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Life imprisonment

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Life imprisonment (also known as imprisonment for life, life in prison,[1] a life sentence, a life term, lifelong incarceration, life incarceration or simply life) is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled. Crimes for which, in some countries, a person could receive this sentence include murder, attempted murder, conspiracy to commit murder, blasphemy,[2] apostasy, terrorism, severe child abuse, rape, child rape, espionage, treason, high treason, drug dealing, drug trafficking, drug possession, human trafficking, severe cases of fraud, severe cases of financial crimes, aggravated criminal damage in English law, and aggravated cases of arson, kidnapping, burglary, or robbery which result in death or grievous bodily harm, piracy, aircraft hijacking, and in certain cases genocide, ethnic cleansing, crimes against humanity, certain war crimes or any three felonies in case of three strikes law. Life imprisonment (as a maximum term) can also be imposed, in certain countries, for traffic offenses causing death.[3] The life sentence does not exist in all countries, and Portugal was the first to abolish life imprisonment, in 1884. For more info about life imprisonment in other countries worldwide, refer here.

Where life imprisonment is a possible sentence, there may also exist formal mechanisms for requesting parole after a certain period of prison time. This means that a convict could be entitled to spend the rest of the sentence (until that individual dies) outside prison. Early release is usually conditional on past and future conduct, possibly with certain restrictions or obligations. In contrast, when a fixed term of imprisonment has ended, the convict is free. The length of time served and the conditions surrounding parole vary. The date when a convict is eligible for parole does not necessarily predict when or if parole will be granted. In many countries around the world, particularly in the Commonwealth, courts have the authority to pass prison terms which exceed a century.[4] For example, courts in South Africa have handed out at least two sentences that have exceeded a century (to Moses Sithole, whose sentence exceeds two millennia, and Eugene de Kock).[citation needed] In Tasmania, Australia, Martin Bryant, the perpetrator of the Port Arthur massacre in 1996, received 35 life sentences, plus 1,035 consecutive years, all to run concurrently and for the term of his natural life. Another example of a life sentence that exceeded a century was Aurora Cinema shooter James Holmes  , who received 12 consecutive life sentences and an extra 3,318 years without the possibility of parole for injuring 70,killing 12, 112 counts of attempted murder in the Colorado cinema and also booby trapping his apartment with explosives. Few countries allow for a minor to be given a lifetime sentence with no provision for eventual release; these include Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina (only over the age of 16),[5] Australia, Belize, Brunei, Cuba, Dominica, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, and the United States. According to a University of San Francisco Law School study, only the U.S. had minors serving such sentences in 2008.[6] In 2009, Human Rights Watch estimated that there were 2,589 youth offenders serving life sentences without the possibility for parole in the U.S.[7][8] The United States leads in life sentences (both adults and minors), at a rate of 50 people per 100,000 (1 out of 2,000) residents imprisoned for life.[9]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Top 10 Convicts Who Showed No Emotions During A Life Sentence
  • ✪ 10 Teenagers Reactions To Prison Sentences

