). "Poproszę herbatę (the second element - lemon) z cytryną" (<i>I'll have tea with lemon</i>) But it also applies to people, for example, "rozmawiam" (<i>I speak with, I talk with</i>) "Rozmawiam z koleżanką". I am one element, a friend - another. "Rozmawiam z koleżanką (<i>I talk with a friend</i>). The next two prepositions: "przed" and "za". "Ja stoję przed tablicą" (<i>I stay in front of the board</i>) Now, I'll try to go behind. Yes, "Jestem za - tablica - tablicą" (<i>I'm behind the board</i>) Ok. I'm coming back to you. And we also have prepositions "pod" and "nad". For example: "Teraz jestem pod tablicą" (<i>Now I'm under the board</i>). Unfortunately I cannot be above the board - It is too high, but "Lampa jest nad tablicą (<i>The lamp is above the board</i>). We still have "między". For example: I have one element, the other element, and there is something here. For example: "Polska leży między Rosją, Ukrainą, Białorusią a Niemcami" ("Niemcy" plural - "Niemcami") (<i>Poland lies between Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Germany</i>). We also have "poza". It means that something is outside of sth else. For example: "Berlin leży poza Polską" because it is not in Poland. "Berlin leży poza Polską" (<i>Berlin is located outside Poland</i>)" And there is one more very important piece of information. When we talk about transport: "Jadę autobusem", "Jadę taksówką", "Jadę metrem" there is never ever "z". I never say: "Jadę z autobusem". When I say so I mean: Here I am, here is a bus. And I do not know where we can both be, what kind of transport we use that we can travel together. So, "Jadę autobusem", "Jadę metrem", "Jadę taksówką". No "z". Thank you very much! See you at the next lesson. - Hey, Łukasz! - Hi, Ania! - Who are you? - That's a philosophical question! - I'm a man. - And who else? - I am a Pole. - Uh-huh. And who are you by profession? - By profession I am a psychologist. - What kind of psychologist? - A clinical psychologist. - And a good one, so I've heard. - It's possible. - Oh, you're a modest man? - Yes. - Ok, and how do you come to work? - To work I ride a motorcycle. - Okay, and do you have a karate lesson today? - Today I have a karate lesson. - When? - In the evening. - Ok. And what are you interested in? - I'm interested in psychology and sport. - Uh-huh. And now, probably the most important question: - And who are you to me? - I'm a friend. - Oh, great. That's all for now! - Thanks. And remember to subscribe to our channel. If you have any questions, let us know in the comments! - Pa! -Paa!

References

This page was last edited on 20 March 2019, at 07:46
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