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England and Wales

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Welsh: Lloegr a Chymru
England and Wales
England and Wales within the UK and Europe.svg
LocationWithin the UK
Administrative centerLondon
TypeLegal jurisdiction
MembershipPart of a constitutional monarchy
Establishment
43 AD
1277-1283
1535-1542
Area
• 
151,149 km2 (58,359 sq mi)
Population
• 2011 estimate
56.07 million
CurrencyPound Sterling
(GBP; £)
Time zoneWET

England and Wales (Welsh: Cymru a Lloegr) is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four nations of the United Kingdom. "England and Wales" forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows a single legal system, known as English law.

The devolved National Assembly for Wales (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) was created in 1999 by the Parliament of the United Kingdom under the Government of Wales Act 1998 and provides a degree of self-government in Wales. The powers of the Assembly were expanded by the Government of Wales Act 2006, which allows it to pass its own laws, and the Act also formally separated the Welsh Government from the Assembly. There is no equivalent body for England, which is directly governed by the Parliament and the government of the United Kingdom.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
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  • The Difference between the United Kingdom, Great Britain and England Explained
  • Heart of England and South Wales
  • Story of Wales- England and Wales prt1

Transcription

Welcome to the United Kingdom (and a whole lot more) explained by me, C. G. P. Grey The United Kingdom, England, Great Britain? Are these three the same place? Are they different places? Do British people secretly laugh those who use the terms wrongly? Who knows the answers to these questions? I do and I'm going to tell you right now. For the lost: this is the world, this is the European continent and this is the place we have to untangle. The area shown in purple is the United Kingdom. Part of the confusion is that the United Kingdom is not a single country but is instead a country of countries. It contains inside of it four co-equal and sovereign nations The first of these is England — shown here in red. England is often confused with the United Kingdom as a whole because it's the largest and most populous of the nations and contains the de facto capital city, London. To the north is Scotland, shown in blue and to the west is wales, shown in white. And, often forgotten even by those who live in the United Kingdom, is Northern Ireland shown in orange. Each country has a local term for the population. While you can call them all 'British' it's not recommended as the four countries generally don't like each other. The Northern Irish, Scottish and Welsh regard the English as slave-driving colonial masters — no matter that all three have their own devolved Parliaments and are allowed to vote on English laws despite the reverse not being true — and the English generally regard the rest as rural yokels who spend too much time with their sheep. However, as the four constituent countries don't have their own passports, they are all British Citizens, like it or not.They are British Citizens of the United Kingdom — whose full name by the way is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. So where's Great Britain hiding? Right here: the area covered in black is Great Britain. Unlike England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, Great Britain is a geographical rather than a political term. Great Britain is the largest island among the British Isles. Within the United Kingdom, the term 'Great Britain' is often used to refer to England, Scotland and Wales alone with the intentional exclusion of Northern Ireland. This is mostly, but not completely true, as all three constituent countries have islands that are not part of Great Britain such as The Isle of Wight, part of England, the Welsh Isle of Anglesey and the Scottish Hebrides, The Shetland Islands, Orkney Islands, Islands of the Clyde. The second biggest island in the British Isles is Ireland. It is worth noting that Ireland is not a country. Like Great Britain, it is a geographical, not political, term. The Island of Ireland contain on it two countries, Northern Ireland — which we have already discussed — and the Republic of Ireland. When people say they are 'Irish' they are referring to the Republic of Ireland which is a separate country from the United Kingdom. However, both the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom are members of the European Union even though England often likes to pretend that it's an Island in the mid-atlantic rather than 50km off the cost of France. But that's a story for another time. To review: The two largest islands in the British Isles are Ireland and Great Britain. Ireland has on it two countries — the republic of ireland and northern ireland, while Great Britain (mostly) contains three: England, Scotland and Wales. These last three, when combined with northern Ireland form the United Kingdom. There are still many unanswered questions. Such as, why, when you travel to Canada is there British Royalty on the money? To answer this, we need to talk about Empire. You can't have gone to school in the English-speaking world without having learned that the British Empire once spanned a 1/4th the worlds land and governed nearly a 1/4th its people. While it is easy to remember the part of the empire that broke away violently... We often forget how many nations gained independence through diplomacy, not bloodshed. These want-to-be nations struck a deal with the empire where they continued to recognize the monarchy as the head of state in exchange for a local, autonomous parliament. To understand how they are connected, we need to talk about the crown. Not the physical crown that sits behind glass in the tower of London and earns millions of tourist pounds for the UK but the crown as a complicated legal entity best thought of a a one-man corporation. Who created this corporation? God Did. According to British Tradition all power is vested in God and the monarch is crowned in a Christian ceremony. God however — not wanted to be bothered with micromanagement — conveniently delegates his power to an entity called the crown. While this used to be the physical crown in the tower of london — it evolved over time into a legal corporation sole able to be controlled only by the ruling monarch. It's a useful reminder that the United Kingdom is still technically a theocracy with the reigning monarch acting as both the head of state and the supreme governor of the official state religion: Anglicanism. Such are the oddities that arise when dealing with a 1,000 year-old Monarchy. Back to Canada and the rest. The former colonies that gained their independence through diplomacy and continue to recognize that authority of the crown are known as the Commonwealth Realm. They are, in decreasing order of population: Canada, Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Jamaica, The Solomon Islands, Belize, The Bahamas, Barbados, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Grenada, Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and Tuvalu. All are independent nations but still recognize the monarchy as the head of state even though it has little real power within their borders. There are three further entities that belong to the crown and these are the Crown Dependencies: he Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey. Unlike the Commonwealth Realm, they are not considered independent nations, but are granted local autonomy by the crown and British Citizenship by the United Kingdom — though the UK does reserve the right to over-rule the laws of there local assemblies. Are we all done "now"? Almost, but not quite. There are still a couple of loose threads, such as this place: The tiny city of Gibraltar on the Southern Cost of Spain famous for its rock, its monkeys and for causing diplomatic tension between the United Kingdom and Spain. Or what about the Falkland Islands? Which caused so much tension between the United Kingdom and Argentina that they went to war over them. These places belong in the last group of crown properties know as: British Overseas Territories. But their former name — crown colonies — gives away their origins. They are the last vestiges of the British Empire. Unlike the Commonwealth Realm, they have not become independent nations and continue to rely on the United Kingdom for military and (sometimes) economic assistance. Like the Crown Dependencies, everyone born in their borders is a British Citizen. The Crown colonies are, in decreasing order of population: Bermuda, Cayman Islands,Turks and Caicos Islands, Gibraltar, The British Virgin Islands, Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Anguilla, Saint Helena, Ascension Islands, Tristan da Cunha, Montserrat, British Indian Ocean Territory, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Falkland Islands, British Antarctic Territory, Pitcairn Islands. For our final Venn diagram, the United Kingdom is a country situated on the British Isles and is part of The Crown which is controlled by the monarchy. Also part of the crown and the British Isles are the crown dependencies. The independent nations of the former empire that still recognize the crown are the Commonwealth Realm and the non-independent remnants of the former empire are the British Overseas Territories. Thank you very much for watching.