Transcription

Hello and welcome back to the Most Amazing Channel on the Internet. I am your host Rebecca Felgate and today we are talking about convicts. You guys seem to be big into convicts on the channel at the moment – is it because of the new season of Orange is the New Black? Maybe! Either way, you have had the Top 10 convicts who freaked out during life sentencing and now we are bringing you the Top 10 convicts who showed NO emotion during life sentencing. Before we get into the video, I just want to say a big thank you to all of our 4 million subscribers. A lot of you have been suggesting more prison content so we wanted to listen to you, even though this video makes me feel quite sad! If you are watching and you have any recommendations for future Top 10s let me know. Also, stick around to the end of the video where I read comments – like share etc. This video is incredibly sad and I feel for all of the victims of these killers, and at times, I feel awful for the lives a lot of these people lived and the mental issues they struggled with that led them to make the decisions they did. 10 - The Boston Bomber On April 15th 2013, the Tsarnaev brothers detonated bombs at the Boston Marathon that killed three people and injured 280 others. One of the men involved, Tamerlan, was killed by a police officer as he tried to escape, the other was apprehended. Surviving brother Dzhokhar was arrested for his part in the crime and was jailed ahead of his trial. Throughout his time awaiting trial, he was very cold and emotionless. This case was tried Massachusetts, a state that doesn’t allow filming in court, so we can’t show you a video of how cold he was but there are pictures and a cell surveillance camera in which he can be seen checking his hair. He was said to be emotionless as he was read his death sentence. At the time he became the youngest person on federal death row. 9 - Jessica Murphy Jessica Murphy of Buffalo, USA was jailed for killing her little boy to, quote, save him from going to hell. The 29 year old killed her 8 year old child, Jacob, and then entered a plea of not guilty. Despite strangling and stabbing her son, she was emotionless throughout the entire process – arrest to sentencing. Here she is. At the time of the murder she was being investigated by child protective services. Clearly the case wasn’t investigated quickly enough and a case worker was fired as a result. 8 - Justin Adams Justin Adams appeared in court in 2012, charged with murdering his pregnant wife. In his initial court appearance he learned he was facing a life sentence, but was emotionless and cold. As the judge denied bond, he was blank. Here is a video of him being read the charges via video link. Shockingly, despite pleading guilty, he eventually walked free. 7 - Veva Virgil Veva Virgil suffocated her three year old daughter at a Motel 6 in Watsonville California in 2008. The 37 year old suffered was apprehended by San Jose Police and found guilty by a jury in a Santa Cruz Courtroom. As she was told of the verdict she looked blankly forward and barely flinched. Later, she was found to be insane and sent to a state mental hospital. 6 - Cara Rintala Cara Rintala was sentenced in 2016 for the 2010 murder of her wife, Annamarie Cochrane Rintala. Annamarie’s family were devastated at the loss, describing her as full of love, laughter and light. Cara was tried three separate times over 6 years, with the last taking the jury 4 days to deliberate before they read her their sentence. As her fate was revealed to her she was emotionless. This is what WWLP 22 news had to say. And this was her reaction as the sentence was read. Barely an intake of breath. This was her face as she was led away to her cell. 5 - Justin Ross Harris This was a truly sad case – in November 2016, Georgia father Justin Ross Harris was found guilty of murder for the death of his 22 month old son. The toddler died of hypothermia in June 2014 after being left out in a hot car for 7 hours. The temperature on the day the toddler died was in the high 80s. Harris claimed he forgot about his son, but he was found guilty of murder and was sentenced to life in prison with no chance of parole. This was his reaction to his sentences. He was found guilty of multiple offenses and maintained the same expression throughout the reading of the verdicts. 4 - James Holmes James Holmes was the Colorado Aurora shooter who killed 12 people and injured 70 others at the Century 16 Movie Theatre as the crowd watched Batman – The Dark Knight Rises. One of the victims was 6 years old. It seems James Holmes suffered from a violent depression and appeared to be coldly and emotionlessly deranged following his arrest. He seemed void of emotion and remorse as he appeared in court shortly after his arrest. At times he looked as if he might fall asleep. He looked totally different when he was read his sentence in 2015, but he still didn’t display any emotion. James was sentenced to 12 life terms in prison. 3 - Nathan Paape 14 year old Nathan Paape helped his friend, Antonio Barbeau kill his great grandmother with a hammer and a hatchet. The grizzly murder of 78 year old Barbara Olson took place in Sepetmber 2012 because the boys wanted to steal her money. While Barbeau was extremely remorseful and sobbed as his sentence was read, Paape was emotionless. His family said that he has behavioural issues and had the social development of a ten year old. None the less, the mental issue was not enough to disregard the brutal nature of the murder, according to the jury. This was Paape’s reaction as he was told he would spend his life in prison….. Nathan Paape will have the eligibility for parole on his 45th birthday. This teenager showed no emotion as he was read a death sentence… 2 - Austin Myers Austin Myers became the youngest person sentenced to death in Ohio in 2014. He was just 19 when he learned he would be put to death for the murder of 18 year old Justin Black at his family home just 10 days before he was due to join the navy. Myers, along with his friend Timothy Mosley were 18 years old when they killed the boy so they could steal a safe from his home. Myers plotted the death, but the pair carried out the killing. As Myers was being read his sentence, he sat back casually in his chair. His face was blank as he learned he was going to die. He barely even blinks. Justin’s mother said she believed that justice had been served. 1 - Jodi Arias Jodi Arias stabbed and killed her ex boyfriend Travis Alexander in Mesa, Arizona. It seems she killed him after they broke up and he started seeing another girl. In the frenzied attack, he sustained 27 stab wounds, a slit to the throat and a gunshot wound to the head. Her defense team claimed that Arias had post traumatic stress. No evidence of PTSD was found and she was sentenced to life imprisonment without parole. Throughout her trial she appeared expressionless, calm and emptionless. Have a look at her in early proceedings. Here she is again as her guilty verdict is read. This is an awful and sad list… While a lot of these people showed no emotion as they were read their sentences, it is often the outward sign of something much bigger going on inside, like mental illness or disability. Let’s bring things up a little by reading some comments from a recent video – we created the Top 1- Scary Warnings from the past Jess the Unicorn wrote: Congrats on four million subs! The Alextrifier said: A lot of people talk about Yellowstone. Better get some gas masks in case of ash?. AJ said: We need to try to stop global warming, be nice to one another, regardless of their race, religion, gender or sexuality. We need to make better decisions for the future. There may be a chance to save the world. But if we don't, the world WILL end.

Contents

United States

In 2011, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that sentencing minors to life without parole, automatically (as the result of a statute) or as the result of a judicial decision, for crimes other than intentional homicide, violated the Eighth Amendment's ban on "cruel and unusual punishments", in the case of Graham v. Florida.[10]

Mugshot of Burton Phillips, sentenced to life imprisonment for bank robbery, 1935
Mugshot of Burton Phillips, sentenced to life imprisonment for bank robbery, 1935

Graham v. Florida was a significant case in juvenile justice. In Jacksonville, Florida, Terrence J. Graham tried to rob a restaurant along with three adolescent accomplices. During the robbery, one of Graham's accomplices had a metal bar that he used to hit the restaurant manager twice in the head. Once arrested, Graham was charged with attempted armed robbery and armed burglary with assault/battery. The maximum sentence he faced from these charges was life without the possibility of parole, and the prosecutor wanted to charge him as an adult. During the trial, Graham pleaded guilty to the charges, resulting in three years of probation, one year of which had to be served in jail. Since he had been awaiting trial in jail, he already served six months and therefore was released after six additional months.[11]

Within six months of his release, Graham was involved in another robbery. Since he violated the conditions of his probation, his probation officer reported to the trial court about his probation violations a few weeks before Graham turned 18 years old. It was a different judge presiding over his trial for the probation violations a year later. While Graham denied any involvement of the robbery, he did admit to fleeing from the police. The trial court found that Graham violated his probation by "committing a home invasion robbery, possessing a firearm, and associating with persons engaged in criminal activity",[11] and sentenced him to 15 years for the attempted armed robbery plus life imprisonment for the armed burglary. The life sentence Graham received meant he had a life sentence without the possibility of parole, "because Florida abolished their parole system in 2003".[11]

Graham's case was presented to the United States Supreme Court, with the question of whether juveniles should receive life without the possibility of parole in non-homicide cases. The Justices eventually ruled that such a sentence violated the juvenile's 8th Amendment rights, protecting them from punishments that are disproportionate to the crime committed,[11] resulting in the abolition of life sentences without the possibility of parole in non-homicide cases for juveniles.

In 2012 the Supreme Court ruled in the case of Miller v. Alabama in a 5–4 decision and with the majority opinion written by Associate Justice Elena Kagan that mandatory sentences of life in prison without parole for juvenile offenders are unconstitutional. The majority opinion stated that barring a judge for considering mitigating factors and other information, such as age, maturity, and family and home environment violated the Eighth Amendment ban on cruel and unusual punishment. Sentences of life in prison without parole can still be given to juveniles for aggravated first-degree murder, as long as the judge considers the circumstances of the case.[12][13]