Contents

History of jurisdiction

The Roman province of Britannia in 410
The Roman province of Britannia in 410

During the Roman occupation of Britain, the area of present-day England and Wales was administered as a single unit, with the exception of the land to the north of Hadrian's Wall - though the Roman-occupied area varied in extent, and for a time extended to the Antonine/Severan Wall. At that time, most of the native inhabitants of Roman Britain spoke Brythonic languages, and were all regarded as Britons, divided into numerous tribes. After the conquest, the Romans administered this region as a single unit, the province of Britain.

Long after the departure of the Romans, the Britons in what became Wales developed their own system of law, first codified by Hywel Dda (Hywel the Good; reigned 942–950) when he was king of most of present-day Wales; in England Anglo-Saxon law was initially codified by Alfred the Great in his Legal Code, c. 893. However, after the Norman invasion of Wales in the 11th century, English law came to apply in the parts of Wales conquered by the Normans (the Welsh Marches). In 1283, the English, led by Edward I, with the biggest army brought together in England since the 11th century, conquered the remainder of Wales, then organised as the Principality of Wales. This was then united with the English crown by the Statute of Rhuddlan of 1284. This aimed to replace Welsh criminal law with English law.

Welsh law continued to be used for civil cases until the annexation of Wales to England in the 16th century. The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 then consolidated the administration of all the Welsh territories and incorporated them fully into the legal system of the Kingdom of England.[1]

Prior to 1746 it was not clear whether a reference to "England" in legislation included Wales, and so in 1746 Parliament passed the Wales and Berwick Act. This specified that in all prior and future laws, references to "England" would by default include Wales (and Berwick). The Wales and Berwick Act was repealed in 1967, although the statutory definition of "England" it created by that Act still applies for laws passed before 1967. In new legislation since 1967, what was referred to as "England" is now "England and Wales", while references to "England" and "Wales" refer to those political divisions.[citation needed]

Law

England and Wales are treated as a single unit for some purposes, because the two form the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England. The continuance of Scots law was guaranteed under the 1706 Treaty of Union that led to the Acts of Union 1707, and as a consequence English law—and after 1801, Irish law—continued to be separate. Following the two Acts of Union, Parliament can restrict the effect of its laws to part of the realm, and generally the effect of laws, where restricted, was originally applied to one or more of the former kingdoms.[clarification needed] Thus, most laws applicable to England also applied to Wales. However, Parliament now passes laws applicable to Wales and not to England (and vice versa), a practice which was rare before the middle of the 20th century. Examples are the Welsh Language Acts 1967 and 1993 and the Government of Wales Act 1998. Measures and Acts of the National Assembly for Wales passed since the Government of Wales Act 2006 apply in Wales but not in England.

Following the Government of Wales Act, effective since May 2007, the National Assembly for Wales can legislate on matters devolved to it. Following a referendum on 3 March 2011, the Welsh Assembly gained direct law-making powers, without the need to consult Westminster. This was the first time in almost 500 years that Wales had its own powers to legislate. Each piece of Welsh legislation is known as an Act of the Assembly.

The Royal Courts of Justice of England and Wales
The Royal Courts of Justice of England and Wales

Company registration

For a company to be incorporated in the United Kingdom, its application for registration with Companies House must state "whether the company's registered office is to be situated in England and Wales (or in Wales), in Scotland or in Northern Ireland",[2] which will determine the law applicable to that business entity. A registered office must be specified as "in Wales" if the company wishes to use a name ending cyfyngedig or cyf, rather than Limited or Ltd. and/or to avail itself of certain other privileges relating to the official use of the Welsh language.

Other bodies

Outside the legal system, the position is mixed. Some organisations combine as "England and Wales", others are separate.

Order of precedence

The order of precedence in England and Wales is distinct from those of Northern Ireland and Scotland, and from Commonwealth realms.

National parks

The national parks of England and Wales have a distinctive legislative framework and history.

See also

References

  1. ^ Cannon, John (2009). A Dictionary of British History. Oxford University Press. p. 661. ISBN 0-19-955037-9. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  2. ^ Subsection 9(2) of the Companies Act 2006
This page was last edited on 19 November 2018, at 03:35
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