World view

Life imprisonment laws around the world:[citation needed]   Life imprisonment sentence is used   Life imprisonment sentence is used for men between 18 and 65 or 60 years only   Life imprisonment laws have been abolished   Unknown status of life imprisonment, presumed legal
Life imprisonment laws around the world:[citation needed]
  Life imprisonment sentence is used
  Life imprisonment sentence is used for men between 18 and 65 or 60 years only
  Life imprisonment laws have been abolished
  Unknown status of life imprisonment, presumed legal

Reform or abolition

In a number of countries, life imprisonment has been effectively abolished. Many of the countries whose governments have abolished both life imprisonment and indefinite imprisonment have been culturally influenced or colonized by Spain or Portugal and have written such prohibitions into their current constitutional laws (including Portugal itself but not Spain).[citation needed]

A number of European countries have abolished all forms of indefinite imprisonment, including Serbia, Croatia and Spain, which set the maximum sentence at 40 years (for each conviction, which in practice keeps the possibility of de facto life imprisonment), Bosnia and Herzegovina, which sets the maximum sentence at 45 years, and Portugal, which abolished all forms of life imprisonment with the prison reforms of Sampaio e Melo in 1884 and sets the maximum sentence at 25 years.[citation needed]

Norway (de jure) and Spain (de facto from 1993 until February 2018, the question being now debated of reintroducing de jure life imprisonment, its habitual practice before it became a democracy in 1978-1983) have abolished life imprisonment but retain other forms of indefinite imprisonment.[citation needed]

In Europe, there are many countries where the law expressly provides for life sentences without the possibility of parole. These countries are England and Wales (within the United Kingdom), the Netherlands, Moldova, Bulgaria[14], Italy, Hungary, Austria, Malta, and the Republic of Ireland.

In Sweden, although the law does not expressly provide for life without the possibility of release, some convicted persons may never be released, on the grounds that they are too dangerous. In Italy, persons that refuse to cooperate with authorities and are sentenced for mafia activities or terrorism are ineligible for parole and thus will spend the rest of their lives in prison. In Austria, life imprisonment will mean imprisonment for the remainder of the offender's life if clemency is rejected by the President of Austria, and in Malta, there is never any possibility of parole for any person sentenced to life imprisonment, and any form of release from a life sentence is only possible by clemency granted by the President of Malta. In France, while the law does not expressly provide for life imprisonment without any possibility of parole, a court can rule in exceptionally serious circumstances that convicts are ineligible for parole if convicted of child murder involving rape or torture, premeditated murder of a state official or terrorism resulting in death. In Moldova, there is never a possibility of parole for anyone sentenced to life imprisonment, as life imprisonment is defined as “deprivation of liberty of the convict for the entire rest of his/her life”. Where mercy is granted in relation to a person serving life imprisonment, imprisonment thereof must not be less than 30 years. There is also never a possibility of parole for any person sentenced to life imprisonment in the Netherlands, meaning that any person sentenced to a life term for any crime will spend the rest of their lives in prison, and any form of release is only possible when granted royal decree by the King of the Netherlands. In Europe, only the Netherlands, Moldova and Malta explicitly preclude parole or any form of release for life sentences in all cases. Even in other European countries that do provide for life without parole, courts continue to retain judicial discretion to decide whether a sentence of life should include parole or not.

In South and Central America, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Colombia, Uruguay, Bolivia, Ecuador, and the Dominican Republic have all abolished life imprisonment. The maximum sentence is 75 years in El Salvador, 60 years in Colombia, 50 years in Costa Rica and Panama, 40 years in Honduras, 25 years in Ecuador, 30 years in Nicaragua, Bolivia, Uruguay, and Venezuela, and 25 years in Paraguay. Brazil has a maximum sentence of 30 years under statutory law, but life imprisonment and capital punishment are provided by law for crimes committed during wartime (for military crimes such as treason, desertion, and mutiny) and in the Constitution.[citation needed]

In the United States, a 2009 report by the Sentencing Project suggested that life imprisonment without parole should be abolished in the country. U.S. law enforcement officials opposed its proposed abolition.[15]

Pope Francis proposed the abolition of both capital punishment and life imprisonment in a meeting with representatives of the International Association of Penal Law. He also stated that life imprisonment, recently removed from the Vatican penal code, is just a variation of the death penalty.[16]

Overview by jurisdiction

Jurisdiction (link to details) Life imprisonment Minimum to serve before eligibility for requesting parole Maximum length of sentence (under life) Indefinite sentence (excl. preventive or psychiatric detainment) Mandatory sentence Other crimes with possible life sentence Under age of 18 (or 21) Pardon, amnesty, other release Death penalty
Austria Austria[17] Yes 15 years (Imprisonment for a definite period)
or never (Imprisonment for lifetime, when clemency is rejected by President)
None Yes Genocide Murder, high level drug dealing, Nazi activism, production or distribution of chemical warfare agents to be used in armed conflict; abduction, robbery, rape and statutory rape if the crime causes the victim's death, sea and air piracy and arson if the crime causes the death of a large number of people under 16: max. 10 years' imprisonment
16–17: max. 15 years' imprisonment
18–20: max. 20 years' imprisonment
By president No
 Azerbaijan[18] Yes, but only for men aged 18–65 25 years 15 Years for a single murder (up to 20 years for several crimes) No None Crimes against State, war crimes 14–17: max. 10 years' imprisonment[19] By President No
Belgium Belgium Yes 15 years (no previous conviction or below 3 years), 19 years (previous conviction below 5 years), or 23 years (previous conviction 5 years or more)[20] None No None Murder
  • under 12: cannot be prosecuted
  • 12–15: max. detained till the age of 20
  • 16–17: max. 30 years' imprisonment[21]
Parole by Conditional Release Commission or pardon by King No
 Brazil No [22] Varies, depending on sentence Between 12 and 30 years No No life imprisonment sentence No life imprisonment sentence No No life imprisonment sentence Yes, but only in times of war
 Bulgaria[23] Yes 20 years or never None Yes None Aggravated murder, aggravated kidnapping, aggravated robbery, treason, espionage, war crimes, genocide, desertion in wartime
  • under 14: cannot be prosecuted
  • 14-16: maximum 10 years
  • 16-18: maximum 12 years
By President No
Canada Canada Yes 25 years minimum for first-degree murder or high treason; 10 years minimum for second-degree murder (consecutive sentencing may extend parole ineligibility beyond 25 years in multiple murder cases). 7-25 years for any other offence where the maximum penalty is life imprisonment. [24][25] None Yes High treason, first-degree murder, second-degree murder Various crimes including attempted murder, aircraft hijacking, armed robbery, kidnapping, aggravated sexual assault, conspiracy to murder and most offenses resulting in death 14+: Yes, but only if juvenile is sentenced as adult[26] Yes, but only through royal prerogative of mercy[27][28] No (Abolished in 1976.)
China People's Republic of China Yes 13 years of the original sentence having been actually served.[29] Never in extremely serious corruption cases.[30] 13 for a single murder if it's the perpetrator's first offence. Between 15-20 for a single murder that is the perpetrator's second offence if he/she serves the sentence with good behaviour No No Various Yes By courts and by President[31] Yes
Croatia Croatia No[32] Varies, depending on sentence 40 years[32] No No life imprisonment sentence No life imprisonment sentence No life imprisonment sentence No life imprisonment sentence No (Abolished in 1991.)
 Czech Republic[33] Yes
  • 20 years generally
  • 30 or more years if part of sentence[34]
30 years No None Some cases of murder, public endangerment, treason, terrorism, genocide, crimes against humanity, use of forbidden combat device or forbidden combat tactics, war crimes, persecution of population, misuse of international symbols 15–18: max. 10 years' imprisonment By President No
Denmark Denmark Yes 16 years[35] 16 years for a single murder[36] Yes No Treason, espionage during wartime, use of force against the parliament, terrorism, arson under circumstances that are life-threatening, hijacking of vehicles, willful release of nuclear substances, murder Maximum 20 years After 12 years entitled to request to Minister of Justice; granted by King or Queen of Denmark No
 Estonia Yes 30 years None Yes (de facto) None Some cases of murder, some cases of handling drugs, crimes against humanity, genocide, acts of war against civilians, terrorism, violence against the independence of Estonia, causing an explosion using nuclear energy[37] Maximum length 10 years Pardon by president[38] No
Finland Finland[39] Yes 12 years for court release; any time for presidential pardon[40] None Yes Murder High treason, espionage, genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, homicidal terrorist act, crime against peace
  • under 18: max. 15 years' imprisonment
  • under 21: minimum 10 years for parole request
By president, Helsinki Court of Appeal No
Germany Germany Yes, adults between 18 and 21 only if tried as adults. *Before 1977: never (except with presidential pardon). Ruled unconstitutional by Federal Constitutional Court
  • Since 1977: at judge's discretion, most commonly the minimum of 15 years[41]
15 years[42] No Aggravated murder,[43] genocide resulting in death,[44] crimes against humanity resulting in death,[45] war crimes against persons resulting in death[46] See details
  • Under 14: cannot be prosecuted
  • 14–18: maximum 10 years
  • 18–21: maximum of 15 years or life[47]
By Federal President or Minister-President No (Abolished in West Germany by the Constitution since 23 May 1949. Abolished by law in West Germany in 1953 and in East Germany in 1987.)
 Lebanon Yes 10 years None No Aggravated murder, terrorism, treason Rape Yes By President Yes[48][49]
 Lithuania Yes 25 years None Yes None Genocide, prohibited mistreatment of persons under international law, war crimes, crimes against humanity, prohibited military attack, attempted assassination of the President of Lithuania, attempted assassination of a governmental official or foreign official, murder with aggravated circumstances, murder of persons protected under international humanitarian law, terrorism resulting in death, piracy (hijacking of a civilian aircraft or civilian vessel) that results in death or otherwise has grave consequences to the safety of others ?? By President No (Abolished in 1998.[50])
 Macau, China No Varies, depending on sentence 25 years (30 in exceptional circumstances)[51] No No life imprisonment sentence No life imprisonment sentence ?? No life imprisonment sentence No
Mexico Mexico No (except in Chihuahua for murder involving kidnapping) Varies, depending on sentence 24 years (74 years if convicted of murder involving kidnapping); in the state of Chihuahua, murder involving kidnapping provides for a mandatory life sentence No[52] Murder involving kidnapping None ?? ??? No
 Nigeria Yes Never[53] None Yes ?? ??
  • under 7: no imprisonment
  • 7-18: no life imprisonment
?? Yes
Poland Poland Yes 25 years 25 years No None Treason, assassination of Polish President, war of aggression, genocide, crimes against humanity, unlawful use of weapon of mass destruction, war crimes, murder, homicide and serious bodily harm resulting in death
  • under 15: no imprisonment
  • 15-17: max. 25 years' imprisonment
By president No
 Romania Yes 20 years None No; replaced by 25 years' imprisonment at age 60[54] Genocide during wartime, inhumane treatment during wartime Treason and other grave crimes against the state, extremely grave murder, capitulation, desertion on the battlefield, crimes against peace or humanity[55] under 18: max. 20 years' imprisonment[56] Pardon by President, amnesty by act of Parliament No
Slovakia Slovakia Yes 25 years None Yes Murder, terrorism, treason Crimes against humanity, war crimes
  • under 14: no imprisonment
  • 14–17: max. 15 years' imprisonment[57]
By President No
 Slovenia No 25 years None Yes Murder Terrorism, drug offenses, crimes against humanity
  • under 16: no imprisonment
  • 16–17: max. 10 years of imprisonment in juvenile prison [58]
By President No
Sweden Sweden Yes 18 years or never, but parole hearing may be held after 10 years served, thus fixing a much later date for release on parole None Yes None Murder, kidnapping, arson, sabotage, dangerous destruction of property, hijacking, espionage, terror crimes, rebellion, endangering the public health by spread of contagion or poison, disloyalty when negotiating with foreign powers, trading in anti-personnel mines, cluster bombs or chemical or nuclear weapons, unlawful nuclear explosion, treason, genocide; in wartime only: mutiny, insubordination, undermining the will to fight, desertion, unauthorised capitulation, negligence of war preparations and negligence of battle duty; attempts, accessories, accomplices and incitements of all the above crimes might also be punished with life imprisonment.[59]
  • under 15: no imprisonment
  • 15-21: no life imprisonment
By the District Court of Örebro (parole hearing). Or by the Government (pardon).[60] No
Switzerland Switzerland Yes 10 years or 15 years; individually set by judge None Yes None Aggravated murder,[61] aggravated hostage-taking,[62] genocide,[63] endangering the independence of the country[64]
  • under 15: no imprisonment
  • 15–17: max. 4 years' imprisonment[65]
By Federal Assembly (Parliament)[66] No
United Kingdom United Kingdom:
 Scotland
Yes Individually set by judge Between 17 and 30 years for a single murder without any additional circumstances Yes Murder with additional circumstances, two or more murders, attempted murder, two or more counts rape Any other Common Law offence.[67][68] Under 8 : Presumed not capable of committing a criminal offence.

Under 18 : Detention for an indeterminate period.[69]

Compassionate release by Cabinet Secretary for Justice (Scottish Government); amnesty by royal decree (by means of the royal prerogative of mercy) alone or with Act of Parliament. No
United Kingdom United Kingdom:
 Northern Ireland
Yes Individually set by judge None No[70][71] Murder, rape Robbery ?? General release through a referendum-based agreement in 1998 (became applicable in 3 cases: i, ii, iii). The royal prerogative of mercy or an Act of Parliament (in accordance with the principle of Parliamentary sovereignty) can be used to grant amnesty like the rest of the UK. No
United States United States Yes (except in Alaska) Any minimum term from 5 to 15 years, or never (depending on crime and state) Varies by state; 99 years in Alaska Yes Varies by state Varies by state Yes (de jure) By president or governor of a state (depending on jurisdiction) Yes (depending on state)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Quebec mosque shooting: Gunman sentenced to life in prison". cnn.com. February 8, 2019.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 January 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ "Penalties for Drunk Driving Vehicular Homicide" (PDF) (PDF). Mothers Against Drunk Driving. May 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2013.
  4. ^ CNN, By Eliott C. McLaughlin and Pamela Brown. "Cleveland kidnapper Ariel Castro sentenced to life, plus 1,000 years - CNN.com". CNN. Archived from the original on 10 June 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  5. ^ Mecon. "InfoLEG - Ministerio de Economía y Finanzas Públicas - Argentina". mecon.gov.ar. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016.
  6. ^ "Laws of Other Nations". usfca.edu. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015.
  7. ^ "The Rest of Their Lives: Life without Parole for Child Offenders in the United States Archived 27 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine", 2008.
  8. ^ "State Distribution of Youth Offenders Serving Juvenile Life Without Parole (JLWOP)". Human Rights Watch. 2 October 2009. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  9. ^ "The Sentencing Project  News - New Publication: Life Goes On: The Historic Rise in Life Sentences in America". sentencingproject.org. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013.
  10. ^ David G. Savage (17 May 2010). "Supreme Court Restricts Life Sentences Without Parole for Juveniles". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
  11. ^ a b c d Drinan, C. H. (2012, March). "Graham on the Ground". Washington Law Review, 87(1), 51–91. Criminal Justice Abstracts. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  12. ^ "Court bars mandatory life without parole for youths, rejects cross case". Catholic News Service. 25 June 2012. Archived from the original on 30 June 2013. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
  13. ^ Liptak, Adam; Bronner, Ethan (25 June 2012). "Court Bars Mandatory Life Terms for Juveniles in Murders". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  14. ^ Criminal Code of the Republic of Bulgaria (1968, amended 2010), Chapter 4, Section 1, Article 37(2) Archived 7 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Kevin Johnson (22 July 2009). "Report wants life without parole abolished". USA Today. Archived from the original on 21 March 2012.
  16. ^ Francis X. Rocca (23 October 2014). "Pope Francis calls for abolishing death penalty and life imprisonment". Catholic News Service. Archived from the original on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  17. ^ "section 18 of the Austrian criminal code". Ris.bka.gv.at. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
  18. ^ "The abolition of the death penalty and its alternative sanction in South Caucasus: Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia" (PDF). penalreform.org. p. 50. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 February 2015.
  19. ^ "Уголовный кодекс Азербайджанской Республики". Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  20. ^ (in French) (in Dutch) extract from the Belgian Official Journal advocaat.be 17 March 2013.
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